Military Review

Ahead of the planet

Was the Soviet economic model competitive in the 1950s? To answer this question, consider the figures for the growth of GDP and other major macroeconomic indicators.

Soviet propaganda poster. 1950 year

Dynamics of GDP in the USSR and other leading countries of the world for 1950 – 1960-s
(% to the beginning of the period taken as 100)
Страны 1951–1955 1956–1960 1951–1960
USSR 162 151 244
USA 124 107 133
UK 115 110 127
France 124 127 158
FDR 154 141 217
Japan 143 177 253

According to the dynamics of the USSR’s GDP over the entire ten-year period (1951 – 1960 years), it ranked second among the six leading countries of the world, second only to Japan. Moreover, the gap with Japan was minimal. As Grigory Khanin rightly points out, the comparison of the USSR with Japan is not entirely correct, since the Soviet Union had already completed the post-war economic recovery by the beginning of the 1950s, and Japan was only in the most active phase of such a recovery (it is believed that the recovery continued until the end of 1950's years).

During periods of post-war economic recovery, they always show high dynamics, since the countdown is conducted from low initial values ​​of economic indicators. If we take only the first half of 1950, it turns out that the USSR had the highest GDP growth rates among the six countries. Of course, this proves the advantages of the Stalinist economy, which has not yet had time to undergo any restructuring and reform.

Zaporizhstal - one of the giants of the Soviet heavy industry

Special attention should be paid to the fact that such countries as the United States and Great Britain lagged behind the USSR in the greatest degree of GDP growth rates. Just those countries that declared the Cold War to the Soviet Union. The USSR did not have military parity with the United States and NATO at that time, but the gap was narrowing. Thanks to the powerful economy of the USSR, it quickly increased its defense potential.

In 1949, the first atomic bomb was tested, the US monopoly on nuclear weapons was violated. weapon. At the beginning of the 1950-s of the USSR, even earlier than the United States, created a hydrogen bomb. In the year 1953 launched the production of nuclear submarines (APL). During this period, supersonic fighters and jet bombers were created in the Soviet design offices. In the design office of Korolev in 1955, the first intercontinental ballistic missile was created.

The development of nuclear energy and space exploration were carried out at an accelerated pace. In 1954, the first nuclear power plant in Obninsk was commissioned. In 1959, the nuclear-powered icebreaker Lenin was launched. In 1957, the first artificial Earth satellite was put into orbit. In 1959, the first multi-stage space rocket was launched towards the Moon. Began preparations for the launch of man in space. All this speaks of the general growth of the economy.

Dynamics of industrial production in the USSR and other leading countries of the world in 1950 – 1960-s
(in relation to the beginning of the period taken as 100)
Страны 1951–1955 1956–1960 1951–1960
USSR 152 150 228
USA 124 117 145
UK 120 113 135
France 132 136 180
FDR 182 133 242
Japan 211 226 476

According to the dynamics of industrial production of the USSR within the whole decade, among six countries was in third place - after Japan and Germany. Again, there was a strong lag behind the USSR in the industrial dynamics of countries such as the United States and Great Britain. G.I. Khanin believes that the values ​​of industry indicators for the USSR are somewhat underestimated. By virtue of secrecy, the Soviet Statistical Office did not provide data on the military industry.

And she, apparently, developed more dynamically than civil. Most likely, the USSR had a real growth rate of industrial output not lower than that of the FRG. Khanin uses some circumstantial evidence of this thesis. For example, in 1950, electricity consumption in the industry of the USSR was 210% relative to the level of Germany; in 1960, this ratio increased to 249%.

In popular literature there is such an opinion that in the 1950-ies the Soviet economy really developed dynamically, but this was achieved solely due to extensive factors. First of all, due to the involvement in the production of additional labor. So, as it was in 1930-ies, when industrialization was carried out and millions of workers came to the construction sites and cities from the countryside. However, it is not. With GDP growth of more than 100%, the number of people employed grew over the 1950s by only 22%.

Thus, thanks to the increase in labor productivity, more than 80% of GDP growth was provided, while less than half of the war was before the war. According to Khanin's calculations, among the six countries in the 1950-s, the USSR was in fourth place in terms of labor productivity growth rates in industry (although there are no data for Japan, but it is obvious that it had higher rates than the USSR). Again, if we consider that statistical data on industrial dynamics are understated (the military industry is not taken into account), it is possible that the USSR could have growth rates of labor productivity in industry not worse than in France and Germany. In any case, the USSR is clearly ahead in terms of this indicator of its main geopolitical opponents - the United States and Great Britain. Not to remember this means to downplay the professionalism of our fathers and grandfathers.

Assembly site radiators at the Ural tank factory in Nizhny Tagil

A sensitive indicator of the overall state of the economy are its finances and prices. So, the state budget of the USSR in 1950-ies had a constant excess of income over expenditure (surplus). In the 1950 year (the last year of the fifth five-year plan) budget revenues were equal to 427,8 billion rubles, and expenses - 413,2 billion rubles. Thus, the surplus amounted to 9,6 billion rubles. In 1953, these figures were respectively (in billion rubles): 539,8; 514,7; 25,1. In the year 1955: 564,2; 563,5; 0,7. And this is against the background of the fact that the budgets of the United States, Great Britain and other Western countries were in short supply.

There was a constant depreciation of the monetary units of Western countries, there was a constant inflationary rise in prices. The Soviet ruble strengthened during these years, its purchasing power grew. All this was reflected in the periodic decline in retail prices, which was unprecedented for the world economy of the twentieth century. Strictly speaking, the decline began in the previous period, which we called the “1940's period”.

Despite the fact that we lost 26,6 million people, and our allies in the amount - less than a million, the Soviet Union earlier than all canceled the cards for food - already in 1947 year. When monetary reform and cancellation of the rationing system were carried out in December of 1947, the high prices of commercial trade were canceled and unified reduced state retail prices were introduced for consumer goods.

This was the first stage of lower prices for consumer goods. The decrease in prices at the first stage led to a reduction in the cost of consumer goods from the state retail sector over the next 1948 year, by at least 57 billion rubles. This amount represented a net loss for the state budget (the main source of formation of the budget was VAT, the total volume of which directly depended on the level of retail prices). This loss should be covered, and it was really later covered by the government due to the increase in labor productivity, the rise in the production of consumer goods, and the reduction in production costs.

However, such a decline in prices was a net gain for the population. But the matter could not be limited to this. The decline in prices for goods from the state retail trade should have caused the same decline in prices on the collective and cooperative markets. Since the share of collective and cooperative goods in the total mass of goods sold to the population during the year is about 33%, the result was that the decline in prices for products of collective and cooperative trade made these goods cheaper by at least 29 billion rubles.

Volga Automobile Plant in Tolyatti

Consequently, the population benefited from lower prices in all retail sectors during the year, only about 86 billion rubles. This means that as a result of the decline in prices at the first stage, the purchasing power of the ruble increased significantly, the purchasing power parity of the ruble increased in relation to foreign currencies, and the real incomes of the working people seriously increased.

March 1 1949 began the second planned decline in retail prices in state trade with an annual effect of 48 billion rubles and an additional effect in the sector of collective and cooperative trade in the amount of 23 billion rubles. Thus, the total annual effect amounted to 71 billion rubles.

From 1949 to 1953, the year retail prices have gone down annually. This happened in March or April. After the fifth decline, made in 1952, the level of prices for consumer goods became 2 times lower compared to the fourth quarter of 1947.

The sixth decline was the largest. It happened on April 1, 1953, that is, after the death of Stalin. However, the main parameters of the reduction were agreed with him. It gave a direct benefit to the population in the state trade sector in the amount of 53 billion rubles per one year.

The decline in retail prices for consumer goods under Stalin is strikingly contrasted with the rise in prices for similar goods in the developed countries of the West.

Rising prices for some food products in the USA, the UK and France in 1952 (1947 year = 100)

Products USA United Kingdom France
Bread 128 190 208
Meat 126 135 188
104 225 192 Oil
Sugar 106 233 370

Once again, we emphasize that the basis for reducing retail prices was to increase labor productivity and reduce production costs. In the sphere of production, there was a cost-effective mechanism. He formed not immediately. In the first five-year plan (1929 – 1932) there was even an increase in the cost of industrial products by 2,3%. During the years of the second five-year plan (1933 – 1937) there was a decrease of 10,3%.

In the peaceful years of the third five-year plan (1938 – 1940), it remained unchanged. In the fourth five-year plan (1946 – 1950) the cost of industrial products decreased by 17,0%. But in the fifth five-year plan (1951 – 1955) a record decrease of 23,3% was achieved. Perhaps, here lies the root of all the other successes of the USSR of the 1950-s period. In the previous five-year plans, a cost-effective mechanism of the Soviet economy was put into operation at full capacity.

Such a mechanism in the world did not yet exist.
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  1. Igor39
    Igor39 10 January 2016 07: 33
    And about the monetary reform, why not a word?

    Monetary reform in the USSR in 1947 was confiscatory. This reform is sometimes compared to a money exchange in 1993.

    After the cancellation of cards at the end of 1947, with the salaries of the majority of the urban population 500-1000 rubles, a kilogram of rye bread cost 3 rubles, wheat 4 rubles 40 kopecks, buckwheat 12 rubles, sugar 15 rubles, butter 64 rubles, sunflower oil - 30 rubles, pike perch ice cream - 12 rubles, coffee - 75 rubles; a liter of milk - 3-4 rubles; a dozen eggs - 12-16 rubles (depending on the category, of which there were three); a bottle of Zhigulevskoye beer - 7 rubles; a half-liter bottle of "Moscow" vodka - 60 rubles.
    1. apro
      apro 10 January 2016 07: 55
      The 47-year reform is the fairest monetary reform in the history of Russia, for the majority of the country's population it was almost not noticeable, the owners of non-labor incomes suffered, the reform differs in 61 years when the ruble denomination masked a rise in prices, and there is nothing to say about money reform 93 except the mat.
      1. Igor39
        Igor39 10 January 2016 08: 04
        The USSR State Bank was supposed to exchange cash for new rubles within a week (in remote areas of the country — two weeks). Cash was exchanged for newly issued at the rate of 10 to 1. Deposits of the population in savings banks were revalued depending on the size: up to 3000 rubles - one to one; from 3000 to 10 — three old rubles for two new ones, and over 000 — two to one. The monetary reform was accompanied by the conversion of all previous government loans into a 10% loan in 000. Old bonds were exchanged for new ones in the ratio of 2 to 1948. Three-percent winning bonds of a freely sold loan in 3 were exchanged for a new 1% domestic winning loan in 1938 at a ratio of five to to one.
        The bonds of state loans were also subject to exchange. During the war years, four loans were held. Moreover, the latter - just a few days before its end (it is interesting that the last pre-war loan passed a few days before the start of the war, in June 1941). Rumors of impending reform have been circulating for a long time. They especially intensified in the late autumn of 1947, when information leaks from the environment of responsible party and financial workers started. And since it was not possible to keep the power plans from the population secret, the savings banks began to line up for people who wanted to put money into the savings book. For example, on December 2, the Ministry of Internal Affairs stated “cases when depositors withdraw large deposits (30-50 thousand rubles and more), and then invest the same money in smaller deposits in other savings banks for different individuals”.
        Trying to save their cash, citizens of the Soviet Union rushed to buy furniture, musical instruments, hunting rifles, motorcycles, bicycles, gold, jewelry, chandeliers, carpets, watches, and other industrial goods. For example, if the turnover of the Moscow Central Department Store on ordinary days was about 4 million rubles, then on November 28, 1947 it reached 10,8 million rubles. From the shelves, they also swept food products with a long shelf life (chocolate, sweets, tea, sugar, canned goods, granular and spawn caviar, balyks, smoked sausages, cheeses, butter, etc.), as well as vodka and other alcoholic beverages. Turnovers in restaurants of large cities have noticeably increased, where the wealthiest public walked in full. Special resourcefulness and assertiveness in the matter of saving their accumulations was shown by workers of trade and public catering.
        1. bandabas
          bandabas 10 January 2016 20: 45
          And at the end of 2014, the situation was almost the same. Only it was not the state that was welded, but the modern "workers of trade and public catering." Who are currently running our state.
        2. cap
          cap 10 January 2016 21: 44
          In our family, no one ran for no reason. I remember my father’s first salary with new money. 118 rubles in 1961 .. A round black roll cost 8 kopecks.
          I used to go to the store in the evening for delivery from the ruble. Things weren’t enough. But it didn’t last long. If I took bread, I immediately took 2 boxes of matches for 1 copeck per box, though the matches were 60 and not 20 as of now. A liter of kerosene for the lamp is 7 cents. To school they gave 15 kopecks for breakfast. These are 2 sausages 2 slices of bread and a glass of cocoa with milk. In the school buffet. They did not give lunch at school. A ticket from the union to the pioneer camp for a month by the sea is paid. It cost 5 rubles. We lived on my father’s salary, my grandmother’s pension was 40 rubles and my grandfather 45 rubles. That’s 203 rubles new for six. And nothing. They survived. Moreover, they didn’t feel poor or poor. hi
      2. Cap.Morgan
        Cap.Morgan 10 January 2016 11: 44
        Unearned income during the war? For example, the military received a lot of money. And for the wrecked equipment of the enemy, including. Yes, and on trophies slightly raised. This is something unearned.
        1. apro
          apro 10 January 2016 11: 49
          During the war, Alexander blossomed speculation and corruption schemes and outright banditry in a violent color, and considerable sums circulated there, the NKVD worked but the financial blow to non-labor incomes was also not superfluous.
          1. Igor39
            Igor39 10 January 2016 12: 40
            Well, labor income is also not a bad blow.
            1. Akuzenka
              Akuzenka 10 January 2016 17: 57
              In general, the "unfair" exchange rate was applied when it was impossible to DOCUMENTally confirm your savings and income. To confirm, it was necessary to bring a certificate from the places of income. Everything was recorded and then the workflow was at its best.
          2. Nikolay K
            Nikolay K 10 January 2016 16: 58
            If the NKVD worked well, it would not have to carry out a confiscation monetary reform. And so, those who cut down easy money from the hardships of war and those who earned their money with sweat and blood also fell under one comb.
            1. gladcu2
              gladcu2 10 January 2016 21: 20
              Nikolay K

              Brothers. No need to laugh and be ironic.

              I’ll put your brains out now. Because in a few comments I’ll change all your stereotypes. And I will do this so that we all come to a consensus.

              All figures given in the article are correct and undeniable. The USSR, in principle, simply had to break the world economically.

              Now, let's start talking about agreement on the right unified system for developing an assessment.
              1. gladcu2
                gladcu2 10 January 2016 21: 23
                The modern world has technologically changed.
                These technologies allow the formation of ideologies within a few months using ideology for commercial purposes.

                So what is ideology?
                1. gladcu2
                  gladcu2 10 January 2016 21: 31
                  Brothers and sisters

                  Do you remember Stalin turned in a difficult moment to the people?

                  So here. On Wikipedia you will not find an exact definition of ideology. There is only a concept.

                  Ideology is the rule of morality compiled into a single system. This system may be voluntarily recognized or violent.

                  Morality. This is a basic value system based on the principles of survival of a family, neighbors, settlement, city.

                  Starting to change moral values, you change the rating system. And you can call white black and black white.
                  1. gladcu2
                    gladcu2 10 January 2016 21: 35
                    An example of a change in basic values.

                    Everyone knows Pavlik Morozov.

                    In terms of basic morality, Pavlik Morozov is a killer.

                    From the point of view of ideology, Pavlik Morozov is a hero.

                    Why is that? I will answer.
                    1. gladcu2
                      gladcu2 10 January 2016 21: 49
                      Russian empire.

                      The collapse. First World War. Civil War revolution. Complete statelessness in protecting citizens. People on the eve of extinction as a nation.

                      Lenin and Stalin restore the state and revive the nation with the help of ideology.

                      Ideology is a tool that can revive the state, but it can destroy.

                      Communist ideology restored the country and preserved the nation. Moreover, this ideology has raised the country to a whole new unsurpassed economic level.

                      How did you do it?

                      Changed the basic moral values. The Communists consciously and coercively abandoned the personal survival system in favor of social development. This is a system of self-sacrifice. Since it was an ideology, they transferred it voluntarily by force to all citizens of the country. Forcing them to unite before a common threat.

                      Refusal of luxury and status in favor of state development.

                      Refusal of private property in favor of state ownership.

                      Refusal of private life in favor of the state.

                      Refusal of family values ​​in favor of the state.
                      1. gladcu2
                        gladcu2 10 January 2016 21: 54
                        All these methods in the shortest possible time revived the state, created the most advanced economy in the world which still has no alternative.

                        And this result occurred only after changing basic moral values ​​that could not be maintained for a very long time, because sooner or later there would be a protest that would destroy ideology.
                      2. gladcu2
                        gladcu2 10 January 2016 22: 04
                        The communists were able to save the nation.
                        The communists were able to restore the state.

                        We will be united in the common opinion.

                        Honor and praise be to them. And thanks to our deeds and fathers for what they did.

                        The Communists, saved the Russian people, saved the country in World War II, expanded the economy to the limit in the confrontation in the Cold War.

                        But ideology began to crush failures during the warming of Reagan and Gorbachev.

                        Why. Because ideology changed the basic moral values ​​only for the time of the external threat, and as soon as the external threat passed, then ideology began to self-destruct.

                        Luxury and status returned.

                        The priority of family values ​​has returned.

                        The moral priority of self-survival has returned.

                        There was a rejection of self-sacrifice.
                      3. gladcu2
                        gladcu2 10 January 2016 22: 11
                        Now, after what I wrote, there will probably not be a single consonant who could say that a socialist country based on COMMUNISTIC IDEOLOGY is not able to tear to pieces the most advanced capitalist one.

                        Do we all remember the May 9th parade? We remember millions of people carrying photographs of fathers and grandfathers in their hands?

                        This is V. Putin made a warning to those who want to start a third world war. He said, we know, we remember and do not disturb the beast in the den.
                      4. gladcu2
                        gladcu2 10 January 2016 22: 16
                        Let’s summarize.

                        Currently, technologies for changing moral values ​​are used by large and small commercial projects.

                        The situation goes from senile to critically dangerous. States go to self-destruction, states are reborn.

                        Uncontrolled permission to use systems to change basic moral values ​​is categorically dangerous.
  • speelforce
    speelforce 16 January 2016 12: 09
    Yes, okay, in 1993, the salary - who had it, of course, disappeared in one trip to the store. Groats, potatoes, frozen meat, etc., because going to the second was twice as expensive. I remember that in the morning they took vodka for 1800, and in the evening already for 2200. Prices rose steadily every day, salaries were not paid. In general, there was only enough to devour and take a break, with something in Cherkizon. So, like confiscation reform of 93, passed for the vast majority unnoticed - from the word at all.
    In 95, I went to get a job at an electric plant at "Semyonovskaya" - the first application of a personnel officer was - you will receive your first salary in a year and a half! - How! - And so, we have such a delay.
    There was nothing to confiscate in 943.
  • apro
    apro 10 January 2016 07: 39
    I always read with interest VKatasonov’s work, in my opinion today it gives the most accurate and well-reasoned assessment of the current state of the economy of our country and the world, the Soviet economy of the Stalin period is the most dynamic and meets the interests of the majority of the population of our country, working under constant sanctions and restrictions was able to put forward Soviet Russia the number of leading countries of the world mainly due to internal resources and using the contradictions of the capitalist environment was able to snatch technology for its breakthrough.
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 10 January 2016 08: 58
      Yes, the article is interesting. But it seemed to me somewhat one-sided, such we already read a lot at the time of these. After reading it, this is the question. It is clear that our development dynamics were higher, but how to deal with labor productivity? It was higher or still lower than in the West, in the United States. And if it was nevertheless lower, well, say in the same 1940 year, then how to explain that, by the number of engineers of the USSR, at that time was twice as large as the USA? So dynamics is dynamics, but what about a specific result - ABOVE OR BELOW?
      1. apro
        apro 10 January 2016 10: 01
        Vyacheslav, labor productivity is such a tricky thing, and to compare it between countries is to compare the round with the soft, in Germany during the war the saturation with the machine tool park and skilled workers and specialists exceeded the USSR three times, but in terms of the quantity of manufactured products the USSR exceeded Germany with comparable fighting qualities .If we compare the workers of the USSR and SGA, then the American at his own expense bought housing, medical care, higher education, rest, then the Soviet citizen received most of this for free pays the labor their participation in a common effort gosudarstva.Takzhe must take into account the geographical and climatic conditions of countries, central heating housing fund is only in the Soviet Union in the other individual.
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 10 January 2016 11: 31
          She's not cunning. That you, in the words of Professor Vibegallo, "gloss over". Obviously, it's easy to compare it by comparing the amount produced, isn't it? How much they produced ... And Germany in this case is not an indicator. Why, yes, again, compare the design features of our technology and the German one. Our engineering thought, based on ... advanced technology purchased in the 30s, primarily in the USA + the mass labor of women, which the Germans did not have, surpassed the German productivity indicator. Here the Germans had to blame themselves! And among the Americans, women worked on an equal footing with men, and in England, as well as ours, the technique was approximately the same. So the soft with the round "does not roll", everything is square and at the same time equally hard! And, of course, the documents of the party and government. None of them, including the materials of the congresses, does not record that we have caught up in labor productivity ... overtook ... We were constantly boasting about the pace - yes, but we could not really surpass the West in labor productivity. As for climatic and other "facilitating" factors, they should have been compensated for by the high consciousness and labor heroism of the masses. Is not it?
          1. apro
            apro 10 January 2016 11: 45
            Quote: kalibr
            As for climatic and other "facilitating" factors, they should have been compensated by the high consciousness and labor heroism of the masses. Is not it?

            Not so, Vyacheslav, not so at all.
            1. kalibr
              kalibr 10 January 2016 12: 47
              But as? In economics, one is always compensated by another. You tell me "wrong" and I have to believe you? No matter how it is!
      2. Nikolay K
        Nikolay K 10 January 2016 17: 26
        The article is one-sided for one simple reason: GDP growth is given at the beginning of the period, but the fact that in the 1951 of the USSR economy has not yet reached the pre-war level is given. Those. high nominal GDP growth rates are also due to the low base. The same situation was in Japan. At the same time, the same Americans made very good money in the Second World War, and while our GDP fell sharply during the war years, the states on the contrary showed high GDP growth rates. So, by 1960, the USSR was not yet able to restore the pre-war ratio of its GDP per capita to US GDP. By the way, to the question of choosing the right base for comparing statistical indicators. So the dynamics of per capita GDP growth since 1995. 2008 is similar to the same indicator for the period from 1945 to 1958, but this is not because we grew very quickly in the late nineties and early zero, but because of the collapse of the economy by 1995.
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 10 January 2016 19: 06
          So the dynamics of per capita GDP growth since 1995. on 2008 is similar to the same indicator for the period from 1945 to 1958, but this is not because we grew very quickly in the late nineties and early zero, but because of the collapse of the economy by 1995. [/ quote]
          And this is written, as far as I understand, by no means an academician. And the author seems to be an academician and could have picked up the argumentation more seriously, provided the article with links to interesting archival sources, little-known documents and examples. And here, in fact, an essay, at the level of a master's student. "Liquid" somehow for a specialist of this level.
    2. gladcu2
      gladcu2 10 January 2016 23: 02

      Etc. Katasonov, I highly respect, does not take into account the ideological aspect of economic development. He perfectly describes and defines the systemic crises of capitalism.

      I think this is not bad. Ideology needs to be tracked and excluded from development systems. Ideology is a temporary phenomenon. Ideology does not give stability.

      The only economically stable system of human development can be based only on basic moral principles which need to be defined and legalized at the level of interstate organizations such as the United Nations.

      Ideology is a dangerous tool.

      Previously, religion took over the function of anchoring basic moral values.

      But in an age of power in the development of the media, basic values ​​change very quickly in one to two years. Therefore, great instability.
  • Mangel olys
    Mangel olys 10 January 2016 08: 06
    The general result of the restructuring of military public administration in the post-war period was the restoration and development of the national economy, the pre-war population level (1953), replenishment of demographic military losses, the solution of major socio-economic problems, an increase in the number of workers, doctors, scientists (and institutions) , students by one and a half times, halving of child mortality, improving the financial situation, decreasing annually in 1949 — 1952. retail prices for food and industrial essential goods, which became 43% lower than the level of 1947 and stimulated growth in demand and increased production of goods. Public consumption funds increased, especially social security contributions, scholarships for pupils and students, allowances for large and single mothers, widows of dead soldiers, etc.

    A source:
    V.G. Ignatov. History of Russian government
    Trends, Role, and Contradictions of Post-War Public Administration
  • Boris55
    Boris55 10 January 2016 08: 20
    Was the Soviet economic model competitive in the 1950 years?

    Is it from the "Catch up and overtake America" ​​area?
    More or less equal can compete with each other. In principle, square and green cannot compete with each other. In the West, a fraction of a handful of the rich are building "paradise". The USSR was building a "paradise" for everyone. Every year our prices were reduced, their prices were increased. When prices go down, the well-being of the people grows, and when prices go up, for the rich. The leaders of the USSR and the West were faced with different-vector tasks. Moving in different directions, we will never cross the same finish line.
    1. Baikal
      Baikal 10 January 2016 08: 55
      Quote: Boris55
      Moving in different directions, we will never cross one and the same finish line.

      Deep. However, now we are all moving in one direction, and the finish line is known where.
      Negative of revolutions, gentlemen, but somewhere along the way we turned tightly the wrong way ... No.

    2. Odysseus
      Odysseus 10 January 2016 09: 25
      Quote: Boris55
      The leaders of the USSR and the West were faced with diverse tasks.

      Quite right. It is good that Academician Kasatonov cares about the economy of the Stalinist USSR, but his phrase about "competitiveness" simply amazes and completely disorients people.
      Let's hope that he wrote it “for the sake of a catchphrase,” for “understanding by modern readers.” Although even in this case it is very harmful.
    3. sa-ag
      sa-ag 10 January 2016 10: 57
      Quote: Boris55
      In the West, a fraction of a handful of the rich are building "paradise". The USSR was building a "paradise" for everyone.

      Well, for example, in the USA, trucking in the USA was tied to motor vehicles, so good roads were built there, a good road is faster delivery speed, faster capital turnover and higher profits, in the USSR it was mostly tied to the railway, so the quality of roads was worse
      1. kalibr
        kalibr 10 January 2016 11: 34
        Look at how many railways there were in the USA at that time. We have a maximum of two-track, and even six-track there, which our journalists who visited the United States wrote about. Road transport then did not play such a role!
        1. Starina_hank
          Starina_hank 10 January 2016 18: 38
          Kalibru. And imagine a six-way Trans-Siberian Railway !! ?? Well, what's the scale !? As a non-specialist, I believe that a six-track piece of iron is only at stations !!
        2. Starina_hank
          Starina_hank 10 January 2016 18: 38
          Kalibru. And imagine a six-way Trans-Siberian Railway !! ?? Well, what's the scale !? As a non-specialist, I believe that a six-track piece of iron is only at stations !!
          1. kalibr
            kalibr 10 January 2016 19: 08
            I thought so too, until I read Pravda for some 30 year there, the feuilleton of our journalist who visited the United States. Black on white!
    4. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 10 January 2016 11: 56
      In the USSR, the militarized economy was to the limit. For example, the T-34 tanks during the war released 40. The total number of vehicles released is 000 thousand. That is, a lot of military equipment was produced after the war. The war ended long ago, and military production was preserved. And this placed a heavy burden on the economy.
      The second point is the shortage, production grew, and there were no more goods on store shelves. The quality of life of Soviet workers was critically low.
      1. Boris55
        Boris55 10 January 2016 12: 48
        Quote: Cap.Morgan
        The quality of life of Soviet workers was critically low.

        The article is about the post-war 50's, about the years of Stalin's rule.
        The card system in the USSR was canceled in 1947, one of the first.
        - in the UK, gas cards were canceled in the 1950 year, for sugar in the 1953 year, for meat in July of the 1954 year.
        - in Japan, the card system was canceled in the 1949 year, state control over prices was canceled in the 1952 year.
        - in the holiest of US democracy to this day the card system. At 2012, the number of Americans receiving food stamps has grown to a record 46,7 million people ...
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 10 January 2016 13: 26
          Nevertheless, people continue to strive for something there. The population is already 302 million and continues to grow. Here you need to see how much the ticket costs, how much the grocery basket costs, and much more. There is nothing wrong with the cards themselves. Here, many social factors work - for example, a lot of people capable of only low-skilled labor, and highly skilled, it turns out, they are fed. And was it like that in the same 1929 year and after?
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 10 January 2016 15: 45
            320 million in 2015, not 302.
            Every year, a Green Card application is issued for a US residence permit
            approximately 11 million people from around the world.
            Approximately 1 million a year get a residence permit.
            1. kalibr
              kalibr 10 January 2016 16: 24
              Apparently, I have old data recorded on my computer. We need to look and update. But that doesn't change anything, does it? For some reason, people rush to a country with a rationing system. And not only "sweaty scruffs", but also narrow-minded, that is, specialists.
              1. voyaka uh
                voyaka uh 10 January 2016 17: 33
                If 46 is divided by 320, you get 14%.
                14 percent of the poor receiving food stamps.
                I can add that once I myself ate in the dining room in the USA
                for such coupons. I was driven by pensioners around Philadelphia,
                my friend’s parents. Wanted to eat, I started looking for a restaurant, but
                they said they knew intimately "great place". Dining room, huge
                in size, there are almost no people with a grandiose selection of dishes, including
                all sorts of national, seafood, meat, fish, salads. When we came to the checkout, I pulled out my wallet, but they said: "We don't need a special card."
                ... So I ate in the canteen for the poor belay .
                I note that I later paid decent money in restaurants for dishes of much lower quality negative .
                1. kalibr
                  kalibr 10 January 2016 19: 11
                  You know, my students told me that they worked in the USA about the same thing. And two girls generally fed for free at a Mexican restaurant and one fruit shop. Waste for a day was given to them for free. And good, tasty waste. Strawberries, yesterday's cream, stewed wings that everyone did not eat ...
                  1. cap
                    cap 10 January 2016 22: 49
                    beggars in the usa
                    Quote: kalibr
                    You know, my students told me that they worked in the USA about the same thing. And two girls generally fed for free at a Mexican restaurant and one fruit shop. Waste for a day was given to them for free. And good, tasty waste. Strawberries, yesterday's cream, stewed wings that everyone did not eat ...

                    You have nicely wrapped about good tasty waste.
                    They still eat waste there.
                    Thank you. I haven’t laughed like that laughing
                    In America, generally freebies in bulk.http: //
                    1. Kars
                      Kars 10 January 2016 23: 01
                      Quote: cap
                      Thank you. I haven’t laughed like that

                      But I don’t. This is true by the way. It’s a lot funnier when in Ukraine they talk about such things from the screens of the central channels and give advice on how to take away bread from homeless people.
                      1. IS-80
                        IS-80 10 January 2016 23: 35
                        Quote: Kars
                        But I don’t. This is true by the way. It’s a lot funnier when in Ukraine they talk about such things from the screens of the central channels and give advice on how to take away bread from homeless people.

                        The European choice is hard. If anything, this is a sad irony.
                    2. voyaka uh
                      voyaka uh 11 January 2016 12: 59
                      for cap:

                      "They were given free waste per day" ///

                      I think you have misunderstood the word "waste".
                      This is not eaten from plates, but unsold during the day.
                      Many products - completely fresh - do not shift
                      in the refrigerators to warm up again the next day
                      and sell, but must throw it away.
                2. lnew
                  lnew 10 January 2016 22: 44
                  Quote: voyaka uh
                  for dishes of much lower quality

                  This is on surzhik.
                  In Russian correctly: ... for dishes of much lower quality.
                  Sorry, could not resist.
  • My address
    My address 10 January 2016 08: 44
    What about free bread in 50's canteens? Yes, at the expense of collective farmers. But at the beginning of 60's relatives on the collective farm near Tyumen, they said that in the first half of 50's, under Stalin, they lived easier.
    And student scholarships in 60-x from 35 to 45 (Physics and Technology Department) rubles in the first courses, with the cost of lunch in student canteens (first, second, third) from 30 to 40 kopecks?
    And, most importantly, the expectation of a better life next year? And this expectation came true!

    PS But the most important thing is that the people were kinder to each other. What was not the wildest division of the poor and the rich. That God was on the side of the Soviet Union, because everyone was for one.
    "God is on the side of the big battalions" - Marshal of France Turenne.
    1. Ingvar 72
      Ingvar 72 10 January 2016 10: 04
      Quote: My address
      "God is on the side of the big battalions" - Marshal of France Turenne.

      Voltaire said better - “Dieu n'est pas pour les gros bataillons, mais pour ceux qui tirent le mieux” (God is not on the side of the big battalions, but those who shoot better)
      And the rest I agree! drinks
      1. My address
        My address 10 January 2016 14: 29
        hi Igor!
        I read that the authorship of this expression belongs either to Turenne or to Cardinal Richelieu. By the way, Dumas wrote his own d Artagnan somewhat from Turenne. And Napoleon put it a little differently: "The big battalions are always right." Moreover, in the sense of exactly when everything is for one, and not when large crowds.
        С fellow respect, drinks .
    2. kalibr
      kalibr 10 January 2016 11: 35
      And then for some reason he got angry and changed his mind, right? In addition, free bread is only in mousetraps!
    3. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 10 January 2016 12: 03
      That is, there were no rich people in the USSR? About them only in the newspaper Pravda did not write. It was forbidden.
      There were nomenclature workers - an analogue of today's bankers, and party bosses with special rations, state deliveries, attached vehicles, luxurious apartments, amid barracks, communal apartments and even dugouts in which people huddled.
      Now every second foreign car, and then a bicycle, or even a pair of decent shoes, was happy.
  • parusnik
    parusnik 10 January 2016 09: 23
    The sixth decline was the largest. It happened on April 1, 1953, that is, after the death of Stalin.... and the last ...
  • moskowit
    moskowit 10 January 2016 10: 32
    I recommend respected commentators interested in this topic to learn firsthand about the monetary reform, its reasons (it began to be prepared back in 1943), the financial system of the USSR. From the book of Arseny Grigorievich Zverev, People's Commissar, later Minister of Finance of the USSR. Trust me, get exceptional information ...
    1. Igor39
      Igor39 10 January 2016 13: 51
      Yeah, and at the end of each text: Applause!, Stormy and prolonged applause!, The hall rises !!!, applause !!!! laughing laughing
      1. moskowit
        moskowit 10 January 2016 15: 47
        I would like to understand why your passage with "applause"? To the ability and desire to expand knowledge and get information from a good book? Or, did you mean something else?
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 10 January 2016 16: 45
          Well, what about Nikolai Ivanovich ... this is an allusion to congresses and mass "approvals". And at the end, two laughing faces. This is such humor! Am I right, Igor?
          1. Igor39
            Igor39 10 January 2016 17: 19
            Well, of course! I had something like a book about congresses, I read and thought what kind of morons wrote this laughing

            here I noticed many with a sense of humor are a little taut, but they all want it to be like under Stalin, eccentrics ...
            1. moskowit
              moskowit 10 January 2016 20: 06
              And you, Igor, apparently consider yourself a great expert in the field of humor? Isn’t he vaccinated with Petrosyan with his camarilla?
              1. Igor39
                Igor39 10 January 2016 20: 25
                I don’t consider myself an expert, but I have a sense of humor, unlike others. And by the way, I don’t like Petrosyan.
                1. moskowit
                  moskowit 10 January 2016 20: 50
                  And yet, take the liberty of making hasty and unsubstantiated conclusions ...
                  1. Igor39
                    Igor39 10 January 2016 21: 13
                    Do you think the Soviet authorities spoke to the whole people on garlic?

                    Like in a joke: Gorbachev says to Ryzhkov: Nikolay Vasilyevich, what is happening with our economy?
                    Ryzhkov: Now I will explain everything ...
                    Gorbachev: No, I can explain it myself, I can’t understand !!!
      2. Starina_hank
        Starina_hank 10 January 2016 18: 54
        Suffice it to recall how the "German comrades" greeted their Adolf, the Italians-Duce, American voters, their candidate, and we can conclude that this is not a trait of the character of a Soviet person, but a worldwide trend! request
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 10 January 2016 19: 14
          If you want to emphasize the totalitarian nature of power in all these countries, then yes, the global trend is obvious.
  • Uncle lee
    Uncle lee 10 January 2016 10: 55
    ... There was a time - and there were cellars,
    There was a thing - and prices were reduced,
    And the channels flowed right
    And in the end, where it was necessary.
    Children of former elders and majors
    To ice latitudes have risen,
    Because of those corridors
    It seemed to them more convenient - down.
  • jorjick_46rus
    jorjick_46rus 10 January 2016 10: 59
    It should also be borne in mind that the high growth rates of the Japanese and German economies are direct American investments.
  • vladimirvn
    vladimirvn 10 January 2016 11: 11
    "Do you want independence? Then we go to you." These are the true motives of the states. To crush competitors in all ways. It is desirable even at the stage of their inception.
    "Clinton's letters have revealed the real reason for the overthrow of Gaddafi." A fresh portion of the correspondence talks about the reasons why the United States actively supported the overthrow of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi. These are Libya's large gold and oil reserves, as well as the expansion of French influence in the North African region. Moreover, there are fears in the correspondence that Gaddafi’s gold reserves are so large that they could become the basis for creating a pan-African currency, which, in turn, could compete with the dollar in the region.
  • v.yegorov
    v.yegorov 10 January 2016 11: 35
    Well, why did we lose all this? The role of personality in history?
    1. EvgNik
      EvgNik 10 January 2016 12: 16
      Quote: v.yegorov
      Well, why did we lose all this?

      Because the top has rotted. They wanted a Western lifestyle. Under Gorbachev I left the party. During an interview in the city committee, he said: "I do not agree with the party's policy at the moment." The newspaper published - for non-payment of membership fees. So that's it. If you say that it was necessary to fight, I will laugh for a long time. Who exactly? Rotten everything from top to bottom.
      1. EvgNik
        EvgNik 10 January 2016 13: 01
        Thank. Put the minus. I myself would have set. And I agree with Nonna for all 100. And not everything is measured in money.
      2. kalibr
        kalibr 10 January 2016 13: 13
        And the top was sent to us from Mars? Or she came out of the "low". And what is this good bottom from which the shitty top is obtained ?!
        1. sa-ag
          sa-ag 10 January 2016 14: 03
          Quote: kalibr
          Did they send us the top from Mars?

          This is generally an interesting question, the current elite served in the "vanguard of the party", which fought all sorts of intrigues of capitalism and the American military against the Soviet country, "and now look out the window" (C) :-)
        2. EvgNik
          EvgNik 10 January 2016 17: 25
          Quote: kalibr
          And what a good little thing

          The lower classes are also rotten. I know what I'm talking about, because I cooked in this porridge myself. Example: they accepted a "comrade" as a member. The alcoholic is finished. At the meeting I spoke out against - they chided me mildly, they say we will educate. Yeah, joint booze. Seen enough, I still want to spit. And at the same time, the people who had nothing to do with the party were better, kinder. And it was really interesting to live. The windows of the houses lit up almost all of them in the evenings. And now, even on holidays in a five-story building opposite windows 15-20. The playground was packed with children. Now rarely more than 5, 10 runs.
          1. kalibr
            kalibr 10 January 2016 19: 15
            And I also agree with this, here I have exactly the same experience as you!
          2. lnew
            lnew 10 January 2016 22: 54
            Quote: EvgNik
            Because the top rotted.

            Quote: EvgNik
            The bottoms are also rotten.

            What kind of society was this "wonderful" if it was rotten from top to bottom? Maybe you shouldn't regret it? It’s already soon, like a quarter of a century, that Buratin’s groaning about the "beautiful lost country" is heard from everywhere.
          3. The comment was deleted.
        3. PHANTOM-AS
          PHANTOM-AS 10 January 2016 17: 30
          Quote: kalibr
          Did they send us the top from Mars?

          Because of the puddle
          Quote: kalibr
          Or she came out of the "low". And what is this good bottom from which the shitty top is obtained ?!

          some people think that they have risen to the top, but in fact they have surfaced there!
      3. Nikolay K
        Nikolay K 10 January 2016 18: 49
        That's just the point that the SYSTEM drove, and from top to bottom. And for a completely banal reason: no matter how they educate a Soviet person on the ideas of prioritizing the public over the private, but as soon as this same person gained power, in most cases his shirt would be closer to his body. Why? Again, everything is simple: it is so inherent in us by nature. It’s just like the instinct of self-preservation, no matter how kamikaze was raised, but he still wants to live. The gradual evolutionary change of man is the most optimal way to change the world for the better.
  • Nonna
    Nonna 10 January 2016 11: 49
    Those who did not live in the Soviet Union will not understand. It was the best time in our history.
    1. Nikolay K
      Nikolay K 10 January 2016 20: 53
      For the majority of those present here, the Soviet Union is a time of childhood and youth. And in childhood, as we remember, the trees appear higher and the grass is greener. For many of the USSR, this is a time when they were young, healthy, joyful, and these pleasant memories are associated with the then existing political system. I would not be surprised if in twenty years there will be quite a lot of those who will recall with nostalgia the dashing 90's. Just because it was the time of their youth.
  • Prophetic
    Prophetic 10 January 2016 12: 27
    Quote: Igor39
    Monetary reform in the USSR 1947 was confiscatory

    In ALL warring states a huge “money shed” has formed With the transition from card to free sale, a crisis was inevitable. However, unlike other countries, the USSR took care of low-paid strata of the population. It was decided to establish unified retail prices higher than ration prices, but lower than commercial prices, while INCREASING salaries for employees with salaries below 900 rubles, as well as increasing pensions, stipends and allowances.
    In Europe, monetary reform was also carried out. In Belgium, for example, all old banknotes were to be handed over, and new ones were issued in exchange only for a bag of 5 000 francs per person, while the rest was credited to deposits in banks and savings banks, with 40% blocked temporarily and 60% permanently. Similarly, monetary reforms were carried out in several other countries. To stop inflation, the French government introduced extraordinary taxes at the beginning of 1948, devalued the franc (215 francs for the 1 dollar instead of the previous rate - 119 francs), allowed the free trade in gold and removed banknotes in denominations of 5000 francs from circulation. New taxes led to the ruin of the mass of small and medium enterprises and farmers. The devaluation of the franc meant a sharp rise in the price of imported goods and a huge increase in US debt to France. The same confiscative nature had monetary reforms in Eastern Europe. Technically, they were carried out by the same method. In Hungary, for example, instead of the old currency, penge, a new currency, the forint, was introduced, with 400 quadrillion pounds exchanged for 1 forints. In Germany, the circulation of the old depreciated Reichsmarks was canceled. Each resident of the western occupation zones received 40 Deutschmarks on his hands. Half of the cash and private savings exchanged in relation to 10: 1. The second half was frozen and later exchanged for 20: 1. Monetary obligations of banks were mostly canceled.
    Thus, the reform carried out in the USSR in December 1947 did not differ in its objectives and results from monetary reforms in European states. ALL post-war monetary reforms were confiscatory. However, in the USSR it was much milder. In addition, while reforms in Western countries did not destroy inflation, then in countries of people's democracy financial stabilization took place, which created the conditions for a subsequent significant reduction in prices and an increase in the real wages of workers and employees.
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 10 January 2016 13: 10
      Quote: Prophetic
      created the conditions for a subsequent significant reduction in prices and an increase in the real wages of workers and employees.

      So this is why the events took place in Novocherkassk in the 1962 year - over the 15 years, real wages increased very much and there was a significant reduction in prices!
      1. kalibr
        kalibr 10 January 2016 15: 43
        The little boy fell from a chair, hit the floor, cried. Mom says - beat the chair. The chair was beaten and the child felt better! So with the minus one. Well, he took his soul, and then what? Tomorrow we will all be in the USSR, right? Well, come on, hit the chair further!
        1. sa-ag
          sa-ag 10 January 2016 17: 22
          Quote: kalibr
          Tomorrow we will all be in the USSR, right?

          Well, it’s not direct in the same thing, society is somehow developing, therefore it will be somewhat different, everything new came from the west, they are trying to introduce it there. at least in Finland and Switzerland, a common basic income, they see Engels being revered or something, if possible, then there may be a tendency to adopt experience. will pervert of course as always
          1. kalibr
            kalibr 10 January 2016 19: 46
            You read the novel by A. Bogdanov RED STAR 1908 of the year. Foresight ... you will learn a lot of interesting things.
    2. Nikolay K
      Nikolay K 10 January 2016 21: 04
      About post-war reforms may be so. But I am tormented by the question: why in the USSR after the Great Patriotic War, when the USSR did not fight with anyone else, monetary reforms were still confiscative. The last such reform in my memory was under Pavlov. Moreover, there were so many such reforms that the opinion was already firmly entrenched in people's minds that if a monetary reform, denomination, etc. was announced, then again the state would try to take our money.
  • Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 10 January 2016 13: 46
    Maybe enough already come up with about 26 million losses! These figures are nothing and no one confirmed. They are taken, taking into account the so-called demographic losses, that is, those who could be born but not born as a result of the death of people who could have children, and taken from the calculation of 4-7 children in the family! The West is pleased to show what kind of sacrifices the people suffered as a result of supposedly bloodthirsty, communist rule, but here everything is repeated like parrots. I am ashamed.
  • Prophetic
    Prophetic 10 January 2016 14: 50
    Quote: kalibr
    So this is why the events took place in Novocherkassk in the 1962 year - over the 15 years, real wages increased very much and there was a significant reduction in prices!

    No, my friend, the last price reduction was in 1953, and then a dumbass came to power and there was a deviation from socialist principles. As a result, in Novocherkassk, 26 people were shot dead.
    For comparison. August 1965 Watts Riot in Los Angeles - 31 killed (+ 2 policemen and one fireman), also about a thousand wounded. South Dakota is the midpoint of 1970x, with approximately four hundred killed AIM (American Indian Movement) activists. During the 1992 riots of the year in the same Los Angeles, only a small part (about a quarter) were “officially” shot by government officials, but almost half died from a bullet of an “unknown sniper”.
    July 1967, Newark Riot - 25 killed (including 2 children), 725 injured. July 1967 12th Street Detroit riot - 12 killed, 43 injured. February 467, 6 Orangeburg massacre - 1968 killed, 2 wounded. May 28, 4 Kent State Shooting - 1970 killed, 4 wounded Gained relatively widespread fame, as this time the victims were not poor teenagers from the Negro ghettos, but the offspring of the establishment.
    9 May 1970 Augusta Riot - 6 killed, 80 wounded. 13 May 1985 MOVE 1985 bombing (bombing of the residence of the organization MOVE) - 11 killed, including 5 children. 28 February 1993 Waco siege (“Siege of Waco”) - 80 killed, 3 wounded (most of them died not from bullets, but burned down in a house blocked and set on fire by the National Guard) .3 September 2001 Rainbow Farm - 2 wounded, 1 wounded
    This is so offhand. 3 minutes of search. You can recall the number of killed eg in Greece after the war, Spain, Chile, Iraq, and Vietnam. etc. etc. And all this despite the fact that it was socialism that saved the world from the brown plague, and capitalism created it. Do not compare the total number of corpses of capitalism and socialism. Here the first is clearly out of competition. (It is enough to recall the total loss of China in 100 million from the fact that the most populated country was forced to use drugs.)
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 10 January 2016 15: 34
      And why am I to you about the USSR, and you jump straight to the States. There was capitalism there, and everything was bad, but we have the unity of the party and the people and everything for the good of man. And the dumbass you are talking about at whom he began to make a career? Why did no one hold him, or was it not clear what kind of bird it was? "No, all these years he cleverly disguised himself as a decent!"
      And by the way, you write correctly that there is no need to compare, but where do I have comparisons of them and us? Do not attribute your thoughts to others! Especially when you quote what is written. It can be very misunderstood.
  • Aleksander
    Aleksander 10 January 2016 17: 24
    I think that the period described is reminiscent of the flight of a thing thrown up, has reached the limit and has fallen. The development came at the expense of unlimited and cheap human resources and unlimited readily available natural resources. But the human resource has been depleted, it has become more expensive, just like other resources have risen in price. To achieve the same result, it was necessary already in other ways — by a more productive technique, more advanced cheaper technology, operational management, etc. And then the system failed, the flight went down ....
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 10 January 2016 19: 47
      Yes, that’s how it was. You would be advisers to the author!
  • xBoris
    xBoris 10 January 2016 22: 21
    ..where are those miracle economists ..?
    Although, so that they could work, a miracle ruler is needed - which will give them such an opportunity to eradicate even the concept of bribery ..
  • samarin1969
    samarin1969 10 January 2016 22: 25
    Hmmm ... Medvedev will read the article ... iPhone belay
    Then ... he will think for a long time and come up with it! ..... many, many reasons for the lack of results.
    1. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 11 January 2016 16: 22
      Dima is sleeping ... Better to sleep further than "innovate"
  • Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 11 January 2016 14: 48
    "Division of any number by zero gives infinity" :)

    Relative indicators, heh .... Zimbabwe or Botswana now has a GDP growth rate of hundreds percent. But this does not mean that Zimbabwe or Botswana are the favorites of the world economy, right?