Military Review

Janissaries - Ottoman Empire Military Class

39
Almost all the great powers had their own military classes, special troops. In the Ottoman Empire, these were the Janissaries, in Russia the Cossacks. The organization of the janissary corps (from "Eni cheri" - "new army") was based on two main ideas: the state took upon itself the entire content of the Janissaries, so that they could devote all the time to combat training without reducing their fighting qualities in normal time; create a professional warrior, united in the military-religious fraternity, like knightly orders of the West. In addition, the sultan's government needed a military support, loyal only to the supreme power and no one else.


The creation of the Janissaries corps was made possible by the successful wars of conquest that the Ottomans waged, which led to the accumulation of great wealth among the sultans. The appearance of the Janissaries is associated with the name of Murad I (1359 — 1389), who first assumed the title of Sultan and made a number of major conquests in Asia Minor and on the Balkan Peninsula, having established the creation of the Ottoman Empire. Under Murad, they began to form a "new army", which later became the strike force of the Turkish army and a kind of personal guard of the Ottoman sultans. The Janissaries submitted to the Sultan personally, received a salary from the treasury and from the very beginning became a privileged part of the Turkish army. The subordination personally to the sultan symbolized the “burk” (aka “yuskyuf”) - a kind of headdress of the “new warriors”, made in the form of a sleeve of a sultan's robe - they say, the Janissaries are at hand of the sultan. The commander of the Janissary Corps was one of the highest dignitaries of the empire.

The supply idea is visible throughout the organization of the Janissaries. The lowest unit in the organization was a branch - 10 man, united by a common boiler and a common pack horse. 8-12 offices formed an ode (company) that had a large company boiler. In the XIV century there were 66 od janissaries (5 thousand people), and then the number “od” increased to 200. The commander of the ode (company) was called Chorbaji-Bashi, that is, the distributor of soup; other officers had the title of "chief cook" (ashshi-bashi) and "water-carrier" (saka-bashi). The name of the company, the ode, denoted the common barracks — the bedroom; another division called "Orta", i.e. herd. On Fridays, the company pot was sent to the Sultan’s kitchen, where pilaf was prepared for the warriors of Allah (pilau, a dish based on rice and meat). Instead of a cockade, the Janissaries stuck a wooden spoon in front of their white felt hat. In a later period, when the Janissary corps had already decayed, rallies took place around a military shrine, a company boiler, and the refusal of the Janissaries to taste the pilaf brought from the palace was considered the most dangerous rebellious sign — a demonstration.

Care for the education of the spirit was entrusted to the Sufi order of dervishes "Bektashi". It was founded by Haji Bektash in the XIII century. All the janissaries were assigned to the order. In 94, the Orth was symbolically credited with the sheikhs (woman) of the brotherhood. Therefore, in Turkish documents, the Janissaries were often called the “Bektash partnership”, and the Janissaries of the commanders “Aga Bektashi”. This order allowed certain liberties, such as drinking wine and containing elements of non-Muslim practices. The teachings of Bektashi simplified the basic tenets and requirements of Islam. For example, she did not need a five-time daily prayer. What was quite reasonable - for the army on the march, and even during military operations, when success depended on the speed of maneuver and movement, such delays could be fatal.

The barracks became a kind of monastery. The Dervish Order was the only enlightener and teacher of the Janissaries. Dervish monks in the janissary units played the role of military chaplains, and also bore the duty of amusing the soldiers with singing and jesting. The Janissaries did not have relatives, for them the Sultan was the only father and his order was sacred. They were obliged to engage only in military craft (during the period of decomposition the situation changed radically), in life to be content with military booty, and after death hope for paradise, which was opened by a “holy war”.

At first, the corps was formed from captured Christian teenagers and 12-16 youths. In addition, the agents of the Sultan bought in the markets of young slaves. Later, due to the "tax in blood" (the system devshireme, that is, the "set of children of subjects"). They imposed on the Christian population of the Ottoman Empire. His essence was that from the Christian community into slaves of the Sultan every fifth immature boy was taken. An interesting fact is that the Ottomans simply borrowed the experience of the Byzantine Empire. The Greek authorities, experiencing a great need for soldiers, periodically conducted forced mobilization in areas inhabited by Slavs and Albanians, taking every fifth young man.

Initially it was a very heavy and shameful tax for empire Christians. After all, these boys, as their parents knew, in the future became terrible enemies of the Christian world. Well-trained and fanatical warriors who were Christians and Slavs (mostly). It is worth noting that the "slaves of the Sultan" had nothing to do with ordinary slaves. These were not slaves in chains that did heavy and dirty work. Janissaries could reach the highest posts in the empire in administration, in military or police units. At a later time, by the end of the 17th century, the corps of the Janissaries had already been formed mainly according to the hereditary, estate principle. And rich Turkish families paid a lot of money so that their children would be accepted into the corps, because there they could get a good education and make a career.

For several years, children, forcibly cut off from their parents' home, were spent in Turkish families, which made them forget their home, their family, their homeland, their family, and learn the basics of Islam. Then the young man entered the institute of "inexperienced boys" and here he developed physically and was brought up spiritually. There they served 7-8 for years. A kind of it was a mixture of the cadet corps, the military "training", construction battalion and the religious school. Devotion to Islam and the Sultan was the purpose of this education. Future warriors of the sultan studied theology, calligraphy, law, literature, languages, various sciences and, of course, military science. In their free time, pupils were used in construction work, mainly in the construction and repair of numerous fortresses and fortifications. Janissaries did not have the right to marry (the marriage was banned before 1566), was obliged to live in the barracks, silently execute all orders of the elder, and in the case of the imposition of a disciplinary punishment, he had to, as a sign of obedience, kiss the person who imposed the penalty.

The devshirme system arose after the formation of the janissary corps itself. Its development has slowed down during the turmoil that occurred after the invasion of Tamerlane. In 1402, in the battle of Ankara, the janissary and other units of the Sultan were almost completely destroyed. Murad II in 1438 revived the devshire system. Mehmed II the Conqueror increased the number of janissaries and raised their salaries. The Janissaries became the core of the Ottoman army. In later times, many families themselves began to give their children so that they would receive a good education and make a career.

Janissaries - Ottoman Empire Military Class


The main weapons For a long time the Janissary had a bow, in whose possession they attained great perfection. The Janissaries were walking archers, excellent shooters. In addition to the bow, they were armed with sabers and scimitars, other melee weapons. Later, the Janissaries were armed with firearms. As a result, the Janissaries were at first light infantry, almost without heavy weapons and armor. With a serious opponent, they preferred to conduct a defensive battle in a fortified position, protected by a moat and light obstacles placed in a circle of cartoons (“camp”). At the same time, in the initial period of development, they were distinguished by high discipline, organization, and fighting spirit. In a strong position, the Janissaries were ready to confront the most serious enemy. Khalkondil, a Greek historian at the beginning of the 15th century, being a direct witness to the actions of the Janissaries, attributed the successes of the Turks to their strict discipline, excellent supply, and care for the maintenance of communication routes. He noted the good organization of camps and support services, as well as a large number of pack animals.

The Janissaries had much in common with other military estates, in particular, with the Cossacks. Their essence was common - the active defense of their civilization, their homeland. At the same time, these classes had a certain mystical orientation. The Janissary had a connection with the Sufi order of dervishes. And the Cossacks, and the Janissaries, his main "family" was fighting brotherhood. Like the Cossacks in the quarters and villages, so the Janissaries lived together in large monasteries-barracks. Ate janissary from one boiler. The latter was worshiped as a shrine and a symbol of their military unit. In the Cossacks, cauldrons stood in the most honorable place and were always nadraeny to shine. They also played the role of a symbol of military unity. Initially, the Cossacks and Janissaries had similar attitudes towards women. Warriors, as in the monastic orders of the West, had no right to marry. Cossacks, as we know, women were not allowed to Sich.

Militarily, the Cossacks and Janissaries were an easy, mobile part of the army. They tried to take maneuver, suddenness. In defense, those and others successfully used a ring defensive structure of carts - a “camp”, dug ditches, built picket fence, obstacles from stakes. Cossacks and Janissaries preferred bows, sabers, knives.

The essential feature of the Janissaries was the attitude to power. For the Janissaries, the Sultan was the undisputed leader, the father. Cossacks during the creation of the Romanov Empire often proceeded from their corporate interests and from time to time fought against the central government. However, their performances were very serious. The Cossacks opposed the center and in times of Troubles, and in the time of Peter I. The last major speech occurred in the time of Catherine the Great. The Cossacks for a long time maintained their internal autonomy. Only in the later period did they become unconditional servants of the “czar-father”, including in the matter of suppressing the actions of other classes.

In the Janissary evolution has gone in a different direction. If initially they were the most faithful servants of the Sultan, then in the later period they realized that "their own shirt is closer to the body" and after that the rulers no longer told the Janissaries what to do, but vice versa. They began to resemble the Roman guardsmen of Praetorians and shared their fate. Thus, Constantine the Great completely destroyed the Praetorian Guard, and destroyed the Praetorian camp as "a permanent nest of rebellion and depravity." The janissary elite turned into a caste of the “elect”, which began to displace the sultans of their own free will. Janissaries turned into a powerful military-political force, a thunderstorm and eternal and indispensable participants in palace coups. In addition, the Janissaries have lost their military significance. They began to engage in trade and craft, forgetting about military affairs. Earlier, the mighty corps of the Janissaries lost its real combat capability, becoming poorly controlled, but armed to the teeth to a gathering that threatened sovereign power and defended only its corporate interests.

Therefore, in 1826, the corps was destroyed. Sultan Mahmud II began military reform, transforming the army on the European model. In response, the capital janissaries revolted. The uprising was suppressed, the barracks were destroyed by artillery. The instigators of the rebellion were executed, their property confiscated by the Sultan, and the young janissaries were expelled or arrested, some entered the new army. The Sufi Order, the ideological core of the organization of the Janissaries, was also dissolved, and many of its followers were executed or expelled. The surviving Janissaries engaged in craft and trade.

Interestingly, the Janissaries and the Cossacks even looked like each other. Apparently, this was the common heritage of the military estates of the leading peoples of Eurasia (Indo-European-Aryans and Turks). In addition, one should not forget that the Janissaries were primarily predominantly Slavs too, even if they were Balkans. Janissaries, unlike ethnic Turks, shaved their beards and grew long mustaches, like those of the Cossacks. Janissaries and Cossacks wore trousers, similar to the yanicharsky "burk" and the traditional Zaporozhye hat with a shlyk. The Janissaries, like the Cossacks, have the same symbols of power - horsetails and maces.
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  1. aszzz888
    aszzz888 3 December 2015 07: 36 New
    +5
    There really are similarities with the Cossacks and Janissaries.
    But the main difference between the Janissaries is their fierce cruelty to everything hostile to them. Everything and everything was cut, regardless of gender and age.
    1. Nikolay K
      Nikolay K 3 December 2015 08: 26 New
      13
      Do not forget that the Janissaries, for the most part, are native Christians, but brought up in childhood in the spirit of Islamic fanaticism. These were essentially live combat robots with a program in place. This is the main difference from the Cossacks, who were either born Orthodox or accepted the faith voluntarily. By the way, the predecessors of the Janissaries appeared much earlier than the author writes, for example, by the time of the memluks in Egypt, the Pharaohs had long since shifted and seized power. In Egypt, still the military estate plays a special role
      1. Ingvar 72
        Ingvar 72 3 December 2015 09: 29 New
        +8
        Quote: Nikolai K
        these are native Christians

        Better not the Turks.
        1. Spnsr
          Spnsr 3 December 2015 11: 57 New
          -2
          Quote: Ingvar 72
          Quote: Nikolai K
          these are native Christians

          Better not the Turks.

          Yes, and the current Turks, these are the same Ukrainians, I wanted to say that the formation of Turkey, these are the same events that are happening in Ukraine, from where all the genocides of people and peoples who did not want to recognize themselves as Turks, and events related to Kurds living in Turkey. But Turkey could have left behind territories somewhat larger than it is now, if it had led a slightly different domestic policy in those days, this is relative to the Balkans, they tried to impose Islam there, which somewhat turned away from them the population of that empire, and the Russians to the Balkans helped to preserve their identity, otherwise they would also be Turks now, and not the nations that are now ...
          and with Iran, it was more likely the same, the first split from the Ataman Empire of Persia, the reason could be different views on the law, then there was religion, well, you should not miss the trends of the West ... that served as the ruler of the Ottoman Empire to try to form a society united one religion (law), the first genocides, because there were people who were against Donbass now, this wave pushed both Russia and the "civilized" west to crush the empire to the end, which ultimately left nothing to the Ottoman Empire, but they left some I am ruling the territory, the one that is now Turkey, and so that there would be no more situations like with the Ataman and Ottoman empire, in Turkey they began to lead not to the law, but to nationality, another wave of genocide, which led precisely to the Turkey that is now, from here we can conclude that Turkey, without all the peoples who inhabited it and the religion that they abandoned for the sake of radical Islam, does not have the slightest right to claim the Ataman or Ottoman Empire, and even more so Pan-Turkism, since the definition of nationalities began It is only in the late 17th and early 18th centuries
          and already on this basis we need to talk about the Janissaries, and draw an analogy with the Cossacks,
          1. Chiropractor
            Chiropractor 3 December 2015 16: 06 New
            +1
            By the way, the first picture is some kind of popular print ...
            The article says that they shaved beards, left a mustache - in the picture there are two characters with shovel beards. Hatchet behind his back - well, let's say. But the far left tsar-ax is only used instead of cuirass. Brooms on hats with high windage will not let run even in calm, and even on the opposite ...

            The general impression is that a person who did not see himself painted, only heard or read about them.
    2. sherp2015
      sherp2015 3 December 2015 09: 35 New
      +4
      Quote: aszzz888
      There really are similarities with the Cossacks and Janissaries.
      But the main difference between the Janissaries is their fierce cruelty to everything hostile to them. Everything and everything was cut, regardless of gender and age.



      Well, finally we admit it. And then the Cossacks are throwing mud at the "chosen ones" that "they say such, yes, such beasts."
      And as always, Samsonov’s article is very interesting and revealing.
      1. but still
        but still 3 December 2015 16: 06 New
        +1
        Well, finally we admit it. And then the Cossacks are throwing mud at the "chosen ones" that "they say such, yes, such beasts."


        Don't you think that the "love" of the Cossacks for the "chosen by God" and vice versa was born due to their prolonged confrontation with the Khazars? Whose lands were the Khazars seized? Bulgarian. Because of this, after the death of Kubrat's father, Asparukh brought his people out of there and brought them to the Danube (the ancestral homeland of the Bulgarians, which was captured even before our era by Darius, Alexander the Great, and the Romans and Romans), and Kotrag led his people to north and formed its own state on the Volga (then still Itil). And Islam was accepted as a counterweight to Judaism in the Khazar Kaganate.
    3. War and Peace
      War and Peace 3 December 2015 11: 17 New
      0
      But then it suddenly turns out that the names of the Janissaries were by no means Turkish. And which ones? We open the book of the Turkish historian Jelal Essad [41]. Here's what he says on this topic. During the last assault on Constantinople, one of the Ottoman Janissaries showed special heroism. His name was Hasan Ulu Abadli. Let's ask the reader: has he noticed anything strange here? Most likely no. But the TURKISH historian Jelal Essad Bey, who came from a noble Muslim family and a professional military man [41], p.9, saw a striking contradiction here. He writes: "Gammer says that this soldier was JANYCHAR. But judging by his name, Ulu Abadli IT WAS A TURK" [41], p.53. So what happens? Jelal Essad asserts the following here: THE JANUCHARIS WERE NOT TURKISH NAMES. And what, we ask? Our reconstruction gives the answer: RUSSIANS. For example, Ivan, Igor, Mikhail, Svyatoslav, etc. And Jelal Essad knew that very well. Therefore, he declared that a hero with a TURKISH name could not be a janissary!

      For example, the name of one of the famous Turkish janissaries: "YANYCHAR MIKHAIL, SERB from Ostrovitsa


      Alexander Samsonov has progressed slightly in the path of truth, but he certainly does not tell the whole truth.
      The fact that the Janissaries are Slavs, only Muslims is a fact recognized by all, but then there is a lot of lies. First, the RUSSIAN LANGUAGE in the Ataman state was as widespread as the Turkic, and this was the reason for the destruction of the Janissary corps in 1826. All this happened under the control of foreigners. The connection with the events in Ukraine is traced, there, too, under the leadership of the Americans, the Russian language is destroyed.
      Roman Statin in his article proves that before the suppression of the "janissary rebellion" in the empire, Russian was just as popular as the Turkic, and maybe more used. In essence, the states of Russia and Atamania were RELATED STATES.
      http://new.chronologia.org/volume13/statin_osman.php
      1. War and Peace
        War and Peace 3 December 2015 14: 42 New
        -5





        Cossacks and Janissaries have one root and this root comes from RUSSIA, which in turn leads the root from the Scythians. Samsonov once wrote that Russia was created as a state in which there was a Bilingual. The population that spoke Russian gravitated towards agriculture, and the same European population, also the same Russians, but the nomadic Scythian gravitated towards the nomadic steppe way of life and the language was Turkic. They are exactly after the UNSUCCESSFUL END OF THE WORLD, which was expected in 1491 or in 7000 if translated into indicative calculus. Nosovsky says this well on the radio "Moscow says". After the failed end of the world, the collapse of the GENERAL RELIGION began, among the sedentary Russians ORTHODOXY, and among the nomadic population ISLAM. There is an assumption that the Qur'an wrote the holy book of Muslims Ivan4, as a reconciliation of this very conflict situation
        KORAN-NAROK (RELEASE) in the opposite reading. Part of the society professing ISLAM conquered Constantinople and named their state ATAMANIA - the country of atamans i.e. Cossacks. Hence the community of culture and traditions of the Cossacks and Janissaries ...
        Here is another link to the culture of Cossacks and Janissaries.
        http://www.osmanenerbe.ru/bratstvo-bektashi/kazaki-i-yanyicharyi-bliznetsyi-anta


        gonistyi.html
        https://youtu.be/Wlst0W9EPxg
        1. but still
          but still 3 December 2015 15: 05 New
          +2
          Cossacks and Janissaries have one root and this root comes from Rusi, which in turn leads the root from the Scythians


          good fellow And among the Scythians and the so-called Thracians (about 90 tribes with different names), they have completely similar burials, religion, household items, artificial deformation of the skull, tattoos of noble and hairstyles, the custom of making the cup from the enemy’s skull, etc. etc.


          "Genealogy of the Yaitsky Cossacks according to the book" Topography of the Orenburg province "

          ("Composed by the collegiate counselor Pyotr Ivanovich Rychkov and published in St. Petersburg by the Imperial Academy of Sciences in 1762").


          Under such a heading is the book in two volumes in the Paris National Library, in its first edition in Russian.

          P.I. Rychkov was sent by the Academy of Sciences to examine this “province” at the time when “Ivan Counselor and Chevalier (1774) Ivan Ivanovich Neplyuev” was appointed its governor. These books, despite their ideal storage conditions, have become so dilapidated over 210 years that when used carelessly, the dried binding leather crumbles, and many pages turn yellow.

          The "Orenburg province" of that time was a huge province: from south to north - from the Caspian Sea to the Ural Mountains, from west to east, bordering on the south with the Astrakhan province, from the river. Volga to the borders with Khiva, Bukhara and Persia. Its population was multi-tribal: Tatars, Kirghiz of three tribes, Bashkirs, Turkmens, Mordovians, Chuvashs, Cheremis, Aralans, Russian and Yaik Cossacks. "Before the advent of the Tatars, the ancient kazars, Bulgarians, Ugrians, both Russian and foreign writers say for sure, they lived in front of the Orenburg province ”- as P.I. Rychkov.

          «Bulgars-Bulgarians are the Scythian offspring, and earlier the ranks were barracks. Volga Bulgarians are the essence of Sarmatians". Rychkov reports this information with references to the chronicle of the forefather Nestor. Flemish monk Guillaume Rubricis, sent by the French king Louis 9th to the Tatars, was in 1253 in the Orenburg province, which was then inhabited by them. He calls Yaik "Yagach". On the basis of archaeological research in the upper reaches of the Urals, G.V. Gubarev points out in his writings that the graves of the Torks were found there, some of which were also found on the land of the Don Cossacks. "

          http://www.yaik.ru/rus/forces/history/index.php?SECTION_ID=263&ELEMENT_ID=2542
          1. War and Peace
            War and Peace 3 December 2015 15: 21 New
            +2
            Quote: but still
            Pedigree of the Yaitsky Cossacks based on the book "Topography of the Orenburg Province"

            ("Composed by the collegiate counselor Pyotr Ivanovich Rychkov and published in St. Petersburg by the Imperial Academy of Sciences in 1762").


            excellent source, did not know about such a link there is still a forum about the Cossacks, I’ll go look ... drinks
            1. but still
              but still 3 December 2015 16: 52 New
              +2
              Quote: war and peace

              excellent source, did not know about such a link there is still a forum about the Cossacks, I’ll go look ... drinks


              drinks
            2. Nagaibak
              Nagaibak 3 December 2015 19: 16 New
              0
              Why do you need Rychkov? Do you think he mentions Tartararians?)))) He’s a provocateur from the Romanovs.)))) In general, if, if you are ripe for him))) here is his work.
              From the wiki.
              "Author of about 60 scientific papers.

              “The Orenburg History of the Establishment of the Orenburg Province” is an abstract of various I. I. Neplyuyev’s projects in the Orenburg Territory and the author’s attempt to write, in his words, a “thorough history”. In the work, the author cites a literal text or retelling of the contents of government decrees, reports, reports, reports of expedition leaders and other representatives of the local administration. Rychkov also uses notes and “verbal news” of his contemporaries, his personal knowledge and impressions. He supplements them with his own impressions and information from other sources. The focus of the work is the history of the adoption of Russian citizenship by the Small Kazakh Zhuz, the activities of the Orenburg expedition and its chief commanders, the foundation of Orenburg and the border line, the establishment of ties with the East. The researcher paid special attention to the coverage of the Bashkir uprising of 1735-1740.
              "Orenburg Topography". The full name is “Orenburg Topography, that is, a detailed description of the Orenburg province, composed by a college adviser and the imperial Academy of Sciences correspondent Peter Rychkov.” Its writing was associated with the work of compiling a “general map” of the Orenburg province and the adjacent territories of Kazakhstan and Central Asia. This work, begun in 1752, culminated in the creation in 1755 of a whole atlas made by surveyor ensign Ivan Krasilnikov. The "Orenburg Topography" was considered by the author as an explanation of the maps of Krasilnikov according to the historical and geographical description of the region. In "Topography of the Orenburg" Rychkov formulated the most important principle of historical research - a critical attitude to the source, a reliable, truthful presentation of the material.
              “The Experience of Kazan History” (1767)
              "Introduction to the Astrakhan Topography" (1774)
              "Description of the city of Orenburg" (1744)
              “Brief News of the Tatars ...” (1745).
              In Miller's Monthly Works, his Letters on Commerce (1755 and 1757) and Letters to the Publisher on the Title of the White Tsar (1763) appeared.
              In “Compositions and translations, for the benefit and amusement of employees”, the following works of Rychkov were published: “Letters on Agriculture in the Kazan and Orenburg Provinces” (1758) and “History of the Orenburg” (1759), reprinted in 1896.
              “The Experience of Kazan History of Ancient and Middle Ages” (St. Petersburg, 1767)
              “Introduction to Astrakhan Topography” (St. Petersburg, 1774).
              “Description of the Iletsk salt, with a detailed plan of the Iletsk protection” (part XX, 1772 - the first description of the Iletsk salt industry).
              "Notes on the Pugachev rebellion" were published in Pushkin's "History of the Pugachev rebellion". "
        2. Glot
          Glot 3 December 2015 15: 17 New
          +9
          They are exactly after the UNSUCCESSFUL END OF THE WORLD, which was expected in 1491 or in 7000 if translated into indicative calculus. Nosovsky says this well on the radio "Moscow says". After the failed end of the world, the collapse of the GENERAL RELIGION began, among the sedentary Russians ORTHODOXY, and among the nomadic population ISLAM. There is an assumption that the Qur'an wrote the holy book of Muslims Ivan4, as a reconciliation of this very conflict situation
          KORAN-NAROK (RELEASE) in the opposite reading. Part of the society professing ISLAM conquered Constantinople and named their state ATAMANIA - the country of atamans i.e. Cossacks. Hence the community of culture and traditions of the Cossacks and Janissaries ...


          This is five !!! Burn on. laughing laughing laughing
          Especially smiled about Islam invented in 1491 and about the Koran written by Ivan the Terrible. laughing
          You go to the mosque, and there try to tell about the narok and other things that have been mutilated here. laughing Also offer there immediately read this Koran, back to front.
          And of course the "ATAMANIA state" is also strong, strong ... laughing

          PS The end of the world has definitely come, in some heads at least. The light went out ...
          PPS You can minus. laughing
          1. War and Peace
            War and Peace 3 December 2015 15: 27 New
            -2
            Quote: Glot
            They are exactly after the UNSUCCESSFUL END OF THE WORLD, which was expected in 1491 or in 7000 if translated into indicative calculus. Nosovsky says this well on the radio "Moscow says". After the failed end of the world, the collapse of the GENERAL RELIGION began, among the sedentary Russians ORTHODOXY, and among the nomadic population ISLAM. There is an assumption that the Qur'an wrote the holy book of Muslims Ivan4, as a reconciliation of this very conflict situation
            KORAN-NAROK (RELEASE) in the opposite reading. Part of the society professing ISLAM conquered Constantinople and named their state ATAMANIA - the country of atamans i.e. Cossacks. Hence the community of culture and traditions of the Cossacks and Janissaries ...


            This is five !!! Burn on. laughing laughing laughing
            Especially smiled about Islam invented in 1491 and about the Koran written by Ivan the Terrible. laughing
            You go to the mosque, and there try to tell about the narok and other things that have been mutilated here. laughing Also offer there immediately read this Koran, back to front.
            And of course the "ATAMANIA state" is also strong, strong ... laughing

            PS The end of the world has definitely come, in some heads at least. The light went out ...
            PPS You can minus. laughing


            suddenly out of nowhere seemed full fool
            1. Spnsr
              Spnsr 3 December 2015 16: 28 New
              0
              Quote: War and Peace
              suddenly out of nowhere seemed full fool

              no need to pay attention! laughing
              in general, it is likely that you are writing, because there are languages ​​that use just the reverse reading and writing!
          2. The comment was deleted.
          3. Nagaibak
            Nagaibak 3 December 2015 19: 24 New
            +2
            Glot "Especially smiled about Islam invented in 1491 and about the Koran written by Ivan the Terrible."
            It’s normal))) it’s a new hrenology.))) You didn’t read about the assault of Istanbul by the Russian troops in 1600?))) And I read on this site.)))) The people haven’t conducted anymore on them. Regular clowning is not more.
            1. Glot
              Glot 3 December 2015 19: 47 New
              +3
              It’s normal))) it’s a new hrenology.))) You didn’t read about the assault of Istanbul by the Russian troops in 1600?))) And I read on this site.)))) The people haven’t conducted anymore on them. Regular clowning is not more.


              No, I haven’t heard about it. laughing
              But from this clown under the nickname "War and Peace" I read and not like that.
              Then he, twisting the words, identified Syria and Russia, and assured that there is Palmyra - Peter, since she is called "Northern Palmyra". laughing
              Or there was still a rzhachny opus when he assured that the samurai was not in principle, but it was KAZAKI ST. AMUR. laughing
              In general, yes, there are several of them. Words read backwards, turn everything upside down. Clownery.
              I also call them "Buratina". Wooden boys. Instead of school, they ran to fairs, selling primers. And so they remained, logs.
              But reading them is useful. The mood is raising. I've laughed today for an hour at his next "conclusions". laughing
              1. War and Peace
                War and Peace 3 December 2015 19: 54 New
                -3
                Quote: Glot
                Or there was still rzhachny opus when he assured that there were no samurai


                Well, the fact that you are from a horse breed has already become clear a long time ago, oats inside, oats in the head, what to take from you

                a gulp in all its glory ...
                1. Sweles
                  Sweles 3 December 2015 20: 22 New
                  -2
                  the task of slamming such throats is that he does not understand, hissing, snorting, spitting, and wearing a hat on his head is all that you can think of for this accesoir, I’m talking about ...
              2. Nagaibak
                Nagaibak 3 December 2015 21: 07 New
                +2
                Glot "I also call them" Buratins ". Wooden boys. Instead of school they ran to fairs, selling primers. And they stayed like logs."
                It's right.)))
            2. War and Peace
              War and Peace 3 December 2015 20: 03 New
              -4
              Quote: Nagaibak
              Glot "Especially smiled about Islam invented in 1491 and about the Koran written by Ivan the Terrible."
              It’s normal))) it’s a new hrenology.))) You didn’t read about the assault of Istanbul by the Russian troops in 1600?))) And I read on this site.)))) The people haven’t conducted anymore on them. Regular clowning is not more.


              Well, if your balls are not enough, at least listen to the opinions of other people, then the last-generation German historical ravings make a Sabbath on the forum says one thing is that they are not Russians and Russian history is not that expensive, but Russophobes, like that, listen less and less, and the story on the basis of the science of mathematics and logic more and more captures the minds of people, so you already can’t say anything about the case, except hissing, and the time will come when you shut up completely ...
              1. Nagaibak
                Nagaibak 3 December 2015 21: 09 New
                +1
                war and peace "well, if your own balls are not enough, at least listen to the opinion of other people."
                The clown who heard for the first time about Rychkov tells me this?)))
                1. War and Peace
                  War and Peace 3 December 2015 21: 26 New
                  -1
                  Quote: Nagaibak
                  war and peace "well, if your own balls are not enough, at least listen to the opinion of other people."
                  The clown who heard for the first time about Rychkov tells me this?)))


                  you are one of those who heard the ringing, but you don’t know where it is, I doubt the stupidity that you read something from Rychkov, and did not climb into the google bar before laughing
                  1. Nagaibak
                    Nagaibak 3 December 2015 22: 20 New
                    0
                    war and peace "you are one of those who heard the ringing, but you do not know where it is, I doubt the stupidity that you read something from Rychkov, and did not go into Google before."
                    Unlike you ignoramus, I know what Rychkov wrote about.)))) Moreover, at my place there are Xeroxed pages of the Orenburg Topography from the Chelyabinsk Regional Library. Concerning the Nagaybak Fortress. Well, this butter is for you. You are a specialist in pictures.
                2. The comment was deleted.
        3. Sweles
          Sweles 3 December 2015 21: 19 New
          0
          Quote: War and Peace
          They are exactly after the UNSUCCESSFUL END OF THE WORLD, which was expected in 1491 or in 7000 if translated into indicative calculus. Nosovsky says this well on the radio "Moscow says". After the failed end of the world, the collapse of the GENERAL RELIGION began, among the sedentary Russians ORTHODOXY, and among the nomadic population ISLAM. There is an assumption that the Qur'an wrote the holy book of Muslims Ivan4, as a reconciliation of this very conflict situation


          I watched Nosovsky’s speech on the radio, but his reasoning looks very logical — that’s what they say, what they don’t teach at school, it’s especially interesting about reasoning about the end of the world, who calculated how much and what.
      2. Jmbg
        Jmbg 3 December 2015 23: 13 New
        +1
        Sorry, but that language was Old Slavonic, in different dialects it was Russian, Bulgarian, Serbian, etc. In the Janicher’s corps, Serbs and Bulgarians were more than Russians.
      3. Jmbg
        Jmbg 3 December 2015 23: 14 New
        +2
        Sorry, but that language was Old Slavonic, in different dialects it was spoken by Russians, Bulgarians, Serbs, etc. In the Janicher’s corps, Serbs and Bulgarians were more than Russians.
    4. The comment was deleted.
    5. Scraptor
      Scraptor 3 December 2015 14: 24 New
      +1
      Almost mankurts, they didn’t eat any core. They were not allowed to use any weapons in peacetime except for sticks. In the war, sabers bent to the other side (like a sickle or a scythe) were issued, she could hardly have fenced, but it was better to cut through the armor. In general, Turkey in all its glory ...
      1. Sweles
        Sweles 3 December 2015 21: 14 New
        0
        Quote: Scraptor
        Almost mankurts, they didn’t eat any core. They were not allowed to use any weapons in peacetime except for sticks. In the war, sabers bent to the other side (like a sickle or a scythe) were issued, she could hardly have fenced, but it was better to cut through the armor. In general, Turkey in all its glory ...


        Are you talking about the scimitar? this is not so, YATAGAN weapons on foot warrior had chopping, and pricking, and cutting properties, so the Yanagar scimitar is a formidable weapon.
        1. Scraptor
          Scraptor 3 December 2015 23: 54 New
          0
          This is about the fact that in peacetime they even walked barefoot ... and about this very "scimitar", if you could see how it looks in the pictures, the first ones that come across are correct, and this shape allowed them to use the worst steel on them.
    6. ARES623
      ARES623 4 December 2015 06: 57 New
      0
      Quote: aszzz888
      But the main difference between the Janissaries is their fierce cruelty to everything hostile to them. Everything and everything was cut, regardless of gender and age.

      The difference from whom? The Nazis are German, Ukrainian, American, Japanese. which of them is distinguished by a good disposition towards the enemy? If civil or military law ceases to work at the place of the military operation (war, anti-terrorist operation, anti-terrorist operation, etc.), whatever it is called, then people who have the right to kill in the line of duty degrade over time and turn into sadists, rapists, looters. Subsequently, all this leads to a moral and general decomposition of the troops. Bonaparte, for example, clearly understood this, but could not provide effective control over the army. In the SC, the presence of special departments, SMERSH, and NKVD units in the troops that performed the functions of the military police, with a general negative attitude on the part of the army itself, made it possible to keep the level of troop exit beyond legal norms in acceptable values.
    7. ILDM1986
      ILDM1986 14 November 2016 06: 35 New
      0
      Cossacks
      1. Irregulars (supply. Organization, training, etc. - themselves at their own expense).
      2. A special estate — that is, benefits in exchange for living along borders, undeveloped territories, compulsory military service, border protection, etc.
      3. Leaders did not enter the ruling elite of the country, were largely autonomous in their actions and deeds.
      4. In their free time from the war, they were engaged in agriculture and craft, in order to feed and dress themselves elementary. and in their free time, they learned to fight.
      5. The composition had both infantry and cavalry
      Janissaries
      1. Regulars - organization, supply, training, etc. at the expense of the state
      2. Entered the military class, but there were minor differences in supply and organization. that is, the difference is how now airborne from motorized rifle.
      3. The Janissaries' leaders actively participated in the political struggle.
      4. In his spare time from the war, training in military skill. Worked to obtain additional funding.
      5. mostly light infantry
      What are the similarities between Cossacks and Janissaries? that together and not alone fought? ate together? used cauldrons? Yes, I still know the similarities, they had 2 arms and 2 legs! I propose to arrange a contest find 100500 similar features in the Cossack and Janissary laughing
      PS smiled about "women were not allowed into the Sich" - but how did they breed? budding? and drunk each other shit? there were Spartans, "not sugary pes ... ki, but formidable military pi..sy", and now the Cossacks have been recorded there belay ?
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 3 December 2015 07: 53 New
    +5
    Initially, it was a very heavy and shameful tax for the Christians of the empire. After all, these boys, as their parents knew, in the future became terrible enemies of the Christian world.... In modern language, the memory was completely erased .. and on this blank sheet new information was recorded and as a result .. became terrible enemies of the Christian world, well-trained and fanatical warriors .. and slaughtered everyone and compatriots including ..a further development according to the article, degradation, and destruction ..
    1. Rivares
      Rivares 3 December 2015 14: 18 New
      0
      Quote: parusnik
      in the future became terrible enemies of the Christian world

      Why are you obsessed with the Christian world, they became enemies of their parents.
  3. Darkness
    Darkness 3 December 2015 08: 11 New
    +5
    And these "perfect" warriors were crushed into trash at the Battle of Molodi.
    So they lagged behind the Russian fighters and much.
    1. Mantykora
      Mantykora 3 December 2015 08: 52 New
      +5
      And what about miscalculations of command in the battle at all? Why are bad soldiers immediately? Sagittarius also happened to retreat and fled from the battlefield, but this does not mean that these are bad warriors?
      1. Darkness
        Darkness 3 December 2015 08: 54 New
        +2
        Where did I write "bad"?
    2. Riv
      Riv 3 December 2015 09: 04 New
      +5
      There are strong suspicions that the Janissaries did not actually participate in the Battle of Molodi. The number of Turks in it is estimated at about 15.000 people. But the janissary was at that time a little more. For example, the whole corps participated in the Battle of Angora and was destroyed. Killed about 22.000 Janissaries. This is only later, in the 17th century their number increased to a quarter of a million. It is unlikely that the Sultan would send the entire elite corps into a predatory raid. Yanicharov has always been considered as a tactical reserve of the army.
      Most likely with the Tatars then irregular formations went on a campaign.
      1. avt
        avt 3 December 2015 10: 15 New
        +3
        Quote: Riv
        There are strong suspicions that the Janissaries did not actually participate in the Battle of Molodi.

        laughing Crossover, or specific facts in the studio.
        1. Riv
          Riv 3 December 2015 10: 20 New
          +4
          How can you show confirmation that you "did not participate"? Are you not aware that negative facts are not proven?
        2. Riv
          Riv 3 December 2015 10: 20 New
          0
          How can you show confirmation that you "did not participate"? Are you not aware that negative facts are not proven?
  4. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 3 December 2015 09: 55 New
    +2
    Many thanks to the author for the article! If the entire state machine works only for WAR, if the goal is total aggression, and the means are militarism, then such a state will soon drown in its own and other people's blood. Examples: Ancient Assyria, Sparta, Aztec Empire , and the last example is the Third Reich. (Although I always sympathize with the Indians)
  5. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 3 December 2015 10: 25 New
    +1
    ".. In the Ottoman Empire, these were the Janissaries, in Russia - the Cossacks ...." - I think it would be more correct to draw an analogy between the Janissaries and Streltsy, for the Cossacks are irregular.

    And the full analogue of the Janissaries (in their original form, with the exception of the principles of the set) was the Oprichny Army of Ivan IV.
    1. Turkir
      Turkir 3 December 2015 13: 35 New
      +1
      Comparison of Janissaries with Cossacks or archers is not correct.
      Samsonov made an unfortunate comparison. Archers are regular units, Zaporozhye Cossacks, and not just "Cossacks" are freemen, but the janissaries, officially "slaves of the Sultan", are more likely a "monastic order, guard" obeying the rules of celibacy, subsequently the restriction was lifted and could even influence the change of the supreme power (1622 and 1807). Therefore, they were destroyed in 1826.
      -----
      I have always been interested in Sufi culture (El Sufi - woolen).
      The Sufis did not observe the fivefold prayer. The objection sounded something like this - "Allah is within me, but for you he is outside." One of the famous Sufis was -
      Mawlana Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi (Persian. , Konya, Konya Sultanate) - an outstanding Persian-Tajik Sufi poet, who created magnificent works of oriental poetry mainly in Persian. Sometimes he was also called Mawlana Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi (Persian محمد بلخى), after the name of the city of Balkh, where he came from.
      In the XIII century. in Konya, his son Sultan Valad founded the Sufi order Mevlevi, in the rites of which the works of Rumi are used. Rumi is the spiritual ancestor of the dervishes of this most influential tarif in Ottoman Turkey and existing in our time.

      Thanks to Samsonov for discussing topics that provoke stormy responses in his articles. So they are needed. repeat
  6. but still
    but still 3 December 2015 11: 51 New
    0
    The Janissaries walk, Mom,
    From village to village.
    Mugs squirrels sbiri, mom,
    Janissaries rule ...
    Take it, take it, mom,
    And they took it.
    And he was better, mom,
    One on a shirt ...
    Cried many many years Stoilova T-shirt:
    Three fives in the graveyard.
    Mow and the mobiles are white, mom
    Clean it up.
    Behind Stood Misli, Mom,
    For it was worth crying.
  7. istoler
    istoler 3 December 2015 13: 11 New
    +4
    Comparison of Janissaries and Cossacks direct overseas. Arguments of the type, did not have wives and wore similar clothes, so generally amateurish.
    Now to the point, the Janissaries corps was created as a regular army for waging the sultan’s wars, as well as guards for internal wars. The Cossacks is a military-predatory corporation which itself was formed to conduct large-scale predatory campaigns at sea and on land, and also participated in the wars of its overlord for a fee.
    If you look for an analogue of the Janissaries in Russia of the 16-17th centuries, then the archers are closest, in essence they are the closest to the tasks performed, of course the organization has a great difference, but also a regular army. By the way, historical evolution is also very similar, at the time of the creation of Ivan IV they were very disciplined and combat-ready then, they became an instrument of internal political struggle and constant rebels, they also began to acquire a large farm, trade on a par with merchants. The finals are also executed and dispersed the same, only Peter I did this 120 years earlier.
    But the fate of the Cossacks in the course of 16-17 centuries was gradually taken under control of Moscow, transformed into an irregular army and served faithfully in the 18-19 century.
    1. War and Peace
      War and Peace 3 December 2015 14: 11 New
      0
      Quote: istoler
      The Cossacks is a military-predatory corporation which itself was formed to conduct large-scale predatory campaigns at sea and on land, and also participated in the wars of its overlord for a fee.


      "military robbery corporation", and what is it? how can this be? after all, the number of Cossack warriors was calculated in different periods even by TI TENS OF THOUSANDS? and by the beginning of WWI already HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS? And to take, too, the Azov seat at the beginning of the 17th century, such feats cannot be done by robbers. How can a gang of robbers have such popular support? And the weapons? Bohdan Khmelnitsky's Cossack Army brought the strongest medieval state of Poland to its knees? Do not lie...

      Quote: istoler
      By the way, historical evolution is also very similar, at the time of the creation of Ivan IV they were very disciplined and combat-ready then, they became an instrument of internal political struggle and constant rebels, they also began to acquire a large farm, trade on a par with merchants. The finals are also executed and dispersed the same, only Peter I did this 120 years earlier.


      Well, how could the trade and suppression of the rebels cause Peter to decide to disperse the Cossacks? Some kind of nonsense.
      1. istoler
        istoler 3 December 2015 15: 26 New
        +2
        The answer.
        1) "" military robbery corporation ", and what is it? How can this be? After all, the number of Cossack warriors was calculated in different periods, even TEN TENS OF THOUSANDS?"
        Military robber corporations are a fairly widespread phenomenon in the period of the 15-18 centuries, these are Algerian pirates who robbed everything under a row of Christian ships and even lined tribute to large Christian states, pirates of the new world who took and plundered almost all the large fortresses of Spain in Latin America and Cossacks of the Wild Field who plundered several times all the Ottoman and Crimean cities of the Black and Azov Sea. The number of the Don Cossacks for the period of 15-17 centuries is approximately 2-5 thousand, but due to the high organization and surprise, this was a huge force.
        2) "and by the beginning of WWI already HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS?"
        The Cossacks in the 18-19 centuries were very transformed, first of all, they completely lost their independence and became irregular troops. Life has radically changed, Cossacks started families and started farming and their numbers naturally began to grow. Let me remind you that before that, the Cossacks replenished their ranks at the expense of newcomers who were traveling, mainly from Russia or the Commonwealth.
        3) "The Cossack Army of Bohdan Khmelnitsky brought the strongest medieval state of Poland to its knees?"
        Poland was "brought to its knees" not by the army of Bohdan Khmelnytsky, but by the social order under which five magnates lived like kings, and the rest of the population lived worse than cattle. Therefore, Bogdan had only to bring a match, and the barn itself burned down.
        4) "Well, how could trade and the suppression of rioters cause Peter to decide to disperse the Cossacks? This is nonsense."
        Please read carefully, this applies to archers. Peter I dispersed the archers as unnecessary and inclined to riots, and the Cossacks rebuilt from a military-predatory corporation into an irregular army under the complete control of the center.
        1. War and Peace
          War and Peace 3 December 2015 15: 44 New
          0
          Quote: istoler
          Military robber corporations are a fairly widespread phenomenon in the period of the 15-18 centuries, these are Algerian pirates who robbed everything under a row of Christian ships and even lined tribute to large Christian states, pirates of the new world who took and plundered almost all the large fortresses of Spain in Latin America and Cossacks of the Wild Field who plundered several times all the Ottoman and Crimean cities of the Black and Azov Sea. The number of the Don Cossacks for the period of 15-17 centuries is approximately 2-5 thousand, but due to the high organization and surprise, this was a huge force.


          I don’t know about the scale of the Algerian pirates, but the fact that the state of England maintained predatory relations with Spain and all this was planned, and not spontaneously like a gang of robbers, is known from history. The so-called pirates received help from the state and were completely dependent on it, so to say that these "phenomena" were gangs of bandits is not true ...
          The Azov seat of 1641, according to the most conservative data, the number of Cossacks of the Cossack Don army was up to 15000. What are another 2-5 thousand?
          http://tularus.org/history/253-history-24-07-12

          Poland was "brought to its knees" not by the army of Bohdan Khmelnytsky, but by the social order under which five magnates lived like kings, and the rest of the population lived worse than cattle. Therefore, Bogdan had only to bring a match, and the barn itself burned down.


          do not engage in demagogy, no orders will put their state on their knees, only the external prevailing force ...
          Please read carefully, this applies to archers. Peter I dispersed the archers as unnecessary and inclined to riots, and the Cossacks rebuilt from a military-predatory corporation into an irregular army under the complete control of the center


          How is it that the archers have served faithfully for hundreds of years, and then there were "rebels"? Here the thing is Peter-Antichrist, being a German, himself introduced German orders in the country, as well as SLAVERY FORTRESS LAW for the Russian people, neither the people nor the archers, respectively, did not like such orders, so the archers were not dispersed, but there was a full-fledged war between the European Peter's forces both the archers and in this war the archers lost and were abolished ...
          1. istoler
            istoler 3 December 2015 16: 10 New
            +2
            So I understand with other arguments you agreed.
            1) The number of Cossacks who sat in Azov according to the story about the Azov sitting. "And of us, Cossacks, only 7367 people were sitting in the siege in Azov." It should be borne in mind that the army consisted of Donets and Cossacks.
            2) "I do not know about the scale of the Algerian pirates, but the fact that the state of England maintained predatory relations with Spain and all this was planned, and not spontaneously like a gang of robbers, is known from history."
            The Don Cossacks, as mentioned above, are a corporation, not a "gang" This is a fundamental difference and this was immediately indicated.
            Such corporations, as a rule, had suzerain, this is also indicated by me, read those please carefully.
            And the main thing is that in essence with the corps of the Janissaries they have nothing in common.
            1. War and Peace
              War and Peace 3 December 2015 16: 27 New
              -2
              Quote: istoler
              So I understand with other arguments you agreed.


              did you write about "others"? -not noticed ...

              Quote: istoler
              ) The number of Cossacks who sat in Azov according to the story of the Azov sitting. "And of us, the Cossacks, were under siege in Azov only 7367 people." It should be borne in mind that the army consisted of the Don and Cossacks.


              I brought you a link to 15 thousand and only Dontsov, but in those days already,
              Cuban
              -Tersky
              Grebensky
              Yaitsky
              Zaporizhzhya
              and the same KAZAKHs took their name from the Cossacks, are they from the bandits leading a story?


              Quote: istoler
              The Don Cossacks, as mentioned above, are a corporation, not a "gang" This is a fundamental difference and this was immediately indicated.


              Perhaps only you use such terms "corporation", the Cossacks did not call themselves that nasty ...
              1. istoler
                istoler 3 December 2015 16: 40 New
                +2
                "
                1) "did you write about" others "? - did not notice ..."
                There was a technical overlap, when I sent a message, I didn’t see your answer.
                2)
                "I gave you a link to 15 thousand and only Dontsov, but already in those days there were,
                Cuban
                -Tersky
                Grebensky
                Yaitsky
                -Zaporozhye "
                In the capture of Azov, according to the legend "about the Azov seat", only the Don Cossacks and the Zaporozhye Sich took part, there were no others. In addition, the Kuban Cossacks did not physically exist then, they appeared later.
                3) "these terms" corporation "are probably only used by you, the Cossacks did not call themselves that nasty ..."
                True, they did not call themselves that, but this does not negate the fact that they were a military-predatory corporation by type of organization and main occupations.
                1. War and Peace
                  War and Peace 3 December 2015 16: 55 New
                  0
                  Quote: istoler
                  True, they did not call themselves that, but this does not negate the fact that they were a military-predatory corporation by type of organization and main occupations.


                  and who coined this term do not tell me?
                  about the Cuban Cossacks, well, it’s kind of like Katka drove the Zaporozhtsev there, but is this true? I think that the Cossacks lived on the perimeter of the empire ALWAYS ...
                  1. istoler
                    istoler 3 December 2015 17: 15 New
                    +2
                    "I think that the Cossacks lived along the perimeter of the empire ALWAYS ..."

                    Sorry for the tactlessness you speak from the point of view of scientific argumentation or just express your value judgment.
                    The fact is that in the scientific field, discussion is possible and even necessary, but if you speak "from yourself", then everything is meaningless. Since you are an accomplished person, you cannot change your point of view.
                    Sincerely .
                  2. Spnsr
                    Spnsr 3 December 2015 19: 19 New
                    0
                    Quote: War and Peace
                    and who coined this term do not tell me?
                    about the Cuban Cossacks, well, it’s kind of like Katka drove the Zaporozhtsev there, but is this true? I think that the Cossacks lived on the perimeter of the empire ALWAYS ...

                    addition to the search!
                    Terek Cossacks appeared in the 15th century and came there from the east, by the way, the period of the conquest of Constantinople! ...
              2. V.ic
                V.ic 3 December 2015 18: 59 New
                0
                Quote: istoler
                there were only 7367 people in Azov. "It should be borne in mind that the army consisted of the Don and Cossacks.

                Quote: War and Peace
                I brought you a link to 15 thousand and only Dontsov, but in those days already,
                Cuban
                -Tersky
                Grebensky
                -egg

                But only during the time of the Azov sitting, there were no egg Cossacks
            2. The comment was deleted.
            3. istoler
              istoler 3 December 2015 16: 28 New
              +2
              The number of the Don Cossacks in the period of 15-17 centuries is not subject to accurate accounting.
              Firstly, because there was no exact accounting.
              Secondly, the Cossacks themselves secreted their location and strength.
              Thirdly, the Don Cossacks sometimes swelled during major campaigns and unrest, then contracted to a minimum.
              1. War and Peace
                War and Peace 3 December 2015 16: 51 New
                0
                Quote: istoler
                Thirdly, the Don Cossacks sometimes swelled during major campaigns and unrest, then contracted to a minimum.


                the fact that the history of the Cossacks of Isolgan is read even in the name of toponyms, because what is Taman? You have to come up with this,
                TAMAN IS ATAMAN -Kazatskiy land, and if you take such a people as the Circassians-Adygs, numbering several thousand in different Aremen and the name clearly taken away from the famous KAZAKOV-CHERKASOV, and after all, the "historians" attributed civilizational discoveries - inventions
                -SHASHKU
                -GUN SILICON LOCK
                and so I see the Circassians sitting in their mountains in the aul and inventing a gun castle, then they made guns and became famous in history ...
                1. Spnsr
                  Spnsr 3 December 2015 19: 27 New
                  0
                  Quote: war and peace
                  Quote: istoler
                  Thirdly, the Don Cossacks sometimes swelled during major campaigns and unrest, then contracted to a minimum.


                  the fact that the history of the Cossacks of Isolgan is read even in the name of toponyms, because what is Taman? You have to come up with this,
                  TAMAN IS ATAMAN -Kazatskiy land, and if you take such a people as the Circassians-Adygs, numbering several thousand in different Aremen and the name clearly taken away from the famous KAZAKOV-CHERKASOV, and after all, the "historians" attributed civilizational discoveries - inventions
                  -SHASHKU
                  -GUN SILICON LOCK
                  and so I see the Circassians sitting in their mountains in the aul and inventing a gun castle, then they made guns and became famous in history ...

                  from this we can conclude that all of these peoples was one thing, only then, in view of the spread of another religion, by the way, for the Caucasus it is the 16th century, they began to take exactly the shape in which they are now ...
              2. The comment was deleted.
                1. but still
                  but still 3 December 2015 17: 18 New
                  +1
                  Here is a link where there is an option for explaining the etymology of TAMAN:

                  http://www.protobulgarians.com/Statii%20za%20prabaalgarite/Tutrakan-Taamatarkan.
                  htm
                  1. War and Peace
                    War and Peace 3 December 2015 17: 30 New
                    0
                    Quote: but still
                    http://www.protobulgarians.com/Statii%20za%20prabaalgarite/Tutrakan-Taamatarkan.

                    htm


                    as usual with philologists, it’s full of rubbish, everything is pulled, everything is pulled ...
                    1. but still
                      but still 3 December 2015 17: 48 New
                      0
                      as usual with philologists, it’s full of rubbish, everything is pulled, everything is pulled ...


                      Linguistics, by the way, is an exact science. smile

                      And your assumption TAMAN - ATAMAN is not strained by a mere coincidence of sound? And you take the trouble to read who used to live in those lands ... Maybe you and I are talking about the same thing, but we call different names? smile
                      1. War and Peace
                        War and Peace 3 December 2015 18: 03 New
                        0
                        Quote: but still
                        Linguistics, by the way, is an exact science.


                        "accurate" say? and how accurate? how many letters match in words
                        Dark cockroach
                        TAMAN
                        for sure, a little, and as regards the Taman Peninsula and the Cossack Territory proper, they would be nearby and it would be foolish to think that the Cossack chieftains did not enter these lands and had nothing to do with it ...
                  2. The comment was deleted.
        2. The comment was deleted.
      2. Chiropractor
        Chiropractor 3 December 2015 15: 32 New
        0
        Quote: War and Peace
        The Cossack Army of Bohdan Khmelnitsky brought to its knees the strongest medieval state of Poland


        Well, let's say, not the strongest, European hegemon then (already smile ) wasn’t - which of the countries pulled ahead in strength, immediately began to crush neighbors.

        Khmelnitsky, like Yanukovych, tried to sit on two chairs - both from the Polish Crown and from Russia, to receive a salary, not a cradle. Tricked, intrigued, deceived, threatened, cried.
        The same Bogun looks more honest and cuts with the gentry long after Khmelnytsky.

        With regards to the army - the Polish Crown Army at the beginning of the uprising totaled 50-60 thousand scattered throughout the country. Plus 40 thousand registered Cossacks. No more dialing allowed. The Cossacks constantly asked to increase the register (better to feed in the service of the clairvoyants than to hunt by robbery), but the hats suspected something and did not want to increase it.

        And so it began!
        The fire of rebellion was lit, as they say. 5 thousand Cossacks go to the city, and an army of 10 thousand lodging nearby is thrown into suppression — knights, gunners, German mercenaries and ... yes, registered Cossacks. The latter - as cannon fodder. They are not invited to the meeting. At that time, the Cossacks - this is a strong infantry. The proverb of that time - 100 foot Cossacks to resist 1000 foot, 100 hussars will disperse 1000 riding Cossacks. For firearms are still developing and the half-armored horse wow wedge heel.

        The plan for the battle - the gunners upset rebel orders, the hussars (it’s also with anti-arkan wings that whistle in the wind and scare fear and horror) with a ram blow break the strength and pride of the rebels, the Germans shoot those who climb the gunners, register clean up the field, knit prisoners .

        But, "everyone is against our team" - it started raining and washed out the field, the horses' legs were leaving, the hussars had their feathers sagging, the registered rebels were agitating to go over to their side.
        As a result, the entrants had a replenishment of 5 thousand, guns and a hundred carts with provisions and prisoners of the nobility. And there are several such battles.

        The situation changed when the rebels met with Vishnevetsky and his personal army. The Tatars, who marched with the rebels, also rowed. They cut through the current situation, and with the boot went to their Crimea. Khmeltsky remained with a freemen, and with peasants armed with braids, whose blades were attached along the pole. And Khmelnitsky had to agree on peace. And urgently send his colonels to Moscow, but that's another story ...
        1. War and Peace
          War and Peace 3 December 2015 16: 05 New
          -1
          Quote: Kostoprav
          The situation changed when the rebels met with Vishnevetsky and his personal army. The Tatars, who marched with the rebels, also rowed. They cut through the current situation, and with the boot went to their Crimea. Khmeltsky remained with a freemen, and with peasants armed with braids, whose blades were attached along the pole. And Khmelnitsky had to agree on peace. And urgently send his colonels to Moscow, but that's another story.


          Well, this is a LITTLE NICE, for example, there is such an essay by Pavel Alepsky who traveled from Alepo to Moscow, just at that time, and so he writes that
          “They (voivode Buturlin and Bogdan Khmelnitsky) took twenty-eight fortresses and cities from the Poles, including a city named Lublin, which in their language means“ a city of assemblies, ”for the Poles gathered at it in an era of power. They defeated the great hetman Lyakhov Pavel Pototsky, "

          what "braids and shafts" Russophobe? THE RUSSIAN COSSACK ARMY has always been the most powerful army in history ...
    2. 97110
      97110 3 December 2015 16: 24 New
      +2
      Quote: istoler
      transformed into an irregular army and still served faithfully in the 18-19 century

      I am ashamed to ask, was the sovereign's convoy in the 19th - early 20th centuries an irregular army? What then is the regular army? Everything is piled up in a heap, and the old Russian word "Cossack", meaning a person without property, staggering between the courtyard, and the personnel of the Great Don Army, and the personnel of the Cossack units and formations of the Red Army, and even the Cossacks of the Wehrmacht. The organized group of Ermak and Platov's Cossacks are equally related to the Janissaries?
      1. War and Peace
        War and Peace 3 December 2015 16: 35 New
        0
        Quote: 97110
        Quote: istoler
        transformed into an irregular army and still served faithfully in the 18-19 century

        I am ashamed to ask, was the sovereign's convoy in the 19th - early 20th centuries an irregular army? What then is the regular army? Everything is piled up in a heap, and the old Russian word "Cossack", meaning a person without property, staggering between the courtyard, and the personnel of the Great Don Army, and the personnel of the Cossack units and formations of the Red Army, and even the Cossacks of the Wehrmacht. The organized group of Ermak and Platov's Cossacks are equally related to the Janissaries?


        these are Russophobes - the Germans - "historians" like the baermilerschlözer did with the blessing of the German woman Katka2, whatever they wanted, but in Russia there will always be fertile soil from non-Russians who are happy to defame everything Russian in history ...
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. istoler
        istoler 3 December 2015 16: 52 New
        +1
        I did not call them irregular troops, but military manuals of the 18-19th centuries.
        In the irregular term itself, there is nothing offensive and demeaning; it is simply a type of organization of service. The soldier served 20 years in a row until his retirement, a Cossack about 5 years after joining the service, and then was taken to the reserve and called up later at the behest of the command. In terms of combat skill, the Cossack was usually superior to an ordinary soldier.
  8. Taoist
    Taoist 3 December 2015 14: 35 New
    +1
    I also think that the comparison of Cossacks and Janissaries, to put it mildly, is far-fetched.
    The Janissaries are actually a professional army. No personal belongings, households or families. Barracks, and full state support. Accordingly, and use according to the principle "where will they send".

    The Cossacks are actually free border settlers who, for carrying out the border service and for a certain (at the same time regulated by a system of contracts) military service, endowed them with land and certain benefits. At the same time, the provision and maintenance of the "military law" was the responsibility of the Cossack himself.
    1. War and Peace
      War and Peace 3 December 2015 15: 12 New
      -2
      Quote: Taoist
      The Cossacks are actually free border settlers who, for carrying out the border service and for a certain (at the same time regulated by a system of contracts) military service, endowed them with land and certain benefits. At the same time, the provision and maintenance of the "military law" was the responsibility of the Cossack himself.


      The Cossack army of Bohdan Khmelnitsky repeatedly beat the strongest Polish army in Europe, 22 fortified cities and fortresses were taken. What other "settlers"? you don't know the history ...
      1. Taoist
        Taoist 3 December 2015 15: 23 New
        +3
        I'm afraid you don’t know the story. In this case, we are not talking about who beat whom, but about how this or that military structure was created, organized and maintained. The fact that in a given period of time this structure had significant military force does not cancel out general organizational principles.

        In general, stop studying history according to "Nosov and Fomenko" ... Otherwise you are sweeping such a "blizzard" that your ears are curling up into a tube ...
        1. Riv
          Riv 3 December 2015 15: 54 New
          0
          A funny historical fact: Bogdan Khmelnitsky regularly grabbed lyuli from those same Poles. He won only if the allies, the Crimean Tatars, acted along with his troops. Obviously, in order to drive the Ukrainian into battle, even then it was necessary to put in the rear a detachment.
          1. War and Peace
            War and Peace 3 December 2015 18: 14 New
            0
            Quote: Riv
            Bogdan Khmelnitsky regularly grabbed lyuli from those same Poles.


            you seem to be proud of these words, but there is no truth in that, as soon as full-scale hostilities began, the Cossack army of Bohdan Khmelnitsky only defeated the Poles, which speaks of the strength of the Cossacks, organization, skill and weapons - all this is based on Cossack military traditions, which is not could be from "fugitives and migrants", but could only be honed by years and centuries of military service and numerous victories from ancestors, Scythians and Mongols ...
            1. Riv
              Riv 3 December 2015 22: 04 New
              -1
              And you seem to be Independent?
              In fact, the army of Khmelnitsky was dirty, gathered along the outskirts. Well, Kiev was at the Poles, and indeed all the major cities! And Zaporizhzhya Sich was nothing more than a proliferated robber gang. Moreover, women were not allowed there either. I am ashamed to even think about how newcomers were admitted to Sich. Traditions, you say? Centennial? Nude ...
              1. War and Peace
                War and Peace 3 December 2015 22: 09 New
                0
                Quote: Riv
                And you seem to be Independent?
                In fact, the army of Khmelnitsky was dirty, gathered along the outskirts. Well, Kiev was at the Poles, and indeed all the major cities! And Zaporizhzhya Sich was nothing more than a proliferated robber gang. Moreover, women were not allowed there either. I am ashamed to even think about how newcomers were admitted to Sich. Traditions, you say? Centennial? Nude ...


                I told you that the Cossacks brought Poland to their knees. This is a historical fact. Can you only hear yourself?
                1. Riv
                  Riv 3 December 2015 22: 19 New
                  0
                  Who did they put there ??? They don't teach in Ukrainian schools now that Kiev belonged to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until the middle of the 17th century, and then, after the uprising, when the Andrusov armistice was signed in 1667, "passed under the arm of the Moscow Tsar"? That is, in fact, he was never Ukrainian.

                  As you can see, Ukrainians successfully Maidan already in those days and it ended sadly. Sadly ends now. :)))
  9. but still
    but still 3 December 2015 14: 48 New
    -1
    There is undoubtedly a connection and similarity between the Janissaries and the Cossacks:

    1. The general originates from ancient peoples, from which both the Janissaries and the Cossacks originated ("Iranian", if everyone likes it more, although if you dig deeper, then the "Iranian" was preceded by an even more ancient one - let it be "Balkan", but this is another topic), in any case, not Turkic and not "Tatar" and Mongolian. I will not go into the details of folklore, traditions, specific words - the similarity is amazing.
    2. Both those and others were strangers, not related to those whom they served - they were used as "cannon fodder" (of course, the Cossacks had relative freedom, but it was constantly taken away - the result was numerous well-known riots, uprisings, wars, executions and resettlement)
    3. Both those and others were liquidated, or tried to liquidate after they became dangerous or no longer needed by the authorities.
    1. 97110
      97110 3 December 2015 16: 29 New
      -1
      Quote: but still
      Both those and others were strangers, not related to those whom they served

      So the whole Russian people was like that in relation to the German Nikolai Alexandrovich Romanov. Still, he was a distant relative, but very distant.
  10. chelovektapok
    chelovektapok 3 December 2015 16: 35 New
    0
    Ostap-Suleiman-Berta-Maria-Bender Bey (the famous son of a Turkish citizen) and "unsurpassed storyteller" I believe was written off from nature by Ilf and Petrov, as a typical rogue-freemason, which were in abundance even then in the Black Sea region. There and now, they will make such a mess, you will get tired of listening. The sea was dug up, the mountains were poured, they themselves are not local - from Venus, where they still use the move. And the Janissaries are their relatives! "The further into the forest, the thicker the partisans" (c).
    The case is simpler — gangs of different faiths, breeds, clans and estates roamed around those places of the army. here and there. Naturally pollinated the population that lived there. Now the rocks are all brothers - a genetic fact!
  11. de_monSher
    de_monSher 3 December 2015 17: 44 New
    0
    the unit was also called “Orta,” that is, a herd


    Translator into soap. At least ... "Orta" [O'rta] is, in fact, literally "middle", and literary translation is "common pot", "common fund". By the way, this word gave rise to the Russian concept of "company" ...

    Oops ... author, certainly not a translator. And I'm afraid that even NE is a historian ...
    1. War and Peace
      War and Peace 3 December 2015 18: 05 New
      -2
      Quote: de_monSher
      the unit was also called “Orta,” that is, a herd


      Translator into soap. At least ... "Orta" [O'rta] is, in fact, literally "middle", and literary translation is "common pot", "common fund". By the way, this word gave rise to the Russian concept of "company" ...

      Oops ... author, certainly not a translator. And I'm afraid that even NE is a historian ...


      well, actually
      Orta is the Horde, so hello to you from the Horde ...
    2. The comment was deleted.
  12. -Traveller-
    -Traveller- 3 December 2015 17: 57 New
    +3
    the role of the Janissaries in the Ottoman Empire is greatly exaggerated and mythological. in fact, in the vast Ottoman conquests of the 14-16 centuries, their contribution was zero, all these territories were conquered by the Turkish militia, which in essence were the same Timariots. Until the end of the 16th century, the corps was not numerous and in fact was the guard of the Sultan. the need for such a guard from mankurts arose on the basis of the internal structure of the then empire - because it was collected from various Turkish beyliks, and collected by force, the Sultan could not 100% rely on his own Turks in the matter of his own security.
    even after a significant increase in the number of Janissaries, the Turkish militia remained the support of the empire. the result was the dispersal of the Janissaries and the transition to a recruitment system for recruiting troops,
  13. de_monSher
    de_monSher 3 December 2015 18: 15 New
    0

    war and peace (8) SU Today, 18:05

    well, actually
    Orta is the Horde, so hello to you from the Horde ...



    Нy, actually, to call 100 people - "Horde", one must have a rich imagination ...

    = Something like probably There were 5 of them, 25 of us. We fought, fought - until we got even. We would give them if they caught up with us! =

    So, hello to you from ordinary logic, which has not changed since the time of the Janissaries ...
    1. War and Peace
      War and Peace 3 December 2015 18: 46 New
      0
      Quote: de_monSher
      probably something like that, There were 5 of them, 25 of us. We fought, fought - until we caught up. We would give them if they caught up with us! =

      So, hello to you from ordinary logic, which has not changed since the time of the Janissaries ...


      maybe, maybe, but I'm not talking about that ... hi
    2. The comment was deleted.
  14. Babalaykin
    Babalaykin 3 December 2015 18: 53 New
    +2
    Comparison of Cossacks and Janissaries IMHO is not correct. Janissaries were kept at the expense of the treasury - were regular, and the Cossacks only partly received fin. registry support and were irregular. At the same time, the Cossacks did not feed from the royal cuisine, but led the economy themselves. This factor had a qualitative effect on the expansion of borders, since Cossacks could more easily settle and defend new territories. Replenishment of losses, it seems to me, also went quickly, because there were always Cossacks not registered, ready for service. And children from birth studied voluntarily.
    Thus, the Cossacks did not bear a significant burden on the treasury, unlike the Janissaries. Had higher motivation. In conditions of large open spaces and a small number of light cavalry were very useful as a military branch.
    1. War and Peace
      War and Peace 3 December 2015 19: 38 New
      -2
      Quote: Babalaykin
      Comparison of Cossacks and Janissaries IMHO is not correct. Janissaries were kept at the expense of the treasury - were regular, and the Cossacks only partly received fin. registry support and were irregular. At the same time, the Cossacks did not feed from the royal cuisine, but led the economy themselves.


      before Peter's "reforms", the Cossack army was exactly the BASIC, ALWAYS in service and always had a salary from the treasury, after the reforms, the Cossacks were excommunicated from the treasury, the Cossacks changed and adapted, settled on the ground and began to acquire families in order to support their people and their traditions, that's how it was chronologically ...
  15. de_monSher
    de_monSher 3 December 2015 20: 10 New
    +3
    Gyyyyyyyy ... *))))

    I thought that the followers of Fomenko, safely "got out", purely from logical, humanitarian and simply, ethical and aesthetic considerations. But no - they are still "blooming and smelling" ... *)) Surprisingly "brain-contagious", stupid, heresy is all the same ... *)
  16. Glot
    Glot 3 December 2015 23: 20 New
    -1
    Quote: anodonta

    Dear Glot! You will not be minus, but smart people will be plus ... but with .... a certain type of personality ... there is no demand from them ... well ***********, what do you take? I hope everyone understood? laughing


    No, Dear anodonta, about the cons, I wrote for this particular clan and his friends.
    Well, they run from message to message and minus to everyone who writes something against their heresy, but they spit for themselves. It’s so self-affirming. They raise their own self-esteem and significance in their eyes, so to speak. laughing laughing
    But the trouble is, they cannot understand one thing, that let’s say for me these pluses, "titles", it doesn’t matter. That's not why I'm here. smile
    1. War and Peace
      War and Peace 4 December 2015 02: 11 New
      0
      Quote: Glot
      But the trouble is, they cannot understand one thing, that let’s say for me these pluses, "titles", it doesn’t matter. That's not why I'm here. smile



      the second time you hear cheerful moans about the minus, then it gets ...
      1. Glot
        Glot 4 December 2015 06: 34 New
        +1
        the second time you hear cheerful moans about the minus, then it gets ...


        Second one? You mixed me up with someone. Maybe with you? laughing
  17. saygon66
    saygon66 3 December 2015 23: 46 New
    -1
    - I could be wrong ... but in my opinion, the comparison of the Janissaries with the Cossacks is somewhat incorrect! I would say that this is a Turkish oprichnina ... people who have no ties with the local population, owed everything to the master-sultan, recklessly loyal to him ... The Janissaries not only fought, but also held the positions of civil administrators - not to bribe, not to intimidate ... No attachments, no clan - no tribe ... only service! There was a good article about the Janissaries in the "Brother" magazine, I don't remember the year and issue, unfortunately ...
    - "Cry, buddy ... sing - my soul hurts ...
    On the icons - horse urine ...
    In the Janissaries, the maltz was taken ...
    He will return - he will burn the Motherland! "(C)
  18. Freeman
    Freeman 4 December 2015 03: 22 New
    0
    Gentlemen! Forgive the layman for intruding into your highly scholarly dispute, but be so kind as to decide which Cossacks we are talking about. Based on the text of the article, the author compares the Zaporozhye Cossacks with the Janissaries, pointing out the similarities in their military organization and way of life, as well as differences in relation to the "authorities".

    Regarding the picture and comment:

    I do not see anything "popular" and discrepancies with the text.
    1. According to the form of clothing, it is possible that a ceremonial (palace) and not a field uniform is depicted, hence such magnificent "sultans".
    2. Regarding beards (and mustaches): - the article indicates the principle of completing the Janissary corps.

    "At first, the corps was formed from captured Christian adolescents and youths",

    "At a later time, by the end of the XNUMXth century, the janissary corps was already being formed mainly on the basis of hereditary, class principle. And rich Turkish families paid big money to have their children admitted to the corps, since there it was possible to get a good education and make a career. "

    What we see, with mustache-"Christians", with beards-Turks.
    1. War and Peace
      War and Peace 4 December 2015 09: 40 New
      0
      Quote: Freeman
      I do not see anything "popular" and discrepancies with the text.
      1. According to the form of clothing, it is possible that a ceremonial (palace) and not a field uniform is depicted, hence such magnificent "sultans".
      2. Regarding beards (and mustaches): - the article indicates the principle of completing the Janissary corps.


      rather a ceremonial form, but in this, in my opinion, reconstruction, although it is written that it is like "janissaries in the battle near Vienna in 1683", something hypertrophied, namely the size of all the plumes, as well as for the Janissaries, instead of SCANULAR -SABLES, they are called kilidges ...
    2. The comment was deleted.
  19. unknown
    unknown 5 December 2015 16: 54 New
    0
    Funny.

    Most of the so-called scientific works are scientific nonsense.
    There are so many inconsistencies in the so-called traditional history that it has long become a part of literature. Fantastic. For example, Italian Rome has TWO official founding dates. Egyptologists can not decide on the duration of the chronology: 4500 or 2500. And what is the cost of decades of efforts by domestic historians to justify the multiple superiority in the technology of the Wehrmacht in 1941.

    History is false. The generally accepted version is defective from birth. It's not about Nosovsky and Fomenko. Kolyuzhny and Valyanskiy, Kesler, Zhabenko have their own versions. Enough of those who disagree in the West.

    Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece myth. Reality-Byzantium. Tarkhtaria is a country (side) which is patronized by Tarkh and Tara, the children of Perun. The Arabs themselves call Arabic the Turkish script. many Russian proverbs make sense only when translated from "Arabic". Domestic mat-normal Turkish language. Jewish immigrant, Europe-country (side) of immigrants. An ideological Jew. An Israeli from RAI is a flying man.

    As Professor Pereobrazhensky answered the question of what to read if there are no other newspapers: "Don't read anything."

    I advise you as a professional historian.

    PS By the way, janissaries are translated as "young tsars". Hence the expression: "The infantry is the queen of the fields."
  20. otto9966
    otto9966 17 December 2019 12: 11 New
    0
    The difference between the Cossacks and the Janissaries ends on some external similarity ..... The comparison of the military is incorrect. First, the Janissaries are the regular guards infantry. And comparing them with the Cossacks is the same as comparing the irregular units of the Bashi-bazouks with the Preobrazhensky or Semenovsky regiments ... The Janissaries had a (written down) system of training soldiers that has survived to this day. among other things, in the early period, the Janissaries had units of armored elite units "zyhrli nefer".