Military Review

Each torpedo shell

Supercavitating ammunition - new means of anti-torpedo protection of ships

The modern arsenal of anti-torpedo protection (PTZ), which traditionally included hydroacoustic countermeasures (SGPD), in Russia and the United States has been supplemented in recent years by anti-torpedoes. Along with this, in the West, a new promising direction of PTZ has emerged - an active defeat of torpedoes with supercavitating ammunition at the near line of defense.

However, so far there are no such means in service in the completed form in any Navy and their real effectiveness has not been confirmed in practice.

Habitual antiporpedy

In the current situation, the apparent superiority of new torpedoes over the anti-torpedo weapons an extremely important role is played by active means of PTZ, ensuring the destruction of the attacking torpedo.

Each torpedo shell

Placing the 30-mm artillery mounts on the LCS frigate clearly indicates ensuring maximum declination angles (that is, solving their PTZ task)

For the first time in the world, actual anti-torpedo targeting of attacking torpedoes took place in July 1998 of the year at the Theodosia Navy range.

In the future, the results of these successful works formed the basis of the active means of the PTZ Lasta and Package. From the beginning of the 2000-s, the Package-E / NK complex was presented for export. “Lasta” was first declared at the Army-2015 forum as part of the strategic missile submarine (RPLSN) armament of the 955A project.

It is necessary to emphasize two fundamental points. The first is that since the Feodosia tests of 1998, the technical feasibility of the effective destruction of the torpedo by the anti-torpedo is beyond doubt. And the second - technically, target targeting problems for anti-torpedoes have been absent at least since the creation of the Polynom-AT hydroacoustic station (mid-80-s).

Both of these points are important, especially given the very difficult stories anti-torpedo on our navy - with a brilliant start of work and their painful continuation on the way to production. I emphasize that this was not due to supposedly technical problems, but had purely organizational reasons, up to deliberate sabotage of work and attempts to remove anti-torpedoes from the arsenals of ships and replace them with other products. And despite the fact that technically and tactically there is no substitute for anti-torpedoes in their tactical niche.

This does not deny the high complexity of solving the problem of active anti-torpedo protection. For example, the development of active means of PTZ - anti-torpedoes "Sispider" by the firm "Atlas Electronics" (Germany) actually ended in failure. The reasons for this are clear, but their consideration is not the topic of the article.

The most successful of the Western anti-torpedo designs were the US Navy's R & D, which ended in June 2014 with an impressive demonstration of the real solution to protecting the newest aircraft carrier George Bush from Mk48 torpedoes by anti-torpedoes Tripwire. However, with all its excellent performance in speed, range and compactness, the Tripwayr carries a very small warhead, and the layout chosen by the developers significantly limits the maneuverability of the torpedo.

Unusual shells

Taking into account these circumstances, work on the creation of small supercavitating projectiles, providing both the solution of the tasks of mine defense and anti-torpedo defense of surface ships, has intensified in a number of European countries and the USA.

At the same time, in the documents of the US Navy, the latter is clearly not indicated, despite the fact that the published photos of the ships with high probability indicate the installation of active PTZ complexes with supercavitating ammunition on them.

Clear evidence of this is the widespread introduction of artillery mounts developed on the basis of the M242 Bushmaster AU Mk38 to the US Navy's NK, up to a rather unexpected decision to replace the 57-mm gun mount with the 30-mm Mk38 on the newest EM URO Zumvolt.

Officially, these artillery installations are placed for antiterrorist purposes, but they have selective ammunition. The US Navy is armed with supercavitating ammunition, and the design features of the placement (provision of the necessary firing sectors and angles of incidence) of artillery installations clearly indicate that they, among others, are solving the PTZ task.

Thus, today it is possible with high probability to assert that the US Navy has new active weapons on the basis of small-caliber artillery mounts with supercavitating ammunition.

In contrast to us, in a number of western countries, R & D on supercavitation focused on the creation of small-caliber products and ammunition, providing movement in supercavitation at great depths, maneuvering on the trajectory and the possibility of using CLO.

Despite the fact that the development of supercavitating products with homing systems has not reached the level of OCD, in the West today, great progress has been made in terms of creating supercavitating shots for small arms and artillery installations.

Due to the fact that the subject of military issues of the use of supercavitation is largely closed, it is impossible to provide a comprehensive picture of R & D on the basis of open data. In this regard, it is advisable to focus on the most significant facts and events.

The US Navy has officially announced the adoption and serial supply of supercavitating 30-mm projectiles for the mine action system RAMICS, designed to hit from a helicopter with a laser search system and target designation of mines at a shallow depth.

The development of the Mk258 mod.1 projectile has been carried out by the SIC of the US Navy surface systems since the beginning of the 90-s. The special design of the projectile ensures ignition of the charge of the mine and its burning out without an explosion. However, the projectile has a very limited underwater section (up to 24 m), which significantly limits the possibility of hitting targets at depth and distance.

The most interesting data on the subject of promising R & D on supercavitation was first published by DSG (Norway) at the NDIA conference in 2011. Their essential feature is the fact that two-medium ammunition is presented, which with high efficiency can be used not only in water or air, but also across the border of media.

The main tasks solved dvuhsrednymi ammunition DSG:

-Active anti-torpedo protection near range (less than 250 m);
-the defeat of autonomous uninhabited vehicles;
- destruction of mines;
-defeat of sea (surface) objects;
-defeat helicopters from submerged submarines.

The level of work in the West shows the reality of solving the PTZ problem with artillery supercavitating ammunition, provided that accurate target designation on the torpedo is issued. Within the zone of destruction of supercavitating shells, the necessary accuracy of target designation can be provided by various means.

It's time for us to harness oneself

In this case, the line of damage is the distance of the order of 150 – 200 meters, that is, the PTZ near zone. With this in mind, supercavitating munitions are not able to replace anti-torpedoes (with an order of magnitude greater travel range), but provide a significant increase in the probability of solving the PTZ problem, especially against multi-torpedo shots and in difficult conditions.

Based on the above, a number of conclusions can be formulated.

Small supercavitating projectiles are promising ammunition not only for PTZ tasks, but also for a number of others. This direction of the development of weapons and military equipment must also be dealt with by us. A small-sized artillery installation with supercavitating projectiles would be very appropriate not only for the TFR of the 11356 project, which do not have the “Package” complex, but also on the 22350 frigates and corvettes of the 20380 project.

The sharp increase in recent years of active PTZ sharply raises the question of improving torpedoes in terms of how to ensure the implementation of special "anti-ticking" maneuvers near the target, and ensuring the possibility of a synchronized group attack of the target.
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  1. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 12 December 2015 07: 18
    Interesting article . thank. and the development is very interesting.
    1. Sirocco
      Sirocco 12 December 2015 12: 53
      Quote: Volga Cossack
      Interesting article . thank. and the development is very interesting.

      It would be even more interesting to use the effect of cavitation against a torpedo. Question to scientists, can this be done or not?
      A torpedo, not reaching the ship, due to the effect of cavitation, falls a few meters lower.
      1. naraevskij1957
        naraevskij1957 30 December 2015 10: 51
        It seems to me that the placement of anti-torpedoes in the bottom of the ship along the sides (the question of how much to have?) is more technologically advanced. And cavitation is a very expensive method. the oncoming "jet" should "rinse" the ship for several tens of meters.
  2. serega.fedotov
    serega.fedotov 12 December 2015 09: 44
    PTZ should be guided, roughly speaking, to sound (there were developments on lasers, but somehow everything died out) That is, the PTZ is able to overcome the "flurry" of PTZ, and since it has problems with homing, torpedoes will now begin to "grow wiser" and become more complicated, first for sure begin to approach the target at subsonic speeds (easier to aim) and then "dash"
    Secondly, against supercavitating shells, torpedoes will have to make a "hole" (by analogy with a rocket "slide")
  3. My address
    My address 12 December 2015 10: 10
    See the last paragraph of the article. That's it. A small problem remains. Which is unknown how to solve. How to get into a modern torpedo, not even a "Shkval", with a probability of at least 80%. Barrage fire? So even with the guidance of superhydrolar shells you will not be enough.
  4. tinibar
    tinibar 12 December 2015 10: 46
    Quote: serega.fedotov
    PTZ should be guided, roughly speaking, to sound (there were developments on lasers, but somehow everything died out) That is, the PTZ is able to overcome the "flurry" of PTZ, and since it has problems with homing, torpedoes will now begin to "grow wiser" and become more complicated, first for sure begin to approach the target at subsonic speeds (easier to aim) and then "dash"
    Secondly, against supercavitating shells, torpedoes will have to make a "hole" (by analogy with a rocket "slide")

    And now, are supersonic torpedoes approaching? But Flurry has problems primarily with controllability, and not with homing ...
  5. gla172
    gla172 12 December 2015 10: 50
    The latest US Coast Guard ship crashed on the high seas

    The ship left the slipways November 21, 2015

    Moscow, December 12 - AIF-Moscow.
    The latest USS Coast Guard ship, the USS Milwaukee, crashed during the transition from Canadian Halifax to the home port of San Diego, according to the Navy Times.

    The ship stopped 64 km off the coast of Virginia, after which it was towed to the U.S. Navy base located 75 km from the breakdown site.

    Technical experts are currently finding out the reasons for the failure of the ship. According to preliminary data, the cause of the failure was the ingress of small metal particles into the lubricating oil filter.

    Problems with Milwaukee were discovered immediately after leaving Halifax. The computer system of the ship gave a signal about a possible breakdown. The ship’s technicians cleaned the filter and continued their journey, but after some time the situation repeated itself.

    “The Milwaukee crash reports are deeply alarming, especially considering that this ship was put into operation 20 days ago. I’m sure that the US Navy will conduct a thorough investigation into the causes of this failure, ”said John McCain, chairman of the Senate Armed Forces Committee, on the incident.
    1. gladcu2
      gladcu2 13 December 2015 21: 06

      No need to be surprised. In the United States, technology has a lot of childhood illnesses. From the moment you start using it, there will be a lot of nonsense. Therefore, the American automotive industry is collapsing. The quality is disgusting.

      All these are the costs of changing moral values. And I'm not exaggerating. In production, everyone is responsible for their share of responsibility. In areas of overlapping responsibilities, everyone ping-pongs their responsibilities to others. I don't care.
      Typical selfish morality.
  6. Bashibuzuk
    Bashibuzuk 12 December 2015 11: 28
    As always.
    We have done what we did in 1998 in Feodosia, you will fall in love. But - WHAT after all? Package...
    And they are all bad, but they work hard, bastards. And they even put guns.
    And we all think and fight, with ourselves.
    So, there is something to break spears about and what prospects to look for?
    What, Americans are fools, did they stop at 300 meters PTZ? No, not fools.
    This is the range that eliminates the errors of sonar guidance of artillery installations. There is still a bit of time to create a barrier wall.
    True, torpedoes coming one after another - well, the second is no longer caught, and then the third. And if they also start to make a "hole", instead of a "slide" - so immediately dump the rafts into the water.
    And we, as usual, went our own way. Complicated. That first, the RSL was used as a PTZ, and bursts from shells to combat cruise missiles.
    Now, the anti-torpedoes of the far sea zone.
    And who will give these anti-torpedoes TSU? Helicopters PLO?
    No, of course you need to work. In the end, a successful development from behind a hill will be easier to slam. Moreover, our artillery is better. But with the anti-torpedoes such a turn will not work, they themselves need to be brought to mind.
    I imagine .... there is a war. Flocks of anti-torpedoes scamper through the oceans in search of just torpedoes, squalls flurry away., Destroyers (which have still survived) frantically dodge anti-crazed and just torpedoes.
    And - fountains of water from the frantic work of the PTZ onboard installations. "Shilka" bullet into the water.
  7. Fei_Wong
    Fei_Wong 12 December 2015 12: 55
    Quote: tinibar
    And now, are supersonic torpedoes approaching? But Flurry has problems primarily with controllability, and not with homing ...

    True, because he does not have and cannot have homing. Therefore, the problem does not stand - for the lack thereof.
    1. gladcu2
      gladcu2 13 December 2015 21: 33
      Homing at a squall is possible to implement with head rocket corrective engines. If it makes sense.
    2. 19001900
      19001900 27 December 2015 18: 29
      no and can't? but what about "Barracuda"
  8. Sergey-8848
    Sergey-8848 12 December 2015 14: 43
    For some reason, it seems that this is just a divorce under a tricky name for the Pentagon. Hit the water with conventional cannons, declaring it to be experiments on the laminar and turbulent behavior of ammunition. There are probably benefits, especially for scientists. Both cavitation and "supercavitation" can be achieved by throwing projectiles into the water with certain parameters (speed, direction, etc.). However, even an unaccounted seawater temperature will immediately diminish all delight. The unpredictable Neptune will also add rolling. So why not beat torpedoes at the last line of defense with anything you like, just not declare it supercavitation. In the First World War, torpedoes were fired from even from rocket launchers, but they just thought of asking for money for this method.
    1. 19001900
      19001900 27 December 2015 18: 34
      I remember in the "legend destroyers" they experimented with shooting from various small arms into the water. If memory serves, the most effective was the musket and the most ineffective antimatter rifle.
  9. serverny
    serverny 12 December 2015 14: 52
    Quote: Bashibuzuk
    destroyers (which still survived) frantically dodging anti-crazed and just torpedoes.

    And here is where the theme of heavy impact ekranoplanes aki the Phoenix bird is reborn from the ashes :)
    1. Bashibuzuk
      Bashibuzuk 12 December 2015 18: 23
      I would not be so categorical.
      For example, multihull vessels - trimarans, can help us out.
      Fourshears ... even better. Pyatimarana. (Nothing that I write in Russian? Can I also write pentamarans, quadromarans ... but somehow not in Russian, obviously.)
      Drown the five-ram - you need at least 10 torpedoes. And then, the probability will be 0,86. (If you count on anti-aircraft missile parameters.)
      Accordingly, the trimaran will cost 3x2 = 6 torpedoes. Without guarantee of drowning.
      We are not bloodthirsty, right? Serious enough damage to us.
      Hihanki is all.
      But in fact, I was still in a different hypostasis here, ardently advocated that ekranoplan extremely popular mechanisms.
      There are applications where they have no alternative.
      And first of all, this is the Far North. Extreme.
      And not the fjords of Norway.
      I don’t know, I’ve never been to the Sea of ​​Okhotsk. But the mouths of large rivers are also an excellent field of activity for ekranoplanes.
      And how many rivers flow into the Sea of ​​Okhotsk, which is very problematic for ordinary shipping?
      I think so.
      Plus, North.
  10. Fei_Wong
    Fei_Wong 12 December 2015 15: 44
    Quote: serverny
    And here is where the theme of heavy impact ekranoplanes aki the Phoenix bird is reborn from the ashes :)

    Nobody especially forgot about them.

    The older model A-080 will differ in large dimensions. The take-off weight of this ekranoplan will reach 100 tons, cruising speed 410-450 km / h, flight range will remain the same, seaworthiness will improve to 2 meters.
  11. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 14 December 2015 18: 14
    To make it clear what the author is talking about.
    30 mm super cavitating ammunition.
  12. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 14 December 2015 18: 15
    And even more clearly:
  13. Glad
    Glad 28 December 2015 22: 47
    Quote: voyaka uh
    To make it clear what the author is talking about.
    30 mm super cavitating ammunition.

    I apologize for the denseness, but an amateurish question arises. What the hell is all this? Shotfruit or shrapnel isn't it better to cope with the task?