Being interested in history Zaporizhzhya Cossacks, reviewed a lot of materials on this topic. And in the research notes of the famous French military engineer and cartographer Guillaume Boplan, of the same age as the Zaporizhian Sich, she found a lot of interesting and unexpected things about the naval campaigns of the Cossacks, who terrified the coastal cities of the Ottoman Empire, at the Sultan’s fleet.
We are used to hearing about the Cossacks as warriors of the steppes, but it turns out that they often conducted naval operations in response to the raids of the Turks. For this, a whole squadron was built of 80-100 boats, called gulls, up to 18 meters long, up to 4 meters wide and high. The seagull had 10-15 pairs of oars, a sail, several light cannons and could accommodate from 50 to 70 people armed with rifles, sabers, and spears. This armada, having descended the Dnieper, according to Boplan, after 36-40 hours, having crossed the Black Sea, reached the Turkish coast, reached Istanbul. The indefatigable Cossack rowers were elusive for Turkish fleet, and then, to get even for the impudent sorties of the Cossacks, the reinforced Turkish squadron was waiting for them on their way back to the mouth of the Dnieper.
And then the Cossacks, and so battered in battles, in order to avoid even greater losses when returning home, resorted to a fallback. Here I will cite Boplan's words literally: “... They return through the Don Estuary (the Cossacks of the Sea of Azov was called): they pass through the strait between Taman and Kerch, rise up to the Mius River and go last until it can lift their vessels. Then they went ashore and along 200-300 people dragged their gulls one by one into the River Tachavod, which flowed into the Dnieper Samara, which, in turn, flowed into the Dnieper.
There are moments in this story even more interesting and surprising, in which I would not have believed if it were not for the eyewitness chronicles. The same way according to Mius, although he was long and difficult, the Cossacks sometimes used to go to sea.
This happened when they knew that there were large Turkish forces at the mouth of the Dnieper, and they had no more 20-25 gulls. It was then that the Cossacks went to the trick, using no one else known, unique for those times weapon, with the description of which every book begins today, telling about the history of the submarine fleet. Yes Yes! Be surprised, but don't laugh. The expression "Submarine in the steppes of Ukraine", but you can add "in the steppes of Azov" no longer seems a joke when you find out what these guys thought of more than three hundred years ago. One tea was covered with another and sealed. The sides made holes for oars, reinforced with leather cuffs. The air in the "submarine" entered the mine, which surfaced in a small boat, where one Cossack sat - "looking."
And now imagine a picture: the Turks are waiting and waiting for the Cossacks, and here the fisherman swims in the boat, returning from the sea. No one pays any attention to him. But when the boat was equal to the ship of an unsuspecting enemy, the Cossacks in the “submarine” uncoupled the ballast, and the black from the resin, which fastened the shaggy algae onto itself, a kind of “wonder-yudo fish-whale”, suddenly emerged like a float, under the nose Turks, terrifying and numbing them. And from the opened hatch, the Cossacks would rush to the boarding with a whoop.
This is how the steppe river played a significant role in the naval operations of free warriors of the southern outskirts of Russia. And, maybe, even in those campaigns, one of them looked at a small town on its shores, and when, many years later, most of the Cossacks moved to the Kuban, three hundred Cossacks came to Mius, founding three settlements, one of which, Upper , now Pokrovskoye village, October 14 celebrated its 241 anniversary.
At one time, I heard that it was not Stalin, or Khrushchev who had views of the “reorganization” of the Mius River, so that she could ride the barges from Donbass to the sea. Those leaders of the river turned back, man-made seas created, because you could believe in that rumor. But the plans, if there were any, did not come true, and the banks of the winding river did not hear the beeps of the steamer sirens. Unless the “Kazanka” is rattling with a small motor or a wave about the punt is quietly splashing - that's all the shipping! But past exploits have been preserved in legends and became the basis of military affairs, which grew into the marines.
On November 27, Russia celebrated the 310 anniversary of the formation of the marines. Unfortunately, due to the complexity of collecting material, my note did not ripen exactly to the date, but I think it has not lost its meaning. Anniversary year continues.
The Day of Marine Corps is a professional holiday of all those passing and serving in the Marine Corps. This is a relatively young holiday, despite the fact that the history of the Russian marines has more than three centuries since the day of the imperial decree of Peter the Great from 16 (27) in November 1705 of the year. It was on this day in 1996 that the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Navy, Admiral Felix Gromov, signed Order No. 253 on the revival of the Marines' holiday.
“Throughout the entire history of the nation, naval soldiers showed the best qualities of the defenders of the Fatherland — dedication, courage, courage, and partnership. Marines heroically fought in the Battle of Borodino and the Crimean War. The German fascist invaders called the sailors in black uniforms for their fearlessness and heroism “the black death”.
The infantry of the three elements passed all the “hot spots” of the planet. Fought in Japan, Korea, Algeria, Egypt, Yemen, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Afghanistan - only in fourteen countries.
The strength of the Marines is unstoppable, persistent, purposeful. They possess a variety of combat techniques with and without weapons, sharpness and dexterity. If they go on the attack, in order to overturn the enemy at all costs. If they are on the defensive, then they hold on to the last, astounding the enemy with inconceivable, incomprehensible resistance. ”
The former commander of a company of grenadiers, Captain Von Lutviy, returning from Soviet captivity, said: “When storming the bastion near Sevastopol in 1941, which was defended by Bolshevik Marines, we found a machine-gun nest. We were more, and we began to pass forward. On the way, aside, lay dead, and we did not pay attention to him, passed by. He immediately jumped up and stuck a knife in my back. He fled, stepped on a mine and flew into the air, rolled over, fell, but immediately jumped up and disappeared into the trench. A very expensive price has given us the life of these black devils. ”
Marines were in the young Soviet Guard even before the creation of regular units of the Red Army. They fought bravely with the White Guards, but sympathized and supported the Social Revolutionaries. After the Bolsheviks became firmly in power, these units were declared counter-revolutionary and were eliminated.
Before the Great Patriotic War in the Soviet Union there was one naval brigade (in the Baltic Fleet). Yes, and that due to the lack of practice of its application in battle, it was transformed into a normal infantry unit, and then lost without a trace.
They got up black cloud
During the war, units and battalions of marines began to emerge on their own during the heroic defense of Odessa. The Black Sea sailors, left without ships, took rifles and, together with land units, went to protect the beloved city. They brought fear and horror to the enemy. The fame of their heroic exploits spread throughout the Soviet fronts and heroic movements. She called for military and labor feats, strengthened faith in our victory.
Almost spontaneously detachments of marines began to be created in all fleets and flotillas during the defense of naval bases and port cities. By September, 1941, they already had more than 100 thousands of fighters. Recognized and high command. And October 18 1941 of the year, finally, the State Defense Committee issued a decree on the creation of 25-ti naval infantry brigades, then another ten, which immediately went to the front.
More than a hundred successful amphibious operations with the participation of the Marines were carried out during the years of the Great Patriotic War.
For all of the Don Primius Region, the marines are not an abstract, mythical, but a real, close concept. Here, from among the fishermen and sailors of the merchant fleet, the legendary Caesar Kunikik created his own, one of the first detachment in the country, which grew into a battalion of marines. Alexey Vasilyevich Stepanenko from the village of Pokrovskoye courageously and bravely fought in it.
A battalion of Kunikov's marines numbering 700 fighters in the battles for the city and the sea port of Novorossiysk did something that two whole divisions could not do with the support of fifty ships of the Black Sea Fleet. He bold and decisive actions in hand-to-hand combat, overcoming the stubborn resistance of the fascists, landed on the enemy coast in the area of Stanichka, formed and held a bridgehead, which was called the "Lesser Land".
When I worked as a journalist in those parts, I had a chance to visit many houses of collective farmers and residents of Natalyevsky, Nosovsky settlements, and in almost every house I saw a person in the form of a Russian sailor in an album or in a frame on the wall. Among them are a lot of marines.
Remember our people and those who defended or liberated the Don villages and farms. The marines of 1941-1942 in the fall and winter of the Taganrog-Pokrovsk offensive operation of the Red Army are especially memorable.
Unfortunately, these memories are bleak, in them the pain and grief associated with the huge losses of these courageous, loyal oath of Russian soldiers.
Mariya Polikarpovna Volvaka, a resident of Vodino farm, recalled, in her marriage Zhertovskaya: “With black clouds, smeared with mud and drowning in an impassable earthen mess, through minefields, without reconnaissance and artillery support, with rifles at the ready, they marched against enemy tanks and assault guns, machine guns and flamethrowers covered with steel caps. ”
Aleksey Tryanovsky recalls: “I personally often had to be near in battle with the Marines. And every time I was amazed at their perseverance and courage. It was also in the Pinsk swamps during Operation Bagration in 1944, and during the storming of the Brest Fortress, along and across the canal cut by the waters of Mukhovtsa. For capturing the fortress, our 127 cavalry regiment received the name "Brest" and thanks to the Supreme Commander (order of the Supreme Command from July 28 of 1944 of the year). "
Quite a few Don recruits today go to serve in the Marine Corps units of the Black Sea Fleet. Many have already served and proved themselves fighting valor in the "hot spots". From the village of Sambek, sailor Denis Kovalyov participated and distinguished himself in battles during the Georgian-Ossetian conflict, a resident of Botsmanovo village, senior sergeant Sergei Kubakov, a participant in battles against terrorists in the North Caucasus, sergeant Alexander Trubitsyn (the Golden Scythe farm), sailor Igor Tokmachev (Efremovka farm) distinguished himself in battles with gangsters; wounded; senior sergeant Alexander Nikitin (Sinyavka village) took part in battles with gangsters in Dagestan and Chechnya, sergeant Vitaly Tkachev (Fedorovka village) fought in the Caucasus. Most recently, marines senior sailor Sergey Kushnarev, Vladimir Karpenko, and sailor Alexander Chulanov returned home from service.
There are no women among them. And during the Great Patriotic War, there was no one, except for the unique, unique destiny of Evdokia Zavaliy, who was the only war in the history of the marines, went through the whole war with them, commanded a unit and returned home four times wounded and with white cranes - all this she was predicted by her grandmother. Evdokia died in May 2010 of the year and did not see what is happening now in Ukraine.