Military Review

Flaccid flowers of the “Polish Spring”

Flaccid flowers of the “Polish Spring”

The Polish uprising of 1830 rejected both Poland and Russia in the past.

Thanks to the decision of the Congress of Vienna on the map of Europe, Poland reappeared - the so-called Kingdom of Poland, which had the status of a kingdom that was in personal union with the Russian Empire. The Russian emperor Alexander I, who was a fiery supporter of the independence of the Polish state, granted him a liberal constitution: Poland was ruled by a Sejm, assembled every two years, and by a “king” —that is, the Russian emperor, who was represented by the governor. The first governor was the former divisional general of the Napoleonic army, Prince Jozef Zayonchek, whom the Poles considered a “traitor” for sympathy for Russia, and the Grand Duke Constantine was appointed commander-in-chief of the Polish army.

However, the elite, who did not experience Russia's loyalty, entered the army of the kingdom, which he was entrusted with leading from the very beginning. The fact is that it was staffed mainly from veterans of the Polish legions, who had recently fought for Napoleon and, of course, did not share Zayoncek’s views that Russia is the most reliable guarantee of Poland’s independence. The Polish gentry dreamed of restoring their homeland to the borders of the 1772 year - that is, before the first partition of Poland. But after all, within these borders, it included Lithuania, a piece of Belarus and the western part of Ukraine — the so-called eight voivodships that were part of the lands of the Russian Empire. That Poland, which the nobles with contempt called "congress", corresponded only to the former borders of Napoleon's "Duchy of Warsaw".

Emperor Alexander, who had a great sympathy for the Polish national movement, over time began to give the Poles more and more reasons for discontent. In 1819, preliminary censorship was introduced in the Kingdom of Poland. And after the Sejm rejected the imperial bill, which abolished jury trials (which were previously introduced by Napoleon), the king lost interest in the activities of the Polish parliament. When the third Diet was elected in 1822, its convocation was postponed for three years. The king did not want to see in the Sejm clear opposition: when one of the voivodships elected Vincent Nemoevsky, a well-known critic of the Russian authorities, he was re-elected there; Nemoevsky was elected again, and in punishment for this province the right to elect deputies was denied, and Nemoevsky himself was arrested. Fearing opposition sentiments in the Sejm, Alexander canceled the publicity of the meetings of the Polish parliament and turned him into an obedient executor of his will. Nobility outraged and caused the appointment of the new governor - after the death Zayonchek - Grand Duke Constantine, despite the fact that the latter sincerely loved Poland.

Vysotsky: thanks for being alive

The desire for independence forced the radical part of the officers to move to decisive actions. In 1819, several Polish officers created the National Masonic Society of about 200 people, which a year later was transformed into the Patriotic Society - a secret organization that had support in both noble and church (Catholic) circles. The patriotic society was not the only organization of Polish nationalists: the Kingdom of Poland abroad, on the lands of the Russian Empire itself, where the Poles lived (in Vilna and Volyn), a number of secret organizations appeared.

It is curious that the Patriotic Society tried to establish contacts with the Decembrists, but did not find any points of contact with them. As a result, even the investigation into the case of the Decembrists, in which hundreds of people who were barely involved in their conspiracy were arrested, did not find any connection between the rebels and the Polish secret societies.

The determination to openly oppose Russia appeared in the Patriotic Society after Russia entered the war with Turkey in 1828 - the conspirators hoped that the tsarist government could not quickly transfer the army in the Balkans to quell the uprising. One of the leaders of the society - Peter Vysotsky - arranged with other secret organizations to kill Emperor Nicholas during the coronation ceremony of his Polish crown, scheduled for March 1829 of the year. However, the plan could not be implemented: Emperor Nicholas was successfully crowned and became the Polish king.

Peter Vysotsky. Source:

New inspiration engulfed conspirators in August 1830, when they came news about the successes of the July revolution in France. A meeting was hastily convened, before which the question of an immediate uprising was raised. However, the majority of the conspirators spoke out against such haste: it was obvious that the efforts of a single officer could hardly bring up soldiers to fight - this plan was too similar to the one that the Decembrists had already tried unsuccessfully. It was decided to start the performance after the generals of the army could be involved in it. This turned out to be quite a real task: having inclined several generals to its side, the conspirators finally began preparations for an uprising. They saw the support of the people - separatist sentiments have long been embraced not only by the gentry, but also by the intelligentsia and even a significant part of ordinary citizens. Away from him was only the peasantry.

Salvation of the Tsarevich

According to Vysotsky’s plan, the uprising was to begin on the evening of November 29 with simultaneous arson attacks in the northern and southern parts of Warsaw. It was a signal: with the glow of fires, two events were planned at the same time - Polish students led by Ludwig Nabelyak were supposed to enter the Belvedere Palace and kill Tsarevich Constantine, and Vysotsky himself, with a detachment of troops, was to seize the Russian barracks and disarm the Russians. The death of the Grand Duke was necessary to decapitate that part of the military that retained loyalty to the Russians. Vysotsky conceded the killing of Constantine to students for noble reasons: it is not fitting for a soldier to shed the blood of his commander. It is curious that, like many nationalists of the early XIX century, Nabelyak was a folklorist and researcher stories his country: the historian could not wait to make history. After the capture of the arsenal, the conspirators were going to distribute weapon to the people.

“Capture of the Warsaw Arsenal”, painting by artist Marchin Zalessky

The plan was simple and effective — the conspirators could count on 10 support for thousands of soldiers against approximately 7 thousands of Russians, many of whom were also natives of former Polish regions. However, from the very beginning everything went wrong. The first arson occurred half an hour earlier than necessary, the second was not carried out at all. Nevertheless, Vysotsky and Nabelyak performed according to plan. Petr Vysotsky raised the under-words with the words: “Brothers, the hour of freedom has struck!” - and over 150 the conspirators attacked the barracks of the guards uhlans. The 18 students moved to Belvedere. Part of the rebels had to go to the palace from the facade, the other - to guard the rear in case "a bird would fly into the garden." They were joined by Valentin Vitkovsky, a former valet who served in the palace and knew the building well.

A peaceful dream of unsuspecting Constantine was disturbed by a crash on the first floor: breaking the windows in the entrance hall and the chandelier (I’d like to add - "and igniting car tires," but this will of course be an anachronism), the conspirators rushed up the stairs to the office of the Great the prince. Constantine was warned by the head of the Warsaw police in the palace, Lyubovitsky, who only had time to shout in Polish: “Bad, Your Highness!”, But the conspirators struck him with a bayonet. Constantine, outraged by the invasion, was going to leave the room directly to meet the rebels - and would probably have been killed if it were not for the determination of his valet Frize, who roughly pushed the Grand Duke away from the door and locked it from the inside.

The rebels tried in vain with their legs and butts to break down the oak, wrought iron door. The valet brought the Grand Duke out of the room through a secret passage, hiding in the attic. He was finally saved by a happy accident (happy, though, only for Constantine himself): the conspirators who were in charge of the garden grabbed General Alexey Gendre, who was trying to escape from the palace, - he was mistaken for a cesarevich by mistake. Zakolov his blows of bayonets, joyful rebels shouted: "The Grand Duke is killed!" - And their comrades hurried to leave the Belvedere Palace.

“The lancers are attacking the battery”, painting by artist Wojciech Kossak

The triumph of the rebels

The attack of Vysotsky and his colleagues on the Russian army barracks was more successful: in spite of the fact that their first attack was repulsed, a two-thousand crowd of students and workers who joined them burst into the barracks. The crowd tore up the six generals who remained loyal to the Tsarevich (one of those generals who participated in the uprising was killed by mistake). Weapons from the captured arsenal were distributed among the people. The demoralized Russian regiments left Warsaw, which was at the mercy of the rebels. The crowd robbed the shops and houses of Russians. “Ahead, the priest rode with a bare saber in his hand and excited the people to revolt; several drunken, fair-haired women walked, embracing with soldiers and rabble, in the midst of the crowd. All this sang, screamed; several close shots were heard — the whole house was trembling at the sound of a knock and a stamp; in the sky one could see the glow from fires in two places; the sound of the alarm went off in the distance, ”writes one of the witnesses of this terrible night.

Constantine turned out to be more resolute, the uprising could be suppressed in a few hours. The commander of the artillery of the Guards Corps, Daniel Gershteintsveig, proposed to the Cesarevich to take the city with a quick attack, disperse the crowd, and force the insurgent troops to submission. However, the Grand Duke did not want bloodshed - in the future, he often showed his sympathy for the Poles, believing that what happened was a consequence of their personal dislike of Emperor Nicholas. In addition, he was partly deceived by indecision or the ostentatious loyalty of the Polish leadership: thus, the Governing Body issued a proclamation that deplored what had happened and called for the rebels to obey. The Grand Duke probably sincerely believed that the riots would soon subside.

“Nicholas I informs the Guard about the uprising in Poland”, painting by artist George Benedict Wander

However, he was wrong. Soon after the Russian troops left Warsaw, a rebellion swept the whole country. Despite the fact that the crown prince could not be killed, the rebels believed that they had won: Warsaw was cleared of Russian troops. The rebels created the Provisional Government, which became the bearer of power. The council was headed by Prince Adam Czartoryski - a former friend of Alexander I, a member of the Secret Committee, and now the head of the separatists. 25 January 1831, the Polish Sejm proclaimed the independence of the Polish state.

Autumn empire

The “Polish Spring” lasted for about a year - this duration was largely due to the fact that the uprising was a surprise for the Russian government and the transfer of army units took time. However, after Nicholas I sent thousands of people to 120 Poland under the command of Field Marshal Dibich, his fate was decided. The conspirators could put under the gun only half the people. And in vain, Konstantin asked Nicholas of mercy for the rebels: “Mercy for them, dear and incomparable brother, and condescension for all is the prayer of a brother who had the misfortune of obedience to devote the best part of his life to the formation of troops, unfortunately, who turned their weapons against their home country. " Nicholas, however, really issued a proclamation, where he promised to forgive the rebels if they submitted, released the Russian prisoners, returned the weapons and restored the Administrative Council. The Poles responded with ridicule, and then the tsarist troops began fighting. In September 1831, the royal army stormed Warsaw. Thousands of rebels were sent into exile.

Nicholas punished the Poles, depriving them of the hope of giving independence - the constitution was abolished, the Kingdom of Poland was declared an integral part of the Russian Empire, and the Polish crown - the hereditary crown of Russian emperors. The Sejm was liquidated, the main governing body of Poland became the Administrative Council, which was governed by the governor of the emperor.

The “Polish Spring” adversely affected the internal life of Russia itself: fearing new insurrections, Nikolai accepted a conservative general line — the question of the abolition of serfdom was removed from the agenda, censorship was tightened. In the ruling circles even discussed the issue of closing universities, which the king considered (and not without reason) breeding grounds for revolutionary sentiment. And even despite the fact that the universities were not closed as a result, education was dealt a heavy blow: the government sharply reduced the number of departments and students. By the end of the reign of Nicholas in Russia, there were only 50 students in 2900 million, that is, approximately as many as studied, for example, at the University of Leipzig.

Historian Granovsky wrote about the deplorable results of this policy: “Our situation is becoming unbearable day by day. Every movement in the West responds to us with a shy measure. Denunciations are in the thousands. About me for three months collected information twice. But what does personal danger mean in comparison with general suffering and oppression! The universities were supposed to be closed, now they limited themselves to the following measures already carried out: they raised the fees from students and limited their number to the law, by virtue of which there can be no more than three hundred students at the university. In the Moscow 1400 man of students, therefore, it is necessary to release 1200 in order to have the right to accept hundreds of new ones. The nobility institute is closed, many schools face the same fate, for example, the lyceum. For the cadet corps compiled new programs. Jesuits would envy the military teacher, the originator of this program. There is something crazy to go. Benefit Belinsky, who died on time. Many decent people have fallen into despair and look at what is happening with stupid calm. ” So the unfortunate Polish uprising struck Russia itself.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 8 November 2015 07: 22 New

    What are you noisy about, folk-like?
    Why anathema threaten you Russia?
    What angered you? unrest in Lithuania?
    Leave: this is a dispute between the Slavs,
    Home, old dispute, weighted by fate,
    A question that you will not solve.

    For a long time among themselves
    These tribes are at war;
    More than once bowed under a thunderstorm
    Theirs, then our side.
    Who will stand in an unequal dispute:
    Puffy Lyakh, il true Ross?
    Will Slavic streams merge in the Russian sea?
    Will it run dry? here is the question.

    Leave us: you have not read
    These bloody tablets;
    It’s incomprehensible to you, alien to you
    This is a family feud;
    The Kremlin and Prague are silent for you;
    Pointlessly seduces you
    Fights of desperate courage -
    And you hate us ...

    For what? answer: for whether
    What is on the ruins of flaming Moscow
    We did not recognize the brazen will
    Who were you trembling under?
    For the fact that they plunged into the abyss
    We are idol over kingdoms
    And redeemed with our blood
    Europe, freedom, honor and peace? ..

    You are formidable in words - try it in practice!
    Or the old hero, deceased on his bed,
    Unable to screw up your Izmail bayonet?
    Is the Russian tsar already powerless to speak?
    Or should we argue with Europe new?
    Il Russian weaned from victories?
    Or a little of us? Or from Perm to Tauris,
    From the Finnish cold rocks to the flaming Colchis,
    From the shocked Kremlin
    To the walls of immobile China,
    Shiny bristles,
    Will not the Russian land rise? ..
    So send us to us, Vitia,
    His angry sons:
    There is a place for them in the fields of Russia,
    Among the coffins that are not theirs.

    Pushkin believed that the independent state existence of Poland contradicts the interests of Russia. In addition, by this time he had largely moved away from the revolutionary romance of youth and began to negatively relate to revolutions and rebellions in general. This did not stop him from admiring the heroism of the Poles: retelling in a letter to Vyazemsky on June 1, 1831 the corresponding episode of the battle of Ostroleka, he writes: "All this is good in a poetic sense. But still they need to be strangled, and our slowness is painful." And then he sets forth the thoughts that soon formed the basis of the ode: “For us, the rebellion of Poland is a family affair, an old, hereditary feud, we cannot judge it by European impressions, whatever our way of thinking may be, but Europe needs common objects of attention in prejudice are necessary for both peoples and governments.Of course, the benefit of almost all governments is to adhere to the rule of non-interference in this case, that is, to avoid a hangover in someone else's feast, but the peoples are so torn and barked. Europe is upon us. It’s fortunate that last year we didn’t intervene in the last French squabble! Otherwise, the debt would have been red. ” Moreover, in July of that year, Pushkin unsuccessfully proposed to A. Kh. Benkendorf to allow him to create a political magazine, motivating it as follows: “Now, when just indignation and old popular hostility, long corrupted by envy, united us all against Polish rebels, embittered Europe attacks Russia for the time being not with weapons, but with daily rabid slander ... Let them allow us, Russian writers, to repel the shameless and ignorant attacks of foreign newspapers ".....
  2. Aleksiy
    Aleksiy 8 November 2015 07: 53 New
    Such a plan in Poland is to spoil Russia, at least directly, at least indirectly.
    1. whiteeagle
      whiteeagle 8 November 2015 11: 20 New
      The national interest of the Poles is Back to the geopolitics of the sixteenth century i.e. decentralization of Russia and Germany.
      1. sevtrash
        sevtrash 8 November 2015 14: 54 New
        Quote: whiteeagle
        The national interest of the Poles is Back to the sixteenth-century geopolitics i.e. decentralization of Russia and Germany

        Well, by the time Poland was near the Baltic States, Belarus, Ukraine, and partly Russia. Who would doubt what one wants.
  3. Chak
    Chak 8 November 2015 08: 32 New
    And after all, the most interesting thing is that the more freedom the Poles gave, the more they hated Russia. Germany and Austria pressed them to the nail - they walked like silk. With "Ukraine" the same story, created a chimera on our heads. Emperor Alexander III was right - the country should be united without any "national apartments."
    By the way, I recommend watching the film "Squadron" about this uprising.
    1. Vladimir Pozlnyakov
      Vladimir Pozlnyakov 8 November 2015 10: 34 New
      So the “Psheks” captured Russian Kiev in 1019-1021, they were driven in 1612, went the war under Peter Penrv, allied with Napoleon, captured Kiev with Petliura in 1918, went the war in 1921. The crazy nation on the ground -
      And how many times this idea has not been kicked out of the brain!
      1. whiteeagle
        whiteeagle 8 November 2015 11: 40 New
        This is not the idea of ​​the Poles. At the beginning of the sixteenth century, Czechs and Hungarians decided to build an alliance with the Poles (the union of the three seas) in order to protect Central Europe from the aggressive policies of Moscow, Germany, and Turkey.
        1. sevtrash
          sevtrash 8 November 2015 14: 57 New
          Quote: whiteeagle
          This is not the idea of ​​the Poles. At the beginning of the sixteenth century, Czechs and Hungarians decided to build an alliance with the Poles (the union of the three seas) in order to protect Central Europe from the aggressive policies of Moscow, Germany, and Turkey.

          Poor and unhappy Poles. All these trips to Smolensk, Kiev, Moscow - all not their idea, and indeed they defended themselves like that.
        2. erg
          erg 8 November 2015 20: 09 New
          It is interesting, but what kind of Germany are we talking about if the latter in those days represented the Holy Roman Empire, of which the Czech Republic was also a part?
          1. whiteeagle
            whiteeagle 9 November 2015 01: 11 New
            Ulaslo II, also known as Vladislav II the Good (Hungarian II. Ulászló, Czech. Vladislav II. “Král Bene”, Croatian Vladislav II. Jagelović, Polish. Władysław II Jagiellończyk); March 1, 1456, Krakow, Poland - March 13, 1516, Buda, Hungary) - king of the Czech Republic on May 27, 1471 (coronation on August 22, 1471) and king of Hungary since July 15, 1490 (coronation on September 21, 1490).
    2. Alf
      Alf 8 November 2015 16: 16 New
      Quote: ChAK
      Emperor Alexander III was right - the country should be united without any "national apartments."

      Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was right, who proposed autonomy.

      In mid-1922, when Stalin, as the people's commissar for nationalities, proposed to the party leadership his project for creating the USSR, which provided for the entry of Ukraine, Belarus, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan into the Russian Federation on the rights of autonomous republics.
      This was the Stalinist plan of autonomy, which revealed fundamental differences between Lenin and Stalin. If Lenin believed that the Soviet Union would become a federation, an association of states organized according to the Soviet type, then Stalin considered the Union as a unitary state.
  4. Support
    Support 8 November 2015 09: 36 New
    Yeah. Pretty ugly behavior. Characterizes from the side is not very good. You can say vile, disgusting .....
  5. X Y Z
    X Y Z 8 November 2015 09: 48 New
    The most interesting thing is that the Poles with whom we had to communicate sacredly believe that it was the Russians who initiated the partition of Poland. When you confirm to them that the Russians who were engaged in the war with Turkey at that time were not up to it and that Catherine Berlin was literally taken to the partition, they do not understand. For them, the worst is always from Russia, and it’s almost impossible to break this mentality.
    1. whiteeagle
      whiteeagle 8 November 2015 11: 25 New
      because without the support of Russia, Germany is not able to destroy Poland.
        ALEA IACTA EST 8 November 2015 13: 12 New
        Since the end of the XVII century, Poland does not particularly shine militarily. And Prussia-Germany from the time of Frederick the Great traditionally has one of the best armies in Europe.
        A wolf and a sheep, and a very stupid sheep ...
        1. whiteeagle
          whiteeagle 8 November 2015 13: 58 New
          A disaster for Poland is a dynastic alliance with Saxony. the new king pushed Poland into an alliance with Russia against Sweden. the war was fought on Polish territory, epidemics led to a large population decline. stupid sheep because she fought in the interests of Russia and the Germans. It was the same before — King Sobieski defeated the Turkish army in Vienna 1683. As a result, he removed the danger threatening Russia and Austria. But the strength of the Prussian army in the 1920th century was not enough to destroy weakened Poland without strong allies. The same as in XNUMX, the Polish army was able to win the war against Russia but Poland was not able to destroy Russia.
          1. sevtrash
            sevtrash 8 November 2015 14: 21 New
            Quote: whiteeagle
            A disaster for Poland is a dynastic alliance with Saxony. the new king pushed Poland into an alliance with Russia against Sweden. the war was fought on Polish territory, epidemics led to a large population decline. stupid sheep because she fought in the interests of Russia and the Germans.

            It is interesting, and what dynastic union pushed the poor "sheep" -Poland to the intervention in Russia in 1604? And in 1018, King Boleslav occupied Kiev, also based on the interests of Russia? But before the first section there were another 700 years. Poor little sheep.
            1. whiteeagle
              whiteeagle 8 November 2015 15: 44 New
              in 1604 It was an initiative of several tycoons. The Polish state in the war in the east only after the civil war in Poland (Rokos Zebrzydowski 1606-1609) when the Russian tsar entered into an alliance with Sweden against Poland. Dynastic affairs were also because the king of Sweden was the uncle of the Polish king (they fought for power in Sweden). Poles in Kiev 1018, 1069, 1076, 1077 are also dynastic disputes. Boleslav I the Brave supported his son-in-law, Boleslav II the Bold supported his uncle. If the goal would be the elimination of Kievan Rus, Boleslav instead of his son-in-law would proclaim himself the ruler of Russia.
              1. sevtrash
                sevtrash 8 November 2015 16: 51 New
                Quote: whiteeagle
                in 1604 It was an initiative of several tycoons.

                Well, yes, still. In 1604, the Polish king Sigismund received the impostor False Dmitry, recognized his rights to the Russian throne, allowed everyone to help the impostor, for which he promised Sigismund Smolensk and the Seversky lands. And so, of course, Poland had nothing to do with it.

                Quote: whiteeagle
                Poles in Kiev 1018, 1069, 1076, 1077 are also dynastic disputes. Boleslav I the Brave supported his son-in-law, Boleslav II the Bold supported his uncle.

                But who argues, if you want to grab a piece fatter how not to find at least some uncle. For example, there was an impostor, married the daughter of Mnishek - and already a relative, how not to help the wretched.
      2. Alf
        Alf 8 November 2015 16: 19 New
        Quote: whiteeagle
        because without the support of Russia, Germany is not able to destroy Poland.

        And what happened from September 1 to September 17, 1939? By 17.09.39, Poland as a state was destroyed.
        1. whiteeagle
          whiteeagle 9 November 2015 01: 44 New
          This is just Soviet propaganda. In fact, the war continued, the Battle of Bzur until September 22, from September 17 to 26, the Battle of Tomaszow Lubelski, Warsaw surrendered on September 28, Modlin Fortress on September 29, the Battle of Kock on October 6. The CCCP attack on Poland destroyed the counterattack plan (there were hundreds of thousands of Polish soldiers in eastern Poland and Hitler had insisted on Stalin for help on September 14 because the German army was getting big logistical problems (lack of ammunition, large losses of military equipment, for example, loss of 30% of aircraft) In addition, if the war lasted longer, there was a growing risk that France and England would launch an attack.
          1. sevtrash
            sevtrash 9 November 2015 10: 48 New
            Quote: whiteeagle
            This is just Soviet propaganda.

            Really, by September 17, the Polish troops did not represent a single force, which was the result of the application of the Blitzkrieg tactics of the German troops. Further - the Germans were already finishing. With all the heroism of the Polish troops, of course, they could not count on victory, above all the quality, as well as the number of the German army, did not give them such a chance. Despite the individual successful actions of the Polish army.
            Therefore, there can be no doubt about the possibility of the German army overwhelming the Polish, as it happened and actually by September 17th.
          2. Alf
            Alf 9 November 2015 20: 53 New
            Quote: whiteeagle
            This is just Soviet propaganda. In fact, the war continued, the Battle of Bzur until September 22, from September 17 to 26, the Battle of Tomaszow Lubelski, Warsaw surrendered on September 28, Modlin Fortress on September 29, the Battle of Kock on October 6

            As a result of the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, the authorities of the Republic were forced to flee the country to avoid captivity and forced surrender. On the night of September 17-18, the President of the Republic of Poland and the Supreme Commander-in-Chief crossed the Polish-Romanian border in Kuta, intending to cross over to France in accordance with the Vth Hague Convention and the Union Treaty between Poland and Romania of 1921.

            The government of the country fled from their country. This is the most important evidence of the collapse of Poland as a state.
  6. 1234567890
    1234567890 8 November 2015 10: 33 New
    The last part of the article - the hysterical cry of a liberal intellectual-zapadents?
      ALEA IACTA EST 8 November 2015 10: 51 New
      Do you propose "returning to the Stone Age to spite liberals"? laughing
  7. moskowit
    moskowit 8 November 2015 12: 16 New
    To my own shame, I do not know such an artist, I did not give information on the Internet. But in the picture with Nicholas I made an unforgivable mistake, most likely intentional. The ribbon of the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called is worn on the contrary. In the Russian Order System, orders of the highest degrees were worn over the right shoulder, with the exception of three: the Order of Alexander Nevsky, St. Anna and the Order of the White Eagle adopted later on, the ribbons worn over the left shoulder ...
  8. 1234567890
    1234567890 9 November 2015 05: 54 New
    Do you propose "returning to the Stone Age to spite liberals"?

    Better late than never, I answer. Actually, I’m talking about these quotes from liberal contemporaries of events that the author does not comment on at all (it turns out, I agree with them):
    “Our situation is becoming unbearable day by day. Every movement in the West responds with a shy measure ... Universities were supposed to be closed, now they have limited themselves to the following measures already taken: they increased the fee from students and limited their number by law, by virtue of which there can be no more than three hundred students at the university ... Many decent people fell into despair and stupidly look at what is happening. "
    In short: the bloody Nikolai-Palkinsky regime tightens the nut! All merged !! It's time to blame !!! A familiar song, isn't it?
    As for universities and students, was it so necessary, was there so much? Now every second one, not counting every first one with a higher education, is a solid manager, there’s nothing to spit on. Well, who the hell do they need them for? Maybe it's time to cut it?