Military Review

Rebellious Temernik. December Uprising in Rostov

One hundred and ten years ago, December 13 1905, the December armed uprising began in Rostov-on-Don, which included history as one of the most dramatic pages of the 1905-1907 revolution. The situation in Rostov escalated after a working strike began in Moscow in October 1905, the participants of which put forward a number of economic and political demands. The October 12-18 strike took on the general character and swept the whole country. Over 2 has been hit by millions of workers. As a result of the strikes, the emperor was forced to make concessions to the strikers. On October 17, the Manifesto “On the improvement of the state order” was issued, according to which certain freedoms were granted: personal integrity, freedom of conscience, speech, assembly, union. Also, the emperor promised to convene the State Duma. However, the left parties (the Bolsheviks and the Social Revolutionaries) did not support the adoption of the Manifesto, but continued the policy of deploying an armed uprising. November 27 (December 10 new style) in Moscow began the release of the social-democratic newspaper "Struggle", published by the RSDLP (b). Nine issues of the newspaper were published, the last of which published an appeal “To all workers, soldiers and toilers!”, Calling on the people for a general political strike and an armed uprising. So began the December armed uprising, which swept most of the Russian cities. In Rostov-on-Don, preparations for an armed uprising began, like in other cities of the Russian Empire, in the autumn of 1905. Georgy Butyagin, an instructor at the Military-Technical Bureau, arrived in the city to organize a revolutionary activity. He was to lead the creation and operation of an underground laboratory weapons and explosives. The formation of armed workers' detachments began, which were to play a major role in the upcoming uprising.

Rebellious Temernik. December Uprising in Rostov

Temernik - Rostov "Red Presnya"

The epicenter of the revolutionary movement in Rostov-on-Don, as well as during the famous Rostov strike 1902 of the year that occurred three years earlier, was then the Opernitsa settlement. Temernik, or “Shameless Suburb”, so called for “morality of morals”, was not accidentally called the Rostov “Red Presnya”. The district is located on the steep bank of Temernik, a small river flowing into the Don, behind the Rostov railway station. In the years of the events under consideration, the overwhelming majority of the population of the district was working people who worked in the Main workshops of the Vladikavkaz Railway, in the depot, as well as at factories, mills, workshops, and mills of the city. The most populated and, at the same time, the most unfavorable district of Rostov-on-Don experienced a lot of social problems. The population of Temernik was over 30 thousand people. Most of the residents of the area rented corners and rooms in apartment buildings and single-story cobbler dwellings. Many were huddled in the attics and basements, although, of course, there were richer people - above all, craftsmen and skilled workers who could afford their own separate housing.

In the pre-revolutionary years, all then the settlement was serviced by one water booth. She stood at the corner of Kotzebue Avenue and Kolodeznaya Street. A little better than with the water supply, the area was dealing with educational institutions - on the avenue of Kotzebue there was a city public school. At his own expense, another school was built by merchant Shakhov. And, finally, the children’s workers could receive primary education in the parish school of the Vladimir Church. But the situation with the health care system was simply deadly - only one free doctor relied on the thirty thousand district. Naturally, the residents of the village were often sick and died. Social and domestic disorder complicated the already difficult life of the inhabitants of the working village, who were forced to earn their living by hard work. The combination of these factors influenced the level of alcoholism and crime - they drank and fought here often. However, not all workers, especially from among the young, were drawn only to the taverns and drunken fights. At the beginning of the twentieth century, revolutionary organizations, first of all - the Bolsheviks, took firm roots in the Potiernitsky settlement. Therefore, the Rostov police and security department kept Temernik under special supervision.

Rostov strike 1902

But police control could not prevent the famous Rostov strike in 1902. At the beginning of the twentieth century. in Rostov-on-Don, there were about 30 thousands of workers who worked at large industrial enterprises of the city. In particular, 2,6 thousands of workers were employed at the Main workshops of the Vladikavkaz Railway, another 2,2 thousand people worked in the workshops of the Asmolov Tobacco Factory, and the rest at other enterprises. 2 November 1902 was declared a strike by workers of the boiler shop of railway workshops, who were dissatisfied with the shortage on the part of the administration. Two days later, on November 4, 1902, the Don Committee of the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party called for a strike at all workshops. Progressive demands were made: a nine-hour working day, a salary increase, the abolition of the system of fines at the enterprise, and the dismissal of a number of hated workers. 6-7 in November 1902, the strike took on a citywide character, and workers from other enterprises in Rostov joined the workers in the Main workshops of the Vladikavkaz Railway. In Kamyshevakhinskaya gully on the outskirts of the city, on which the Stachki Avenue is now passing, meetings with the participation of thousands of workers were held. November 11 police and Cossacks attacked a rally in a gully, six people were killed, another seventeen were injured. But, despite the brutality shown by the authorities, the strike lasted another two weeks. In the second half of November, repairmen from the Tikhoretskaya station, workers from Novorossiysk, Vladikavkaz, Mineralnye Vody and even far away Gomel went on strike in 1902. However, in the end, the authorities, through brutal repression against the labor movement, still forced the Rostov workers to stop the strike. 26 November 1902 workers returned to their places in factories and workshops. Nevertheless, the Rostov strike 1902 of the year entered the history of not only the regional, but also the Russian revolutionary movement as one of the most vivid examples of the speeches of the working people in the struggle for their rights.

The direct organizers of the revolutionary speeches were Ivan Stavsky and Sergei Gusev. Ivan Ivanovich Stavsky (1877-1957), whose name was later named as the key prospect of the Thenernitsky settlement, the former Kotzebue avenue, from a young age worked in the Main workshops of the Vladikavkaz railway. A hereditary worker from Mogilev province, Stavsky arrived in Rostov fifteen years old and immediately went to hard work in railway workshops. At the age of twentieth, at the end of 1897, he joined the social democratic circle that operated among the Rostov workers, and in 1898 he became one of the founders of Donkom, the Don Committee of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party. By this time, despite his young years, Ivan Stavsky was already a serious political activist. In 1900, he was arrested, but was released a month later. However, although Ivan managed to avoid prison because of lack of evidence, he lost his job. Stavsky was fired from the Main workshops of the Vladikavkaz railway for political reasons. Having decided that in Rostov he lit up too much, the young Social Democrat moved to Yaroslavl — but there too soon he would be arrested and sent back to his former place of residence in Rostov. In the spring of 1901, Stavsky was arrested and put in prison for a year and a half. However, immediately after the liberation, Ivan plunged into the thick of the political struggle - the Rostov strike 1902 of the year flared up at that time. It was Ivan Stavsky who became a key figure in it, which was later highly praised by the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Ilyich Lenin himself. After the strike was defeated, Stavsky fled to Switzerland, where he personally met Lenin. In June, 1903, while trying to return to the Russian Empire, was arrested and put in prison, where he stayed for more than two years - until July of the 1905 year. Sergei Ivanovich Gusev, who was actually called Yakov Davidovich Drabkin (1874-1933), unlike Stavsky, came to Rostov-on-Don in 1887, not to work, but to study. In 1892, he graduated from a real school in Rostov, and in 1896, he entered the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology. During one of the student demonstrations, Gusev was arrested and then sent to Orenburg and, later, to Rostov-on-Don, under police supervision. At Don Gusev was actively engaged in journalism, working in the publications "Priazovsky Krai" and "Don Speech". Here he joined the Don Committee of the RSDLP, soon becoming its leader. After the suppression of the Rostov strike 1902, Gusev, like Stavsky, was forced to flee to Switzerland.

Preparing for the uprising

When in November 1905 of the year in Rostov-on-Don, preparations began for a general strike and an armed uprising, the backbone of the strike of the revolutionary movement in the city was three years ago. Almost all of them were workers, both from the main workshops of the Vladikavkaz Railway and from other enterprises. 28 November 1905, a new locksmith appeared in the steam engine assembly shop of the Main workshops of the Vladikavkaz Railway. His name was Solomon Reisman (in the photo). He came to the city from St. Petersburg, where in the days of the October riots 1905 was a member of the St. Petersburg Council of Workers' Deputies. In Rostov-on-Don, Reisman was to organize and lead a local general strike. Solomon Reisman was not accidentally chosen by the Bolshevik leadership, because he was a resident of Rostov, where he graduated from a vocational school and already had experience in the main workshops of the Vladikavkaz railway - just during the November strike of 1902. Enrolling in the 1905 year, he went back to work in the workshops, Reisman immediately set about organizing revolutionary agitation among the workers of the enterprise. On the day of employment, a twenty-year-old mechanic was elected chairman of the Central Organizing Bureau of the Union of Railway Workers of the Vladikavkaz Railway.

After 7 December 1905 became aware of the beginning of the General Political Strike in the Russian Empire, a telegram was sent via the telegraph line of the Vladikavkaz Railway. It said verbatim: “Comrades ... The tsarist government does not stop its previous policy of bullying and violence ... The cup of patience is overflowing ... The strike begins at 12 at night from 7 to December 8 ... Comrades! From our amicable unanimous speech it will depend on turning this strike into the last act of the people’s struggle for the overthrow of the autocracy. Throw work, join the strike. Long live the All-Russian political strike. Chairman of the Rostov Bureau S. Reizman. Meanwhile, the situation in the city heated up. The barricades of the Rostov Krasnaya Presnya bristled up with barricades, then the settlement. A combat squad was formed, which included many active participants in the events of three years ago. Among them were, in particular, Ivan Chentsov, Mikhail Zhuravlev, Semyon Vasilchenko. The commander of the fighting squad was appointed professional revolutionary Yury Butyagin (1883-1952), better known among his comrades under the nickname “Max”. The son of an official from Vyshny Volochka in the Tver province, Yuriy Butyagin, participated with 1903 in revolutionary activities in Tver and Ivanovo-Voznesensk, visited prisons, and in the spring of 1905 he was sent to the North Caucasus, where he first headed the Social Democratic group in Armavir . In the summer of 1905, the Butyagin passed a special training course at the school-laboratory for the production of bombs in Kiev, after which he was assigned to organize combat squads in the cities of Don and Kuban. In Rostov-on-Don, Butyagin headed the entire combat work of the Social Democratic Party, and before the start of the general strike he was appointed chief of staff of the fighting squads. It was Butyagin who headed the entire combat unit of the workers' uprising, which began in Potiernytsia settlement. Preparations for the performance unfolded in the workers' districts of Rostov and neighboring Nakhichevan — activists gathered in apartments, secretly made weapons and bombs, and printed proclamations.

As Yury Butiagin later recalled, “the secret police was mistaken when they thought that we had organized a laboratory on Temernik. We organized it here, under the nose, in Nakhichevan on the same street. And here in Nakhichevan in a stone 2-storey house we set up a laboratory. We got everything necessary for it: chemical devices, then all kinds of chemical materials, acids, nitrates, nitrogen ... for the preparation of nitroglycerin, and from nitroglycerin we made magnetised dynamite. We ourselves soldered, etc. When our production expanded a little, we gave special tin boxes to one workshop, gave them a small look so that you could put them in your pocket freely ... Unnoticed, you go and in your pocket you bomb ”(quoted in:“ From the memoirs of Yu. Butiagin about the creation of a workshop for the manufacture of bombs in 1905 by him. ”// The Party Archive of the Rostov Regional Committee of the CPSU, f. 12, op. 1, d. 325, pp. 137- 145. (Transcript of the trial of the former Rostov mayor). Revolutionaries supplied explosives to the Apte and Zlatopolsky, who was at the corner of Pushkinskaya Street and Sredniy Prospekt (now Sokolov). At the Kipman locksmith's workshop, the workers secretly soldered tin and zinc boxes for bombs. The resulting home-made bombs looked like cans in appearance, both in size and in appearance, but the explosive force was approaching the action of artillery shells, and this despite the fact that the weight and volume of the bombs were twenty times less. The bomb exploded with a blow or strong shock, which implied the need for extremely careful handling. After all, even a strong shake-up could have led to an explosion even during transportation. Those militants who were supposed to throw bombs were specially trained. As a rule, bombs were given only to foremen and the most experienced fighters of the fighting squad. Vigilantes practiced their skills in the Kiziterinovskaya gully located on the very outskirts of Nakhichevan-on-Don. This place is still provincial, and for the then Rostov and Nakhichevan it was the “edge of geography” - behind the Aksai plow-building plant and the working outskirts of Nakhichevan — its last slum streets. Another workshop that produced bombs for the combat squad was located at the Potiernitsa settlement itself. The most remarkable thing is that it was located almost in the very center of the working Temernik - in a house at the corner of Lugovoy Street. and then the market bazaar. Not far was Temernitsky police station, lived as an assistant bailiff and a policeman near the guard. Finally, in the Shakhovskaya and Kolodeznaya streets, the underground workers also housed small secret weapons repair workshops.

The headquarters of the working squad was located in the apartment of a certain Alexei Zrelov, who worked as a locksmith in the blacksmith shop of the Main workshops of the Vladikavkaz railway. Zrelov lived in a stone house, which now has the address number 33 on the street. Vagulevskaya (now there is a children's library). The revolutionary headquarters included its head, professional revolutionary Yuri Butyagin, young turner Vitaliy Sobinin (Anatoly Sobino), turner of the Aksay plant Stepan Voitenko, sailor of the Black Sea fleet and participant in the uprising at the legendary Potemkin, Ivan Khizhnyakov, blacksmith Semyon Vasilchenko, chairman of the Union of Railwaymen Solomon Reizman. All of them were very young people, in spite of their age, already possessing solid revolutionary experience, including those regarding “imprisonment” in tsarist prisons and stay in exile and hard labor.

By the way, shortly before the workers started their speech, the mayor of Rostov, Major General Kotzebue, handed over his authority to the head of the Rostov port, von der Weide. However, the latter, not knowing how to react to the workers' performance and not wanting to remain “extreme” in which case, handed over authority to the Rostov Chief of Police Prokopovich. The December 11 police chief gathered a military council of representatives of the city’s power structures and announced an “emergency guard” regime in Rostov-on-Don, which prohibited all meetings and public events in the city, and in case of unrest they were supposed to be suppressed the armed forces. On the same day, the duties of the mayor of Rostov-on-Don, by decision of the ataman of the Don Cossacks, were imposed on the military commander, Colonel Makeyev. He gathered an urgent meeting of the Rostov City Duma and enlisted its support in his intention to suppress a possible working-class uprising by force.

The seizure of the station and barricades Temernik

Early in the morning of 13 in December 1905, a group of revolutionaries headed by Stepan Voytenko, Mikhail Zharkov and Mikhail Zhuravlev went to the main railway station of Rostov-on-Don. Together with them, the squadron’s chief of staff Yury Butyagin and his assistants Sobino and Vasilchenko arrived at the station. About nine o'clock in the morning, the revolutionaries surrounded the station gendarmes and forced them to hand over their weapons. At that time, soldiers of the half infantry of the 134 Infantry Theodosia regiment were at the station, but they refused to open fire on the workers and the half-commanding officer had no choice but to lead the unreliable subordinates to the barracks. After that, the city’s railway station was actually in the hands of rebellious workers. In the dining hall of the workshops began a rally that brought together thousands of people.
Upon learning of the seizure of the station, on 13.13 of the 13 day of December 1905, Colonel Makeev ordered the troops to begin shelling the Tiernarnitsky settlement. An artillery battery was placed in the area of ​​Burshin Sad (now it is Gvardeiskaya Square of Rostov-on-Don), in front of which they were tasked to shoot at the canteen building. But due to the inexperience of the soldiers, shells, instead of the canteen, fell into the Vladimir Church and the Shakhovskoye College (now the building of the vocational school No. 15). After several rounds, policeman Tatarchuk reported to the police station by telephone about the inaccuracies of the shelling and corrected the fire himself, using his experience of army service as an artillery gunner. After that, the battery began to beat directly on the dining room, forcing the three thousandth rally to run. Several people died and were injured. By order of Yury Butiagin, the construction of barricades began on the streets of the Postiernicka settlement. Vasily Terentievich Cherepakhin supervised their construction directly. During the seizure of the station and the disarmament of the station gendarmes, the revolutionary squad managed to capture two boxes with rifles. However, in general, the squad's armament left much to be desired. The revolutionaries were armed with revolvers, hunting rifles and berdank. There were no machine guns. The most effective weapons were automatic rifles “Burchard”, which were delivered to Potiernitskoye settlement in the amount of twelve pieces. In addition, the signal gun was removed from the shipping company. One more cannon for workers (a model made by Efimchenko, and a cannon - foundry Kovalev, turner Grigorovsky and another worker - Ustimchenko). The gun of the “Efimchenko model” was assembled and installed on the barricades of the Thenernitsky settlement, firing metal pieces at the enemy.

Actually Temernik was turned, thanks to the barricades, into a real fortress. These days, the city government did not control this area of ​​the city at all. The whole life of the settlement was subordinated to the orders of the revolutionary headquarters, during which even the quartermaster unit, canteen and sanitary unit under the guidance of the doctor Vladimir Drutsky were created. For the maintenance of enemy agents, suspicious persons and violators of discipline a guardhouse was created, a curfew was introduced from eight o'clock in the evening. All approaches to the area were guarded by detachments of warriors. It should be noted here that this area of ​​Rostov has always had a very favorable position - it is much higher than the center of the city and is separated from the latter by the Temernik river. The streets here are narrow and curved, going down to the Temernik river. To penetrate into the district, it was necessary to climb up the very center of the city, along very steep streets, and the barricades built on them practically made it impossible to storm the settlement with the help of the police and the Cossacks. In addition, the very layout of the area, with tangled streets, lanes, interdvory and inter-house aisles, also only played into the hands of the revolutionaries.

Anatoly Sobino and other bombers

400 workers had to defend the barricades, both in Rostov and those arriving to help from Azov, Bataysk, Kavkazskaya and Tikhoretskaya stations. The assistant chief of staff of the fighting squads of Yuriy Butyagin, Anatoly Sobino, was also sent to the barricades (in the photo). Anatoly Sobino - perhaps the most famous Rostov revolutionary 1902-1905. In Soviet times, a street and a park in the Zheleznodorozhny district of the city were named after him. Rostov-on-Don. In fact, Anatoly was called Vitaliy, and his last name was not Sobino, but Sabinin. Vitaly Sabinin was born in 1884 year in Kagalnik, in the family of Osip Dmitrievich and Matryona Fedorovna Sabinins. Like many other workers in Rostov, they were visiting — first they lived in Kagalnik, then they moved to Rostov-on-Don, in Potiernitskoye settlement. The father of six children, Osip Dmitrievich worked as an unskilled laborer at the Main workshops of the Vladikavkaz railway, and after a hard day’s work, he found time to tailor - he could sew and earned additional money for his family with such “shabby”. Matryna Fedorovna sewed bags for Rostov factories. The joyless life of low-paid workers waited for their children - daughters Pelageya and Claudius, the sons of Gabriel, Ilya, Vitaly and Semyon. The eldest son in the family was Gabriel and he was the first of the younger generation of the Sabinins to embark on the path of revolutionary struggle. At the very beginning of the twentieth century, he was arrested and deported from Rostov-on-Don to Yuzovka (now Donetsk). Ilya Sabinin managed to participate in the 1902 strike of the year and in the famous March demonstration of the 1903 of the year. It was Ilya who got Vitaly's younger brother involved in the revolutionary activities. Anatoly Sobino, namely, Vitaly took such a pseudonym, he had only three classes of education, from a young age he went to work - first as a student to artisans, then entered the Main workshops of the Vladikavkaz Railway. However, for the violent temper Sobino was first transferred from the machine shop to the boiler room, and then completely fired from the workshops. The guy entered the Panchenko stationery factory, then - at the Pastukhov factory. Joining the RSDLP (b), Vitaly Sabinin began to distribute underground literature, for which he was arrested in February 1903. In prison Sobino celebrated his nineteen years. In the fall of 1903, Vitaly Osipovich Sabinin was sent for a period of three years to the Vologda province - under public police supervision. But Sobino never arrived in Vologda - he escaped on his way to exile and soon reappeared in Rostov. 1 1904 of August Sobino was placed on the wanted list - on the list of wanted persons, he was listed under the number 119 - as Sobinin Vitaly Osipov, a peasant from the settlement of Alekseyevka, Voronezh province. However, Vitaly was only able to be detained in December of the 1904 year. He was expected to be re-deported to the Vologda province, but then an amnesty was announced, which was announced in honor of the birth of Tsarevich Alexei. The entire first half of 1905, which was released under an amnesty, Sobino was engaged in his usual business - he distributed revolutionary literature, was engaged in providing security for workers rally and meetings. During one of the party trips to Mariupol, he met his wife, Martha, who also began working in an underground printing house. In the outbreak of the December 13 1905, the armed uprising Sobino took an active part. He became not only an assistant chief of staff of combat squads, but also the commander of the advanced unit of the rebels - a dozen bombers. Sobino was also entrusted to destroy several exposed informers of the Tsarist police.

There were other key figures in the uprising to match Anatoly Sobino. Twenty-year-old Simon Filippovich Vasilchenko (1884-1937) was a native of the Nedvigovka farm located in the nearby Gnilovskaya village of Rostov (now the Nedvigovka farm is part of the Myasnikovsky district of the Rostov region, on its territory there is the world-famous archaeological museum-reserve "Tanais", and the main part of the village is the Tanshis, the main part of the village, in its territory is the world-famous archaeological museum-reserve "Tanais", and the main part of the village is the Tanshis, the main part of the village, in its territory there is the world-famous archaeological museum-reserve "Tanais", and the main part of the village is the Tanshis, the main part of the village, in its territory there is the world-famous archaeological museum-reserve "Tanais", and the main part of the village is in the territory of the Rostov region. joined the Rostov-on-Don - as a village Zheleznodorozhny district of the city). Despite his young years, he already had a solid experience in the revolutionary struggle. Childhood Seeds Vasilchenko ended early. When the boy was ten years old, his father, who worked on the railway, died. Semyon, who studied in the second grade, had to go to work - the mother could not feed eight children. Semyon worked as a messenger in stores, served as a cabin boy on the launch, walking along the Sea of ​​Azov, and then enrolled as a student at the Main Workshops of the Vladikavkaz Railway. Fifteen-year-old Vasilchenko became a hammerman, and a year later he was dismissed from work for his participation in the revolutionary movement, which was expressed in reading the proclamations distributed at the enterprise. After leaving the workshops, Vasilchenko was actively involved in the revolutionary struggle. At eighteen, for the action to throw leaflets from the Don Committee of the RSDLP at the Asmolov Theater, Vasilchenko was arrested and thrown into prison. However, due to the lack of accurate evidence, the Seeds were forced to be released five months later. An experienced eighteen-year-old revolutionary was headed by one of the workers' circles of Rostov. Naturally, the next milestone is the Rostov strike in November 1902. And in March 1903, the young Vasilchenko himself led the workers ’demonstration and led it along Bolshaya Sadovaya, the main street of Rostov. For participation in a demonstration, the audacity of which Lenin himself noted, Vasilchenko was arrested and sentenced to four years in prison, after which he was transferred to Siberia. However, he soon fled to Chita, continuing his revolutionary activities there. The fugitive convict managed to raise the workers of the Trans-Baikal railway to go on strike, and then made his way across the country to Rostov. Here, on the eve of the beginning of the armed uprising, Semyon Vasilchenko was included in the composition of the fighting headquarters of the uprising and became one of the closest assistants of Yuri Butyagin. After Anatoly Sobino died on the barricades on Tserkovnaya Square 14 in December 1905, Vasilchenko himself led a squad of bombers.

Ivan Dmitrievich Chentsov (1885-1937) became the closest ally of Vasilchenko on the barricades of Temernik, also a countryman from Semen in the farm Nedvigovka. When the Chentsov family moved to neighboring Rostov, 11-year-old Ivan got a job as a mechanic's apprentice, and then as a mechanic. Like many of his peers, he became interested in revolutionary ideas and joined the Social Democratic group. In November, 1902, together with Anatoly Sobino, Ivan Chentsov distributed revolutionary leaflets in Rostov, calling for the workers of the city to take a general strike. In the March 1903 demonstration, Mr. Chentsov took the most active part by twisting circles with springy wire, which were then thrown against the horse Cossacks — the spirals turned around the whole street, after which Cossack horses got entangled. Since the spring of 1904, Mr. Chentsov has participated in the activities of the underground organization of the RSDLP. 11 December 1905, just before the beginning of the armed uprising in Rostov, twenty-year-old locksmith Ivan Chentsov was elected chairman of the trade union of metalworkers established in the city. When the uprising began, he was assigned to lead a dozen combat squad staffed by workers of the Main workshops of the Vladikavkaz Railway. Under the command of Chentsov, a dozen participated in the disarming of station gendarmes of the Rostov railway station and its capture, then he defended the barricades in the Tepernitsa settlement and unloaded the ammunition convoy arriving from neighboring Bataysk. In addition, a dozen under the command of Chentsov seized the printing press of the local newspaper Priazovsky Krai. During the battles for Temernik both opposing sides suffered serious losses. Not only warriors defending the barricades, but also civilians were killed by shelling of the workers' settlement. On the other hand, the soldiers and the police who were trying to storm the barricades from the city side suffered serious losses. When it became known that the Cossacks were to move from Novocherkassk to Rostov - to help the troops and the police storming the barricades, the headquarters of the fighting squad sent them to meet the three fighters headed by Dmitry Pivin - apprentice mechanic of the steam assembly department of the Main workshops of the Vladikavkaz railway, appointed Headquarters squad commandant station Rostov. However, having reached the 29 line of Nakhichevan, Dmitry Pivin accidentally slipped and fell, after which the bombs that he carried with him were fired. Revolutionary tore to pieces.

Suppression of the uprising

The three days of 17, 18, and 19 of December 1905 of the year were relatively quiet and peaceful. Of course, from time to time both sides fired at each other with rifles, but the artillery of the government forces did not shoot - continuous rain and fog interfered with it. However, on December 19, Colonel Makeev, 1905, who served as the temporary governor of Rostov with the powers of the governor-general, imposed martial law in Rostov and neighboring Nakhichevan. On the morning of December 20, the government forces began an intensified shelling of the Posternitsa settlement. At first, the revolutionary troops, who had strengthened on the barricades, managed to shoot back, but by the second half of the day the reserves of the patrols near the squad began to dry up. In the end, the squad headquarters decided to secretly withdraw it from the territory of the Thenernitsky settlement and transfer it to Nakhichevan (then it was a separate city from Rostov-on-Don, and now it is part of the Proletarsky district of Rostov-on-Don). With the onset of darkness, warriors made their way through the Kamyshevakhinsky gully to the Don, after which, on the ice, they moved to Nakhichevan, where they placed ammunition and weapons on the territory of the dining room of the plow of the Aksai construction plant. However, the next morning of December 21. 1905 was a terrible explosion in the dining room. All stocks of weapons and ammunition that were there were destroyed, which actually put an end to the further plans of the headquarters of the revolutionary squad to continue the resistance. So ended the armed uprising of the Rostov workers in December 1905.

After the uprising was suppressed, the Cossacks and the police broke into the territory of Poeriernitsky settlement. A massive "sweep" of the territory began, all suspicious people were arrested and brought to the police stations for investigation. Part of the workers was forced to flee to the nearby Gnilovskaya village, where she hoped to hide from the local residents and sit out the raids. Those of the participants in the uprising who did not die tried to continue their underground activities. However, the situation in the city after the suppression of the uprising has changed. The authorities decided to crack down on the revolutionary movement with harsh methods. 4 March 1906 The police surrounded House No. 3 on Deputatskaya Street, where the working meeting was held. Some of the workers tried to escape, and the gendarmes and Cossacks opened fire on them. Two people died - the workers Karpov, who had a Cossack cut his head with a sword, and Alekseev, who was shot dead. Eight more people were injured. In May, 1906 was arrested Ivan Chentsov and Semen Vasilchenko. Subsequently, after the October 1917 revolution of the year, they were to play an important role in the formation of Soviet power on the Don.

- a typical house on "Landvorets"

The memory of the Rostov strike 1902 of the year and the events of December 1905 of the year is still alive in the names of the streets and squares of Rostov-on-Don — Stachki and Stavsky avenues, Gusev, Sobino, Chentsova, Cherepakhin and many others streets. Then the settlement after the revolution received the name "Leninsky town", abbreviated - Lengorodok. However, now this area is better known as the Landowner, after the name of the Church of the Palace of Culture of Railway Workers built on the site of the church. IN AND. Lenin. The main workshops of the Vladikavkaz Railway are now called the Rostov Electric Locomotive Repair Plant (REZ), known as “Lenzavod”, or “V.I. Lenin ". For a long time "Lengorodok" was a place of residence for workers of the Republic of Belarus and the North Caucasus Railway. However, as Rostov-on-Don grew and urban infrastructure improved, workers and specialists were gradually relocated to new homes, and the district slowly stagnated. At the present time, the Landwright remains one of the most marginal and socially disadvantaged areas of the city. Despite the one hundred and ten years that have passed since the events described in the article, the utilities and housing conditions of the region leave much to be desired. In many houses there is still no sewage and water, in some places stove heating is preserved. But with all the lacklusterness of the area attracts those who are not indifferent to the history of the city - because here time has almost stopped. Even cobbled bridges are intact on a number of streets and alleys.
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. parusnik
    parusnik 15 December 2015 07: 58
    Currently, Lendvorets remains one of the most marginal and socially disadvantaged areas of the city.... This is true ... Thank you Ilya, for the article .. everything is correctly reflected ..
    1. marlin1203
      marlin1203 15 December 2015 09: 29
      The area is really gloomy. It was as if time had stopped in 1905 ... but by Rostov standards, it was almost the center.
      1. ilyaros
        15 December 2015 10: 05
        yes, five minutes through the station - and Sadovaya
  2. Aleksander
    Aleksander 15 December 2015 10: 19
    Currently, Lendvorets remains one of the most marginal and socially disadvantaged areas of the city. Despite the events that have passed since the time described in the article one hundred and ten years in many homes here there is still no sewage and water,


    It is a very symbolic result of the "development" of the "revolutionary" district itself - they achieved "happiness" ... And for the sake of THIS, terrorist bombers destroyed their own country, killing civil servants and perishing themselves ... Yeah ...request
    1. ilyaros
      15 December 2015 17: 00
      Why is this? In Soviet times, most workers in the city moved from slums to more or less normal for that time dwellings - Khrushchev and Brezhnev. As a result, the area is now inhabited, mostly (but not completely) either by those who already in post-Soviet Russia bought housing there, flattered by cheapness (young families of low affluence, immigrants from the region, migrants from former Soviet republics), or hereditary lumpens, whose the parents did not really work, but they booze and were in prison. There is a third group - those who worked normally and decently, but who were not lucky and who did not receive an apartment during the Soviet era. Empathy is caused by 1-I and 3-I groups.
  3. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 15 December 2015 12: 08
    1902 - an economic strike. Crushed.

    1905 - armed rebellion.

    Would take measures - economic reforms - in 1902, not
    would receive a revolution and revolts in 1905 ...

    Mistakes of power. Classic.
  4. istoler
    istoler 15 December 2015 12: 26
    It is a very symbolic result of the "development" of the "revolutionary" district itself - they achieved "happiness" ... And for the sake of THIS, terrorist bombers destroyed their own country, killing civil servants and perishing themselves ... Yeah ...request[/ Quote]

    Strong thought. fool
    The place was initially very poor for construction, and so the poorest Rostovites of that time were placed there by the good bourgeoisie. When the Soviet regime came, it began to build quarters for workers in normal places with a good prospect for the further development of the city. And the slopes and gullies were left as they were, so as not to waste resources and, again, no matter what kind of housing stock.
  5. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 15 December 2015 23: 21
    That's right - from abroad provoked an armed rebellion, which later will result in the defeat of the country and the horrors of the Civil War, and why discuss this in general in the pages of the Military Review? what are the heroes? what fighters for national happiness? That way you can say then about the Chechen separatists in past wars and about the hitherto undressed Caucasian bandit underground ...
    1. Aljavad
      Aljavad 16 December 2015 23: 59
      Ratnik2015 RU Yesterday, 23:21 PM New
      That's right - from abroad provoked an armed rebellion, which later will result in the defeat of the country and the horrors of the Civil War, and why discuss this in general in the pages of the Military Review? what are the heroes? what fighters for national happiness? That way you can say then about the Chechen separatists in past wars and about the hitherto undressed Caucasian bandit underground ...

      In life (as usual), everything is not as it really is. That is, everything is more complicated.

      - And the bourgeois exploited the people, and the authorities "stupid", not understanding the situation ("What is this ??? Riot ??? I'll screw it up !!!!).
      - And the "demons" (according to Dostoevsky) amused their ambitions, and the young were drawn to "romance" and sought self-realization. My great-grandfather took part in that strike. In the ranks of the Socialist-Revolutionaries. Then it was not yet "right" and not "left", the split was in 1912. But in 1905, my great-grandfather was already at home - he managed to get married, the children went, there was no time for politics.
      - And, without a doubt, "abroad" did not miss an opportunity to help those who weakened Russia ...

      A lesson for us!

      PS: And they are heroes or not - no need to bother. We must learn History and try not to step on the same rake again.
  6. Aljavad
    Aljavad 17 December 2015 00: 05
    Good story about forgettable period of our history.

    But the street in Lengorodok is not "Vagulevskaya", but Vagulevsky. Discrepancies began in the "illiterate" 90s. And plaques with different variants of the name hang on adjacent corners.

    But this is just a funny oddity.
    1. ilyaros
      17 December 2015 10: 50
      Sorry, but you're wrong. The street is exactly Vagulevskaya! And Vagulevsky is a very common mistake. The street is named after the Bolshevik Rudolf Vagul. Since the surname "Vagul" is Vagulevskaya street, it was not "Vagulevsky" his surname, but Vagul. So it is correct to call it "Vagulevskaya".
  7. awadim
    awadim 20 February 2016 11: 08
    That's right, Vagulevskaya street and all Soviet years was just that.
    And as for the church on the site of the Lendvorets - there was a bazaar in its place, and the church, judging by the old map of the beginning of the 20th century, was located somewhere where the tram number 10 tram ring now passes, that is, on the site of the current mini- market.
    Even on Wikipedia it is written that Sobino was buried at the site of the fighting and then in the Soviet years a park named after him was laid out at this place. He was buried in a local cemetery, which was located just on the site of the present park. In general, in those years, all local residents were buried there. The eastern border of the cemetery passed along the central alley of Sobino Park, the one where the steps are from Profsoyuznaya Street. There, approximately in the area of ​​the location of the former monument to Lenin, there was a cemetery gatehouse. To the east of the cemetery was a children's park, again according to the data of the pre-revolutionary map. It was on their territory that the park was later laid out to them. Sobino.
    1. ilyaros
      April 18 2016 00: 14
      Sobino's grave exists in the present ...