Military Review

Stalin's order number 227 "Not one step back!"

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Stalin's order number 227 "Not one step back!"



History and the role of order number 227 during the Great Patriotic War

The most famous, the most terrible and the most controversial order of the Great Patriotic War appeared through 13 months after it began. This is the famous order of Stalin number 227 from 28 July 1942 of the year, known as “Not one step back!”.

What was behind the lines of this extraordinary order of the Supreme Commander? What caused his frank words, his cruel measures, and what results did they bring?

"We do not have dominance over the Germans ..."


In July, the USSR's 1942 was again on the verge of a catastrophe - having sustained the first and most terrible blow of the enemy in the previous year, the Red Army in the second year of the war was again forced to retreat far to the east. Although Moscow was saved in the battles of last winter, the front still stood 150 km away. Leningrad was in a terrible blockade, and in the south after a long siege Sevastopol was lost. The enemy, breaking through the front line, captured the North Caucasus and rushed to the Volga. Again, as at the beginning of the war, along with courage and heroism among the retreating troops, signs of a decline in discipline, alarmism and defeatism appeared.

By July, 1942, due to the retreat of the army of the USSR, lost half its potential. 80 million people lived before the war behind the front line in the German-occupied territory, about 70% of coal, iron and steel were produced, 40% of all USSR railways were laid, half of the livestock and crop areas that had previously given half the crop were located.

It is not by chance that Stalin’s order No. 227 for the first time spoke very frankly and clearly about this to the army and its fighters: “Every commander, every Red Army man ... must understand that our means are not infinite ... The territory of the USSR that the enemy seized and seeks to seize is bread and other products for the army and the rear, metal and fuel for industry, factories, factories supplying the army with weapons and ammunition, railways. After the loss of Ukraine, Belarus, the Baltic States, Donbass and other areas, we had less territory, therefore, there were much less people, bread, metal, factories, factories ... We do not have dominance over the Germans either in human resources or in bread stocks . To retreat further is to ruin ourselves and at the same time ruin our homeland. ”

Earlier, Soviet propaganda described above all successes and successes, emphasizing the strengths of the USSR and our army, then Stalin's order No. 227 began with a statement of terrible failures and losses. He emphasized that the country is on the verge of life and death: “Each new piece of territory we left will strengthen the enemy in every possible way and weaken our defense, our Homeland in every possible way. Therefore, we must fundamentally stop talking about the fact that we have the opportunity to retreat endlessly, that we have a lot of territory, our country is large and rich, there is a lot of population, there will always be plenty of bread. Such conversations are deceitful and harmful, they weaken us and strengthen the enemy, because if we do not stop retreat, we will be left without bread, without fuel, without metal, without raw materials, without factories and plants, without railways.

“To retreat further is to ruin oneself and ruin our homeland”



Poster Vladimir Serov, 1942 year. Photo: RIA News

The order of the People's Commissar of Defense of the USSR No. 227, which appeared on July 28 1942, was already read out to the personnel in all parts of the fronts and armies already in early August. It is these days that the incoming enemy, breaking through to the Caucasus and the Volga, threatened to deprive the USSR of oil and the main ways of its transportation, that is, to completely leave our industry and technology without fuel. Together with the loss of half of the human and economic potential, this threatened our country with a mortal catastrophe.

That is why the order number 227 was extremely frank, describing the loss and difficulties. But he also showed the way to the salvation of the Motherland - the enemy had to be stopped by all means at the approaches to the Volga. "Not one step back! - addressed in the order of Stalin. - We must persistently, to the last drop of blood, to defend every position, every meter of Soviet territory ... Our Motherland is going through difficult days. We must stop, and then drop and defeat the enemy, no matter what we cost. ”

Emphasizing that the army receives and will receive from the rear more and more new weapons, Stalin in the order number 227 pointed to the main reserve within the army itself. “There is a lack of order and discipline ...” the leader of the USSR explained in the order. - This is now our main drawback. We must establish the strictest order and iron discipline in our army if we want to save the situation and defend our Homeland. Commanders, commissars, political workers cannot be tolerated any longer, and their units and formations leave fighting positions without permission. ”

But order number 227 contained not only a moral call for discipline and perseverance. The war demanded harsh, even cruel measures. "From now on, retreating from a combat position without orders from above are traitors to the Motherland," said the Stalinist order.

According to the order from 28 in July, 1942, the commanders responsible for withdrawing without an order, were to be removed from their posts and brought to trial by a military tribunal. For those guilty of violations of discipline, penal companies were created, where soldiers were sent, and penal battalions for officers who violated military discipline. As stated by the order number 227, "guilty of violating discipline on cowardice or instability" must "put on difficult areas of the army to give them the opportunity to atone for their crimes with the blood before the Motherland."

From now on, the front could not do without penalty units until the very end of the war. From the moment the order No. 227 was issued until the end of the war, 65 penal battles and 1048 penal companies were formed. Until the end of 1945, 428 thousands of people passed through the “variable composition” of the penalty box. Two penal battalion even participated in the defeat of Japan.

Penalty units played a prominent role in ensuring brutal discipline at the front. But one should not overestimate their contribution to the victory - during the years of the Great Patriotic War no more than 3 out of every 100 military personnel mobilized into the army and the fleet went through penal companies or battalions. “Penalties” accounted for no more than about 3 – 4% in relation to people on the front line, but about 1% in relation to the total number of those called up.


Gunners during the battle. Photo: TASS

In addition to the penal units, the practical part of the order number 227 provided for the creation of barrier units. The order of Stalin demanded "to put them in the immediate rear of unstable divisions and to oblige them in the event of panic and indiscriminate withdrawal of parts of the division to shoot alarmists and cowards on the spot and help honest division soldiers to fulfill their duty to the Motherland."

The first detachments began to be created during the retreat of the Soviet fronts in 1941, but it was order No. 227 that introduced them into general practice. By the fall of 1942, the 193 barrage force was already on the front line, the 41 barrage took part in the course of the Stalingrad bat. Here such detachments had the opportunity not only to carry out the tasks set by order No. 227, but also to fight the advancing enemy. Thus, in the Stalingrad besieged by the Germans, the detachment of the 62 Army was almost completely killed in fierce battles.

In the autumn of 1944, the defensive squads were disbanded by Stalin’s new order. On the eve of victory, such extraordinary measures to maintain front-line discipline were no longer required.

"Not one step back!"


But back to the terrible August 1942 of the year, when the USSR and all Soviet people stood on the brink of fatal defeat, not victory. Already in the 21st century, when Soviet propaganda ended long ago, and in the “liberal” version of our country's history, a solid “chernukha” prevailed, the war veterans who had passed through that war paid tribute to this terrible, but necessary order.

Vsevolod Ivanovich Olimpiyev recalls, in 1942, a fighter of the cavalry corps of the Guard: “It was, of course, a historical document that appeared at the right time to create a psychological change in the army. For the first time in an unusual content order, many things were called by their own names ... The first phrase "The troops of the Southern Front covered their banners with shame, leaving Rostov and Novocherkassk without a fight ..." introduced into shock. After the release of order No. 227, we almost physically began to feel how the nuts are wrapped in the army. ”

Konstantin Mikhailovich Sharov, a participant in the war, recalled already in 2013: “The order was correct. In 1942, a colossal retreat began, even flight. The morale of the troops fell. So the order number 227 is not in vain out. He came out after Rostov left, but if Rostov stood just like Stalingrad ... "


Soviet propaganda poster. Photo: wikipedia.org

The terrible order number 227 impressed all Soviet people, military and civilian. The personnel at the front read it before the line, it was not published and not voiced in the press, but it is clear that the meaning of the order, which was heard by hundreds of thousands of fighters, became widely known to the Soviet people.

Quickly found out about him and the enemy. In August 1942, our intelligence intercepted several orders on the 4th tank German army rushing to Stalingrad. Initially, the enemy command believed that "the Bolsheviks were defeated and order No. 227 can no longer restore either discipline or the perseverance of the troops." However, literally a week later, the opinion changed, and a new order of the German command already warned that from now on the advancing “Wehrmacht” would have to face a strong and organized defense.

If in July 1942 of the year, at the beginning of the onset of the Nazis to the Volga, the pace of advance eastward, deep into the USSR, was sometimes measured in tens of kilometers per day, in August they were measured in kilometers, in September - in hundreds of meters per day. In October, 1942, in Stalingrad, the Germans regarded promotion on 40 – 50 meters as a great success. By mid-October, such an “offensive” stopped. The Stalinist order “Not a step back!” Was carried out literally, becoming one of the most important steps to our victory.
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  1. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 14 November 2015 06: 53
    36
    Whatever the situation, so is the order. It was Stalingrad that "broke" the psychology of the victors, which made the German army so formidable (of course, together with order, discipline, interaction, etc.). The front-line soldiers whom I met did not like to talk about this order. But when they spoke, they said that if it were not for him, the panic of the summer and autumn of 1942 could not be stopped.
    1. T-73
      T-73 14 November 2015 19: 38
      +8
      Quote: Mountain Shooter
      It was Stalingrad that "broke" the psychology of the winners

      I bet they broke it rather near Kursk, and the operations of 41-42 years near Moscow contributed. Stalingrad did not break, forced to think. The machine was still working, and quite efficiently. And with regards to the order ... Cruel - yes, there is nothing to add. But it was necessary to survive, it is vital.
      Quote: Mountain Shooter
      What situation, such is the order.

      There are no options.
  2. apro
    apro 14 November 2015 06: 53
    20
    The order is a masterpiece of the attitude of the people and the government, to tell the truth to mobilize people and to win, now I think the authorities are not capable of such a situation and our situation is worse than then in 1942. We defeated the truth, the truth about our situation without embellishment then the message to fight to the end otherwise death was understood all Soviet citizens.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Aleksander
      Aleksander 15 November 2015 06: 00
      +4
      Quote: apro
      .We won the truth, the truth


      There was only a PART of truth in the order. There was not a word about the true reasons for what happened. Namely, about the absolutely adventurous and criminal Kharkov offensive operation of May 1942 of the year, as a result of which our group of 600 thousand soldiers was destroyed, a huge amount of equipment (with such difficulty built!) And a huge hole was created that was not covered by hundreds of kilometers. The Germans quickly reached the Volga, not because the army fought badly, but because she was not there. And it was not precisely as a result of the actions of the command, on which lay the main blame for the situation.
  3. blizart
    blizart 14 November 2015 06: 55
    16
    It is difficult for a civilian person (not even liberal values) to imagine the degree of centralization of power in the army; it, especially in times of peace, seems reduced to insanity. When a superior commander calls out the name of your unit, no matter how great it may be, your commander is responsible for all - I! In the warring army, the Supreme, a kind of deity. The signals coming from it should be clear, specific, not allowing for double interpretations. If the Supreme has done it, we get May 9, if not, the shameful Brest peace.
    1. Uncle Joe
      Uncle Joe 14 November 2015 19: 47
      +1
      Quote: blizart
      If the Supreme coped, we get May 9, if not, the infamous Brest peace.
      We assess the present situation in connection with the German offensive and the flight of our troops as follows: overthrowing our imperialists, we, thanks to the slow pace of the revolutionary movement in the West, the instability of our troops and the unprecedented predation of the German imperialists, have temporarily fallen into the clutches of foreign imperialism, against which we must now but to prepare forces for the organization of the Patriotic War in the hope of unleashing revolutionary forces in the West, which, in our opinion, is inevitable. Such training requires a minimum respite, which even the atrocious world could give. In no case can illusions be made. One must have the courage to face reality and admit that we temporarily fell into the clutches of German imperialism. These considerations were guided by the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of Soviets, which decided today at 3 a.m. to conclude peace on atrocious conditions and instructed the Council of People's Commissars to send a delegation to Brest, which was done today. The CEC decided that only under such conditions would it be possible to maintain Soviet power. In the meantime, prepare and prepare again for the organization of a holy war against German imperialism.
      I. Stalin vol. 4 p. 42-43
  4. domokl
    domokl 14 November 2015 06: 57
    33
    Talk about this order has been going on for many years. Someone talks about its cruelty, someone, on the contrary, about the correctness and timeliness.
    In my opinion, the order is correct. It is not necessary to turn a blind eye to the fact that by the 2 year it became clear that not only the unit commanders are to blame for the retreat, but also the unit commanders and ordinary soldiers. Shyness, especially those who were recently part of other states , caused a panic. Army controllability was weak.
    And those who were captured in the first weeks of the war most often surrendered themselves. We did not learn how to fight then. did not see the light of victory. they saw only the superiority of the German army. Tanks, planes ... It was necessary to somehow give a concept to these hesitant that such actions would lead not only to the betrayal of these people, but also to a change in attitude towards their relatives and friends.
    And about the free mouth. There was such a wonderful front-line writer-Karpov. Scout, Hero of the Soviet Union. He wrote wonderful works about the war. During the war, his 3 (three) times was sentenced to penalties. Even, in my opinion, he received medals there that did not comply with the regulations of the penal court. And he ended the war with the intelligence commander, Hero. So, it is also difficult to deny their educational role.
    1. blizart
      blizart 14 November 2015 07: 44
      12
      And those who were captured in the first weeks of the war most often surrendered themselves.
      My father-in-law, who started the war on the Bialystok ledge, remembered the empty trenches left by neighbors at night (he did not even call them personnel). When I gave this example in a comment, I was simply crushed with cons. Those who have not fought do not understand that there is a place for everything in a war, and there was everything. There was one rifle for three and the Germans were raped. And many had to be faced with a choice between "an honorable death in front and a shameful one behind." It's just that in spite of everything our fathers have done well and we have been trying on their feat for ourselves all our lives - we are looking for the answer: "Could we ?!" I don’t know.
      1. SibSlavRus
        SibSlavRus 14 November 2015 11: 08
        +3
        Where there is room for double interpretation, there is always room for doubt. There should be no room for doubt to educate a citizen-patriot and a future warrior on the scale of the country and time. The main thing here is the results, not the analysis of cause-and-effect relationships. And then all sorts of reflections, like "Could we?" and “I don’t know” will not matter.
        There were wars before, there were after. We not only conquered our country, won independence, but now we are maintaining integrity and even growing. And for many states in the modern world, the problem is only to remain. The collective mind at the level of the unconscious in war, and not the "individuality and individual rights" of the Western model, is a unique feature of the Russian spirit, a massive readiness for self-sacrifice for the Motherland, including a very broad concept of land-clan-family-spiritual world.
        Stalin spoke very well about the unity in which our strength is. And this includes, first of all, a spiritual state.
        1. alexej123
          alexej123 15 November 2015 01: 44
          +1
          You're right. My grandfather, I did not know, the sisters told, after watching Ozerov's epic "Liberation", especially the series on the capture of Berlin, he said - this is not true, the war was not like that. I bow to him, everyone had their own war, and there was one war, where the goal was to withstand and win.
        2. kuz363
          kuz363 16 October 2016 07: 28
          +1
          Well, what is the education of a citizen and a patriot! You are clearly in the clouds. What is the motivation of today's Russians to fight in WWII? Missing completely. If before they went to battle for the homeland, Stalin, the party, now for whom? Chubais. Dvorkovich, Putin? Maybe Abramovich with Miller? Is it after 25 years of experimenting in a market economy over a country and population?
    2. Karabanov
      Karabanov 14 November 2015 09: 16
      13
      Quote: domokl
      Talk about this order has been going on for many years. Someone talks about its cruelty, someone, on the contrary, about the correctness and timeliness.
      In my opinion, the order is correct. It is not necessary to turn a blind eye to the fact that by the year 2 it became clear that not only the unit commanders were to blame for the retreat, but also the unit commanders and ordinary soldiers.

      I am of the opinion that the order is certainly forced, but correct.
      In those conditions and under that current situation, it was necessary. Although we should not forget that frank miscalculations of command also led to this order. The crushing defeat in the Kharkov operation on May 12 - 25, 1942, led by Tymoshenko, when the losses amounted to 170 thousand killed and 240 thousand prisoners, which was one of the reasons for the future dire situation near Stalingrad and the Caucasus.
      So order No. 227 is largely a consequence of the disastrous actions of the Red Army in the spring of 1942. and many had to pay with their lives for the stupidity and ambitions of others.
      1. Karabanov
        Karabanov 14 November 2015 09: 44
        0
        Those who do not agree, you try at least to reasonably minus ...
    3. avt
      avt 14 November 2015 13: 05
      0
      Quote: domokl
      In my opinion, the order is correct

      "We would have died if we had not died" - Themistocles. With arms in hand, not retreating without orders .... I would add for the article ...
      1. kalibr
        kalibr 14 November 2015 21: 26
        +1
        If earlier Soviet propaganda described primarily successes and good fortunes, emphasized the strengths of the USSR and our army, then Stalin’s order No. 227 began precisely with a statement of terrible failures and losses.

        That is, again, come to what? The propaganda was unsatisfactory! And only extreme circumstances forced to say what is. When you read the Truth it is especially striking. Sovinformburo reports: our soldiers killed, captured, captured, the Germans cowardly hiding in the clouds ... then our troops left Kiev.
        1. gladcu2
          gladcu2 16 November 2015 05: 57
          +1
          kalibr

          You began to analyze the order. Let me yours, 5 cents.

          This order speaks much more than we think.

          This order says that faith in the people of the country on the part of the government is extremely high and that feedback is not broken.

          About this order has always been spoken in parts. And highlighted those moments that relegated the role of government. Moreover, focusing only on the role of the people.

          Well. Photos don't lie. "For motherland for Stalin"
    4. bandabas
      bandabas 14 November 2015 15: 00
      0
      I think they gave up themselves, then they hoped that soon it would all be over. But. Ended in 4 years. And a month later (and someone immediately) just did not give up.
      1. gladcu2
        gladcu2 16 November 2015 17: 12
        0
        bandanas

        You have a purely liberal logic, the criteria for which is an underestimated level of responsibility and selfish thinking.
        Like to spit on everything, my hut from the edge.

        Our great-grandfathers, thank God, thought differently. They had a collective responsibility to protect their country, their small homeland, their family.

        And this is precisely the meaning of this Stalin's order. Where Stalin appeals to the consciousness of citizens. Moreover, the state does not relieve itself of responsibility. For they say that the one who breaks the order should receive high punishment.

        To make a trial of their citizens is a state responsibility.
  5. parusnik
    parusnik 14 November 2015 07: 14
    20
    But do not overestimate their contribution to the victory - during the years of the Great Patriotic War, no more than 3 out of every 100 servicemen mobilized in the army and navy went through penal companies or battalions. ... But what our liberals do not take this into account .. all of them are continuous fines and detachments ..
    1. Russia
      Russia 14 November 2015 08: 59
      17
      Only Che then our liberals do not take this into account .. all of them are continuous penal battalions and detachments ..

      The more terrible Stalin - the nicer the liberalist ...!
  6. bionik
    bionik 14 November 2015 07: 31
    +4
    In topic: On November 16, 1941, at the Dubosekovo junction in the Volokolamsk district of the Moscow region, the head of a group of tank destroyers participated in repelling numerous enemy attacks, the commissar of the 4th company of the 2nd battalion of the 1075th rifle regiment Klochkov Vasily Georgievich participated. He is credited with such words addressed to the fighters: "Russia is great, but nowhere to retreat - behind Moscow!"
  7. Koshak
    Koshak 14 November 2015 07: 33
    +6
    Quote: parusnik
    But do not overestimate their contribution to the victory - during the years of the Great Patriotic War, no more than 3 out of every 100 servicemen mobilized in the army and navy went through penal companies or battalions. ... Only Che, our liberals do not take this into account .. all of them are continuous fines and detachments.


    So our liberals can’t be lifted from the sofa otherwise - they judge by themselves
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 14 November 2015 14: 28
      +4
      Returning to statistics and liberals .. Guided by their logic, it turns out. 3 people out of 100 were in penal battalions, and the remaining 97 detachments .. smile
  8. Free wind
    Free wind 14 November 2015 07: 39
    +7
    There was a terrible war, terrible and terrible, but we survived and won !!!!!!!
  9. Boris55
    Boris55 14 November 2015 07: 48
    -7
    Order No. 227 also carried out another role that no one is considering anywhere. The retreat of brigades and armies did not depend on the soldier - I do not believe that without orders they left their trenches with whole battalions and companies. This order was directed not so much against the soldiers as against the desire of some bosses with the help of Hitler to overthrow Stalin.
    1. Sergey S.
      Sergey S. 14 November 2015 10: 44
      +6
      Quote: Boris55
      This order was directed not so much against the soldiers as against the desire of some bosses with the help of Hitler to overthrow Stalin.

      No need to create new myths.
      You, as I understand it, did not speak with the war veterans ...
      1. Boris55
        Boris55 14 November 2015 11: 28
        -4
        Quote: Sergey S.
        No need to create new myths.

        It was shown to you higher on the numbers that only three fell into disbats out of 100 and not the fact that they were all for cowardice, and who sent the remaining 97 from the trenches to the rear? I repeat once again - the order is more concerned with the heads of all levels, but this is not discussed, but in vain.

        1. Boris55
          Boris55 14 November 2015 11: 46
          -3
          Addition to the post above.
          One of the reasons for the assassination of Stalin and Beria was precisely their attempt to analyze failures in the first months of the war. For many eminent bosses, Bosko would fly off ...
          1. tolancop
            tolancop 14 November 2015 20: 57
            +6
            Have you waited 6 years before starting to unscrew the "boski"? Any arguments in defense of your version? For some reason, Pavlov did not drag on for a long time.
        2. T-73
          T-73 14 November 2015 19: 45
          +3
          Common verbiage. not an argument. Who is it? I myself can upload my video and call white black on the background of a contour map of the world. Few? That’s not enough for me. Your numbers are not wealthy. Prove the converse.
      2. Ivan Tartugai
        Ivan Tartugai 14 November 2015 12: 51
        +1


        These are not myths. Boris55 is right. Marshals and generals fought very poorly, almost at the level of betrayal. But you know the front, the army, the corps, the division without control, at best, a crowd of armed men and no more. And armed people need to be managed, unified, organized, coordinated their mutual actions, to supply them with weapons, ammunition, clothing, food, medicine. This is the work of the marshals and generals and this work the marshals and generals did very badly. So bad that the army rolled back to the Volga. Killed millions of Soviet people. The crowd of Red Army soldiers, no matter how big, would not be, no matter how brave they would be, but without control, without communication, easy prey for the Wehrmacht, it is not difficult to encircle, defeat, or capture it.
        1. T-73
          T-73 14 November 2015 19: 57
          0
          Quote: Ivan Tartugay
          Marshals and generals fought very poorly, almost at the level of betrayal.

          Take it easy, dear. If you equalize everyone under Pavlov, it is not a fact that all the "marshals and generals" have betrayed. Let it be known to you that you (sort of) accuse no less Blucher, Tukhachevsky, Budyonny and ... well, two more of treason. after all, before the 2nd MV we had 5 marshals. Check out at your leisure.
          Quote: Ivan Tartugay
          Crowd of Red Army soldiers

          learned, praise. read serious books.
          Quote: Ivan Tartugay
          without control, without communication, easy prey for the Wehrmacht

          It turned out to be not easy. Something does not fit. Ready for discussion. I put the minus, I justified it.
          1. Ivan Tartugai
            Ivan Tartugai 15 November 2015 12: 45
            -1
            “... it turned out to be not easy. Something does not fit. Ready for discussion. I put the minus, I justified it. ”

            During the 16 days of the Bialystok-Minsk battle, the Red Army suffered 341 thousand soldiers and commanders, and 76 thousand were wounded, and the Wehrmacht lost 6535 killed, about one thousand were wounded and 20 thousand were wounded. The ratio of irretrievable losses is 1 to 45, i.e. for one Wehrmacht soldier who died or was captured, 45 soldiers and commanders of the Red Army died or were captured. This is almost the level of colonial wars, where on the one hand the colonialists, Wehrmacht soldiers armed with machine guns, and on the other hand a native, soldiers and commanders of the Red Army, in loincloths and armed with spears, bows.
            You see for yourself, an easy victory for the Wehrmacht or it was hard for them.
        2. tolancop
          tolancop 14 November 2015 21: 03
          0
          ".. The marshals and generals fought very badly, almost at the level of betrayal .."
          What all? Or is it that someone from the marshals and generals fought well?

          And armed people need to be managed, unified, organized, coordinated their mutual actions, to supply them with weapons, ammunition, clothing, food, medicines
          I will surprise you very much with the assertion that all of the above applies to unarmed people?
          And the questions of supplying weapons, ammunition, clothes and other things for the most part still lie not with the generals and marshals, but for the most part with the civilian leadership.
          1. Ivan Tartugai
            Ivan Tartugai 15 November 2015 12: 06
            0
            What all? Or is it that someone from the marshals and generals fought well?
            You know, Marshals Budyonny, Voroshilov, Kulik, Tymoshenko worked very poorly at the beginning of the war. Shaposhnikov, for health reasons, did not take an active part, was a member of the evacuation council. So we can consider all of the above marshals, except for the elderly and not very healthy Shaposhnikov, who fought poorly at the beginning and throughout the war.
            According to the generals - corps commander Major General Rokossovsky KK, division commander Major General Mikushev NG, but at the highest level, for example, the commanders of the main front-line districts Pavlov, Kirponos, Cherevichenko, Tyulenev with their headquarters, army commanders, for example Korobkov, Kachalov, fought well. , Ponedelin, Filatov, Muzychenko, commanders of military branches, generals Kopets, Klich, Grigoryev fought very poorly and provided easy victories for the Wehrmacht with their actions.
            You are partially right that the bulk of the supply of weapons, ammunition, clothing and other things lies largely with the civilian leadership, but only to the factory warehouse of finished products. And already at the military depots only generals command. You know that it was the generals from the General Staff of the Red Army, led by Army General Zhukov, who placed the stores of weapons, property, ammunition, fuel and lubricants, and food so that in the very first days of the war they went to the Wehrmacht intact. Wehrmacht received about 76 mm cannons from Grabin in captured warehouses about XNUMX units new in oil. As a result, both the rifle and gun famine of the Red Army and the Soviet rear formed, namely civilian women, old people, and teenagers, were torn to compensate for material losses.
        3. alexej123
          alexej123 15 November 2015 01: 48
          0
          Everything is simple and easy, understandable. This is not true. At that time, all factors intertwined - and blaming everything on incompetence is not right.
    2. Vadim2013
      Vadim2013 16 November 2015 01: 57
      0
      The stepfather told how their militia division threw trenches during the first shelling near Tula in the autumn of 1941.
  10. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 14 November 2015 07: 57
    +7
    Many thanks to the author for this article.
  11. Dart2027
    Dart2027 14 November 2015 08: 31
    +4
    What liberals like to forget is that the idea was not invented by Stalin:

    After their winter retreat under the pressure of the Red Army, when discipline was shaken in the German troops, the Germans took some measures to restore discipline, which led to good results.
    They formed more than 100 penal companies from fighters guilty of discipline violation due to cowardice or instability, put them on dangerous sections of the front and ordered them to atone for their sins with blood.
    They formed, further, about a dozen penal battalions of commanders who were guilty of violating the discipline of cowardice or instability, deprived them of orders, placed them on even more dangerous sections of the front and ordered them to atone for their sins.
    Finally, they formed special barrage units, placed them behind unstable divisions, and ordered them to shoot at the place of alarmists in case of an attempt to leave positions unauthorized and in case of an attempt to surrender.
    As you know, these measures had their effect, and now the German troops are fighting better than they fought in the winter. And so it turns out that the German troops have a good discipline, although they do not have the lofty goal of protecting their homeland, they have only one predatory goal to conquer a foreign country, and our troops, having the lofty goal of protecting their scolded Motherland, do not have such discipline and suffer this defeat.
    Shouldn't we learn from our enemies in this matter, how did our ancestors learn from our enemies in the past and then triumph over them?
    I think that follows.
    1. yuriy55
      yuriy55 14 November 2015 09: 15
      +5
      What liberals like to forget is that the idea was not invented by Stalin:

      ... but much earlier, here is one example:

      But the main distinguishing feature of Genghis Khan's army, which significantly increased its combat capability, was, along with a clear organization, iron military discipline. Vladimir Chivilikhin wrote: “The hordes of Chingiz and his descendants, which consisted of warriors of different languages, who remembered all their legends and myths, who prayed to very different idols and gods, were cemented by a simple and tough military organization, animal fear of their foremen, centurions and thousanders, iron discipline supported by merciless punishments. For one warrior, his whole life was responsible for a dozen, for a dozen calculated a hundred. Failure to comply with orders or cowardice in battle were unheard of crimes, almost impossibleand ordinary soldiers could not even see this in a dream, because they had to pay the highest price for much more minor misconduct.

      If you, while carrying guards, left your post, but in battle because of unwillingness to take risks, light injury, inexperience, sluggishness, or for some other reason you suddenly did not want to, failed or did not manage to help your neighbor, then after the battle you will be put in front of your top ten , and the one who in a minute will take the vacant place in it will slowly approach you, and you will remain lying on this foreign land with your heart torn out, like that young Merkit, Uygur, Naiman or Kipchak, whom you killed in this way after one of the battles , replacing him for the time being in this brave ten dogs of the great khan, "the conqueror of the universe." If two warriors quarreled among themselves, remembering the old tribal enmity, or, having argued over trifles, quarreled over booty or any other reason that no one will disassemble, both will appear before their hundred, hairy lassos will be thrown over their legs, overwhelmed by the chest and, slowly pulling up, break the spines.


      http://biofile.ru/his/29663.html
    2. Alf
      Alf 14 November 2015 09: 45
      +3
      Quote: Dart2027
      What liberals like to forget is that the idea was not invented by Stalin:

      After their winter retreat under the pressure of the Red Army, when discipline was shaken in the German troops, the Germans took some measures to restore discipline, which led to good results.
      They formed more than 100 penal companies from fighters guilty of discipline violation due to cowardice or instability, put them on dangerous sections of the front and ordered them to atone for their sins with blood.

      There was one big difference between our penalties and the German ones. Our penal units were sent for a period of 3 months. In German - "before correction", i.e. in the opinion of the commander, which most often meant "forever".
      And order 227 appeared very in time. It clearly said, “Either we will resist now or we will lose. And the key word was "now". Everything hung by a thread.
  12. The comment was deleted.
  13. GAF
    GAF 14 November 2015 08: 38
    +4
    We are not "pioneers" in such matters. According to Halder's testimony (from his diaries), a similar order from Hitler during the retreat of the Germans in the snowy, frosty suburbs of Moscow helped to save the Army Group Center from complete defeat. For leaving positions - execution. The lightest punishment for an officer is demotion to the rank and file. Penalty divisions, etc. "A la guerre comme a la guerre"
  14. Mangel olys
    Mangel olys 14 November 2015 09: 28
    +8
    ORDER

    PEOPLE'S COMMISSIONER OF THE USSR DEFENSE

    28 July 1942 years №227 city Moscow

    "... Alarmists and cowards should be exterminated on the spot.

    From now on, the iron law of discipline for each commander, Red Army soldier, political worker should be a requirement - not a step back without an order from the highest command.

    The commanders of the company, battalion, regiment, division, the corresponding commissioners and political workers, retreating from a military position without orders from above, are traitors to the Motherland. It is necessary to act with such commanders and political workers, as with traitors of the Motherland.

    Such is the call of our Motherland.

    To fulfill this order means to defend our land, save the Motherland, destroy and defeat the hated enemy ... "

    Letter from V. Chuikov to A. Solzhenitsyn in connection with the publication of the book “The Gulag Archipelago”
    "... I read further Solzhenitsyn's narrative. On pages 91 and 92 I see:" In the same year, after failures near Kerch (120 thousand prisoners), near Kharkov (even more), during a major southern retreat to the Caucasus and the Volga - a very important stream of officers and soldiers who did not want to fight to the death and retreated without permission, those who, according to the immortal Stalinist order No. 227, the Motherland cannot forgive their shame, was pumped over. This stream did not, however, reach the Gulag: accelerated processed by the tribunals of divisions, he was chased into penal companies and disappeared without a trace in the red sand of the frontline. It was the cement of the foundation of the Stalingrad victory.
    ... You do not like Stalin’s order No. 227, which has armed us, all fighters, for the merciless extermination of the enemy ... Do you not like order No. 227? I know it. You have a lot of like-minded people from the Wehrmacht generals in this matter. General Dörr, in his campaign, “Campaign to Stalingrad,” writes on page 30: “Stalin’s order was characterized by the style of presentation: a fatherly tone of appeal to soldiers and people ... No reproaches, no threats ... No empty promises ... He took action. From about 10 of August, an increase in enemy resistance was noted in all sectors of the front. ”
  15. moskowit
    moskowit 14 November 2015 09: 39
    +3
    But first there was order No.270 of 16 on August 1941 of the year.
    "I order:

    1. Commanders and political workers who, during a battle, tear off insignia and deserting to the rear or surrender to the enemy, be considered malicious deserters, whose families are to be arrested as oaths and those who have betrayed their homeland deserters.

    To oblige all senior commanders and commissioners to shoot on the spot such deserters from the commanders.

    2. The units and subunits that were encircled by the enemy selflessly fight to the last opportunity, to protect the material part, as the eyeball of the eye, to break through to their backs of the enemy troops, defeating the fascist dogs.

    To oblige each soldier, regardless of his official position, to demand from a higher commander, if part of him is surrounded, to fight to the last opportunity to get to his, and if such a chief or part of the Red Army instead of organizing resistance to the enemy would prefer to surrender - to destroy by all means, both land and air, and the families of surrendered Red Army soldiers to deprive of state benefits and assistance.

    3. To oblige the commanders and commissars of divisions to immediately remove from posts the commanders of battalions and regiments hiding in the gaps during battle and who are afraid to direct the course of battle on the battlefield, reduce them ex officio as impostors, transfer them to private soldiers and, if necessary, shoot them on the spot, putting forward their place is courageous and courageous people from the junior commanders or from the ranks of distinguished Red Army men.

    The order to read in all companies, squadrons, batteries, squadrons, teams and headquarters.

    The rate of the Supreme Main Command of the Red Army:

    J. Stalin

    Deputy Chairman of the State Defense Committee

    V.Molotov

    Marshal of the Soviet Union S. Budyonny "
  16. moskowit
    moskowit 14 November 2015 10: 13
    -1
    One more thing. They really love in moderation and without measure we exaggerate the topic of penalties. There were. You can't throw out words from a song ... And on this occasion, a lot of different books have been published with extremely opposing positions of the authors. Isn't it time for the Institute of the History of the Armed Forces to release an official work on this topic with an objective interpretation of documents and regulations?
    Recently I got acquainted with the book by A. Drabkin "I fought in the IL-2". So there, the pilots remember that sometimes fined officers of airfield services flew as a gunner, but a strictly defined number of sorties. Also, in the books about tankers, it was said about the sending of crews to penal companies that left serviceable vehicles for various reasons.
  17. Scud
    Scud 14 November 2015 10: 18
    +1
    The war against fascism-imperialism is not over. The Baltic states, Poland, some in Belarus, in Dill, and these are not all Russia's neighbors with a Nazi bias.
  18. moskowit
    moskowit 14 November 2015 10: 22
    +2
    Such a page of the war as the formation of the OSB is completely forgotten. Separate assault rifle battalions.

    "... There were no convicts in the assault battalions. By order of the People's Commissar of Defense No. 1348 of August 1, 1943" On the formation of separate assault rifle battalions ", officers were selected for the permanent composition of these units (battalion commanders and political officers, chiefs of staff and company commanders) from among “the best, carefully selected and well-trained commanding staff with combat experience.” The variable composition (special contingent) was formed from among the officers who had been in captivity or in occupied territory for some time and who had not been able to prove their participation in partisan actions against the enemy .. . "

    "..." Sturmoviks "fundamentally differed from penalties in that they were neither convicted nor deprived of officer ranks and awards. Therefore, in the text of the order of the People's Commissar of Defense I.V. Stalin there is even such a clause:" For families of personnel assigned to battalions from the special camps of the NKVD, to provide all the rights and advantages determined by law for the families of the commanding staff. "It is still useful to study the documents of that difficult war period, when about once a year there were harsh orders of the Headquarters and the People's Commissar of Defense: August 19, 1941, No. 270 ( not to surrender), July 28, 1942 (penal companies and battalions, detachments) and August 1, 1943 No. 1348 (assault battalions) .... "

    “... The term of stay in the OShSB was“ two months of participation in battles, either until being awarded an order for valor in battle or until the first wound. ”After serving in such a battalion, the“ attack aircraft ”was transferred to the field forces for a position corresponding to his officer rank. The special contingent (variable composition) was given a uniform that corresponded to the position: shooters - in private clothes, squad and platoon commanders - with insignia of sergeants and lieutenants, even if they were captains or colonels.

    The rifle battalion remained a military unit, regardless of whether it was an assault battalion or a line battalion. Therefore, its staff included "non-combatant" ranks - carts, blacksmiths, forging, tailors, shoemakers, cooks, drivers. They were also manned by a special contingent (officers!) Of Lyuberetskiy, Podolskiy, Kalachevskiy, Belokalitvenskiy and other special NKVD camps, from where the staffs of riflemen, machine gunners, mortars were recruited for the first four assault rifle battalions. Each OShSB had 927 soldiers, of which the special contingent consisted of 784 fighters and commanders. The "attack aircraft" were armed mainly with rifles, light and heavy machine guns, light mortars, PPSh machine guns were in the company of submachine gunners. To combat tanks, the OShSB had 18 anti-tank rifles. The wagon horses and trucks were served by "non-combatant ranks" from the special contingent.

    In 1943, four separate assault rifle battalions were formed, in 1944 - 18 and in 1945 - 7, and three of them were formed on May 9, 1945, and one was created after the Victory - on May 11! Apparently, the officers of the special contingent were also planning to use in the war with Japan ... "

    Whoever is interested in this topic can find information on the Internet. Sincerely, Nikolai Ivanovich ...
  19. avia12005
    avia12005 14 November 2015 10: 28
    +4
    For some reason it seems to me that it is already time to create penal companies from some members of the government and governors ...
    1. ImPerts
      ImPerts 14 November 2015 10: 44
      +1
      It's time, it's time ...
      They think one thing, they say the second, they do the third ...
  20. Weaving
    Weaving 14 November 2015 11: 04
    +1
    All that chernukha that was poured on our great history after the collapse (betrayal) of the USSR, greatly undermined the faith in the Fatherland among the younger generation, and such articles are very necessary.
  21. onix757
    onix757 14 November 2015 11: 06
    0
    It is interesting how people would behave now by shifting the tracing-paper of the order to our feudal society.
  22. provincial
    provincial 14 November 2015 11: 22
    0
    In VO there was already an article on this topic. But someone needs to return to this again. I would not be surprised if articles about the Gulags and other "negativism" in the Union appear again. Looks like our liberals began to feel bad in Russia and are looking for support in society.
  23. vmo
    vmo 14 November 2015 12: 11
    0
    Liberasti is here and modern in ........ fatherland. And what is the use of them?
  24. erg
    erg 14 November 2015 12: 38
    +1
    There is nothing new under the sun. I offer excerpts from the military article of 1715.
    Article 97. Regiments, or companies that are in battle with the enemy
    having entered, they will run, they are destined to be in the general military court. AND
    is it found that the initial parable of that was a sword
    from the executioner they are broken and they are defamated, and then they will be hanged.
    And if the bosses and rank-and-file were transgressed in that, then the bosses, as
    mentioned above, will be punished, and of the rank and file for tenth
    (or according to the invention of the case it will be supposed) hanged, and
    they will be punished with gauntlets, and, moreover, without banners outside the convoy
    they have to stand while they deserve their brave deeds. Bude
    but whoever can render his innocence, he will receive his mercy.

    Article 118. Which of the officers to whom the team is in the fortress
    I’m sure that this place will be laid out without extreme need, and it will leave
    has no honor, no belongings and no belly, ordinary men without banners
    stand outside the convoy and are forced to clear themselves of that vice until
    the aforesaid their sin and timidity, courageous deeds packs
    will direct.
    Article 119. If the officers subordinate to the commandant and
    the rank-and-file salads of his commandant will be forced, or lured to the building
    fortresses, then all the officers (who are guilty of such a thing
    essence, and allowed for such a compulsion) of honor, belongings and belly
    deprived of being. And of the ordinary, the tenth is always hanged by lot, and
    runny as runaway punished to be.
    Article 120. But officers and salads without any parable
    allow the commandant ahead of time, and not seeing extreme need, on
    a chord should be struck, and they will not be advised of that, or
    will be kept, while both officers and soldiers should be instigated against 117
    article.
    Interpretation. In addition, in this case, resistance, not only
    allowed, but also commanded in such a way that there are officers
    they will see that the commandant unnecessarily surrender the fortress, then
    they have proceeded to rebuke him, and bow him to
    posts. And if it’s impossible to persuade him of such an intention,
    onago arrest, and each other instead of him to elect, and
    they must defend such a fortress in every possible way.
    Article 122. No one shall dare under the punishment of death,
    Resist the battle with the enemy, not sparing your stomach, until
    extremes, and work where it will be commanded.
    Article 123. The parables, for the sake of the commandant, officers and
    salads can be excused when the fortress is sold, the essence
    following: (1) Extreme hunger when there will be nothing than a person
    can eat, having in advance all kinds of food care,
    (2) When there is nothing left to the ammunition, which is the same with everyone
    wasted by the shore; (3) When people so wither that defend
    not quite at. state will be (and in the entire siege defended bravely)
    they can’t get sycourse, and that fortresses are already by all kinds
    it will be impossible to keep; (4) However, these points are those that
    They have no special decree. And who have a decree until the last
    defend a person, then no need to surrender for
    the enemy, and do not give the fortress.
  25. Tambov Wolf
    Tambov Wolf 14 November 2015 12: 39
    +3
    This is a normal order of a leader who understands responsibility for the fate of the country. The current ones are slaby for such things. They are still in a state of liberation, not realizing that their "partners" are the real enemies of our people. Playing games with them will not lead to anything good. They think that sitting on a pipe and putting babos in their pockets will come to a bright bourgeois future. They make mistakes. The truckers' strike is only the first little call to the thieves and the new bourgeoisie with a communist past.
  26. Dimon19661
    Dimon19661 14 November 2015 12: 52
    +2
    Eternal memory to the grandfathers and great-grandfathers who won this bloody war. All Europe fought against the USSR, but we survived and won. By the way, I never understand why France is the country the winner? One part fell under Hitler, the second stupidly capitulated. Not .. .we cannot understand Europe ...
  27. andrew42
    andrew42 14 November 2015 15: 33
    +1
    I don’t remember verbatim, but according to his own memoirs, Paulus began to understand that it was a matter of seams when he encountered troops of the militia on the outskirts of Stalingrad, and because of the levers of the hastily repaired and soon wrecked tanks, the Germans pulled the bodies of workers in blue robes. If there were no Order 227, this would not have happened. When the army is running, what to demand from the civilians. The correct order, on time and to the place. It’s clear that they used to come under him formally, without personal guilt they went to a penal battalion or a fine. But it was insulting to dozens, and tens of thousands stood to death. That is, the order worked, and it is not clear what could work better in that period.
  28. knobelsdorf
    knobelsdorf 14 November 2015 17: 27
    0
    For 60% of the Red Army, this order was simply irrelevant. The Western Front was preparing to advance (Pogorel-Gorodishchensky operation). The Volkhov Front was preparing to lift the Siege of Leningrad (2nd Sinyavinsky Operation) And I can’t imagine with what sauce political officers and commissars of all ranks presented this order fighters and commanders who did not even think of retreating, but on the contrary were going to knock out the Fritz from Rzhev
  29. Basil50
    Basil50 14 November 2015 17: 37
    +1
    I wanted to thank for the portrait of the commander-in-chief of the ARMY WINNER, JOSEPH VISSARIONOVICH STALIN, but he doesn’t open for me. Apparently, the editorial board of VO is dependent on those who cannot forgive the VICTORY in any way to JOSEPH VISSARIONOVICH STALIN. Here is a portrait and is hidden, although it is present on the screen saver.
    1. Basil50
      Basil50 16 November 2015 19: 37
      0
      I thank the editors for the portrait of Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin.
      Sorry for the harshness of the previous text. Too often they are even afraid to mention the name of JOSEPH VISSARIONOVICH STALIN, COMMANDER OF THE RED ARMY, THE WINNERS of the Nazis and their hangers-on. I really do not want YOU, the editorial board of VO, to follow the lead of * liberalists * and other riffraffers.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  30. Support
    Support 14 November 2015 18: 06
    0
    Che some bullshit. The portrait is definitely hidden, although I copied it. And the site is half open as it should. Hey, modders, or who is it, developed? Che for nonsense? Correct the jambs ..... and do not joke with Stalin ......
  31. WERSTA.
    WERSTA. 14 November 2015 19: 31
    -1
    I met after the war, already in 1950, the One whom the order found in the positions. He worked in our house as a director. In his conversations with us he talked about that terrible time. But these conversations were conducted with obligations for us not to spread This is for outsiders. In any house in those days it was mean to pledge whoever was not. We were very interested in his stories about the war. And we all managed not to let it slip. He went all the way. He remained disabled. He died from the consequences of his injuries. in 1959. He did not name the order number, but spoke only about the order of JV Stalin with the phrase "Not a step back."
  32. T-73
    T-73 14 November 2015 20: 07
    0
    Quote: WERSTA.
    and he spoke only about the order of JV Stalin with the phrase "Not a step back."

    Mayakovsky said everything about such people. About nails, if that ...
    1. moskowit
      moskowit 15 November 2015 07: 55
      +1
      Not the first time these words are attributed to V. Mayakovsky. Widespread misconception. These words belong to Nikolai Tikhonov, the famous writer and poet.

      BALLADA ABOUT NAILS
      Calm down the pipe to the end,
      He smiled calmly from his face.

      "Team, to the front! Officers, go!"
      The commander walks dryly.

      And the words are equal in full height:
      "Anchoring at eight.

      At whom the wife, the brother -
      Write, we will not come back.

      But there will be a noble bowling alley. "
      And the eldest in response: "Yes, captain!"

      And the most daring and young
      I looked at the sun over the water.

      “Does it matter,” he said, “where?
      It's even easier to lie in the water. "

      Admiral's ears caught the dawn:
      "The order is executed, there are no rescued".

      Nails would be made from these people:
      Harder would not have been in the world of nails.
      Between 1919 and 1922
  33. Stanss
    Stanss 14 November 2015 22: 06
    0
    I do not understand one thing: why everyone is shouting only the words: "not a step back" and few people quote this order further: "From now on, the iron law of discipline for every commander, Red Army soldier, political worker should be a demand - not a step back without orders from high command. "see for example the link: http://www.airpages.ru/dc/doc227.shtml
  34. Aleksander
    Aleksander 15 November 2015 06: 13
    0
    The first famous ORDER "227 was issued not by Stalin, but by the commander of the Black Sea Fleet. Alexander V. Kolchak in 1916 year:
    Order No. 227: “On the formation of the air division of the Black Sea Fleet” »- the first aircraft carrier fleet, which included the 11 aircraft carrier ships. Airplanes of the division bombarded the ships of the enemy, the coast of Bulgaria, Turkey, in particular the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles.
    Such was the "backward" Russia.