October 24 2015, the day the memorial was opened, many cried: Inna, the daughter of the legendary pilot Dina Nikulina, when telling journalists about her mother, Major General Viktor Grishin's voice also faltered. The presenter, who by order should be seasoned, began crying at all after Grishin’s words about the irreparability of girlish fate, which the war had crossed out. Young freshmen became commanders and navigators, and they flew on training planes behind the front line, so that on low-level flights, turning off the engine, dropping bombs with their own hands in order to destroy all those who came to kill and kill.
October 24 Day 2015 of the year became a memorable stories. On this day, a new, twelfth star appeared in the Alley of the Stars of Rostov-on-Don in honor of the legendary female pilot - Hero of the Soviet Union Evdokia Andreyevna Nikulina. Or simply Dina Nikulina, as her family and friends called her.
General Grishin, a military pilot himself, knows firsthand about the feats of the pilots. He told how these young girls could find the courage to fly over the front line over and over again, knowing that many of them were already doomed.
In the regiment, where Dina fought, there was a case that shook everyone. Her fighting friends did not return from the mission. And only then, according to eyewitnesses, the whole picture of what happened was restored. When U-2 was hit, the crew commander was able to land her plane, but was seriously injured and died almost immediately, but the navigator, a young girl, was able to get out of the cockpit and ran into a nearby country road to hide behind the trees. It seemed that salvation was very close. But suddenly she heard the German language: the enemies were approaching to grab them. Then the girl made a decision - she ran with all her strength back to her plane burning on the field and lay down on the burning engine, which soon exploded with her. Over the years, the names of the victims have been lost. But their feat was retold from word of mouth and reached our days, October 25 2015.
On this day, on one of the central streets of the city of Rostov-on-Don, a commemorative star named after the pilot Yevdokia Andreyevna Nikulina was opened. Someone from above kept her life and the life of her navigator. Dina was presented to the rank of Hero of the Soviet Union and received her award at the very end of the war.
“Dina Nikulina is a bright person, one might say, a“ dashing ”pilot ... Dina Nikulina is a professional pilot with excellent piloting technique. Her character is cheerful, cheerful. She flew fearlessly. And in the evenings, amateur activities excitedly beat off tap dance, until she was wounded in the leg. After that, we learned that she sings very well ... "(Rakobolskaya I., Kravtsova N. We were called night witches. This was how the female 46-th Guards Regiment of night bombers fought. 2-e edition, supplemented. - M .: MSU Publishing, 2005 , pp. 149).
Her two daughters, colleagues, and close friends at the opening of the star of her name talked about this. What else did the people talk about? About debts and honor, about courage of very young girls, about their amazing character. They talked about the qualities that can manifest in a person at the moments of the greatest danger. And even then it was possible to judge the real qualities of a person.
It is surprising that she remained alive, and after the war in the public arena helped a lot of people, and for this activity she would have to receive another reward. In the meantime, by voting on the Internet, the Rostovites have chosen that it is Dinin's star that should appear in the city.
It is interesting that in Rostov a lot of impersonal monuments located on the central city streets, but the Dina monument has not yet appeared, and the big question is whether it will appear at all. Monuments of the Don Cossack with a bucket, then a reading citizen, a peddler with a cat, stand on city streets. But all this is something impersonal, not about anything specifically resembling. Do not stir this human soul. I asked Alexander Kozhin, the chairman of the Rostov regional branch of the All-Russian Society for the Protection of Monuments, about this. He thought and answered the following. This answer, say, was very strange:
“There is already a monument at the grave of Evdokia Andreevna,” he answered.
- But this is a cemetery, few people go there.
Kozhin attentively looked at me, apparently, not endorsing this perseverance, and said nothing. There was no answer.
And only searches on the Internet showed that Dine’s obelisk is still there. He is not in Rostov, but in the Kaluga Region, in the town of Spas-Demensk, located near the village of Parfyonovo, where Dina was born. It is noteworthy that Dina flew on her plane to her native village when Soviet troops carried out offensive operations to liberate Belarus. For four years, Dinah was not at home and decided to fly and see her relatives, the benefit is that the home base was located approximately 90 kilometers away. Countrymen were incredibly surprised to see two girls coming out of the cockpit. Some of the older collective farmers, looking closer, recognized the face that had already become unfamiliar, tempered by war and trials, but not lost its prettiness. And still Dinu was recognized by thick, gently curling hair. Countrymen remembered Dean from infancy. (In the photo, Dean is on the left.)
... At the age of fourteen, Dina went to her brother in the city of Podolsk, working at a cement plant, graduated in 1933 from FZU and, together with her friend, went to the flying club. Then youth aviation the movement gained such momentum that boys and girls passionately dreamed about the sky, about the real thing. And the road to aviation began. At first, Dina was engaged in various aviation schools and, seeing her desire and perseverance, she was transferred to a squadron located in the city of Bataisk (Rostov Region). So she ended up here on the Don land. She studied for three years, in order to receive the highest rating in flight affairs, to go to the Smolensk Aviation Squad, where she had to deal with purely civil transportation: carry mail, deal with agricultural sores of plants and many other purely peaceful flight affairs, flying in total 500 hours.
Therefore, when the war began, in June 1941 of the year she was urgently sent to the headquarters of the Western Front, but then she was also urgently ordered to appear in the city of Engels, at the disposal of Raskova, who had become the Hero of the Soviet Union by that time.
Dina passionately dreamed of high-speed aircraft, but she was ordered to fly the Y-2.
For reference: “The Y-2 is equipped with a five-cylinder, air-cooled M-11 engine with maximum power at the ground - 125 l. c, at the height of 1670 m - 90 l. with. The gas tank with a total capacity of 125 l was placed behind the fire wall, the oil tank with a capacity of 21,5 l was installed behind the engine. The fuel supply provided a non-stop flight over a distance of 350-400 km. The motor started up when turning the hand or using the cord shock absorber, as well as the auto-starter. Maximum speed - from 130 to 150 km / h, cruising - 100 — 120 km / h, landing - 60 — 70 km / h, ceiling — 3800 m, start-up and mileage — 100 — 150 m, the fuselage is made of wood as a spreader beam the farm is sheathed in front with plywood, and in the back - with a canvas, ”according to one of the information and reference sites.
Evdokia, or, as everyone always called her, was simply Dean, came to the 46-th Guards night bomber aviation regiment, which is part of the 325-th night bomber division of the fourth air army.
Their first night flight with Deut, the navigator Eugenia Rudneva, in the Mius-front region will remember for a long time and subsequently analyze the mistakes they made because of inexperience: for example, they gained altitude too much and could not precisely drop bombs at the target. And there was no time for the second run because the German anti-aircraft guns bristled and met them with fire. They returned to their airport full. On the same day, Dina was congratulated on joining the party (because before her first night flight she wrote a statement in which she asked to be accepted into the ranks of the Communist Party).
In the most difficult time for the country, in 1942, when Rostov-on-Don and many other cities and villages were left, it was decided to form three women's aviation regiments.
“The first-year girls flew airplanes with hardwood floors.” A tank with aviation gas was next to the cabin. This is gunpowder. Before 1944, they did not take parachutes with them, but took bombs with them to the cabin. So that at night, turning off the motors and planning, dump them on the luminous points, where the enemy was. The regiment lost 28 airplanes, the death of the brave killed more than 2 girls, ”said General Viktor Grishin, chairman of the Union of War Veterans and Military Service of the 30 Second Air Banner, during the opening ceremony of the memorial sign.
Once, a projectile exploded near the Nikulin’s plane, both pilots were injured. But Nikulina managed to land her plane on Soviet territory.
Dina was wounded in the shin through the throat, and her navigator received a German splinter in the thigh. They were sent to hospital for treatment, and then they returned to their native regiment again.
Then Dina became the head of his squadron. I think that she has become a kind of happy person, always returning to her home, to her home airfield.
A simple example. In the battles in the area of Mozdok, night pilots made eight sorties per night, which caused great damage to the enemy. For this feat, Evdokia Nikulin received her first Order of the Red Banner, according to the front-line order on the Transcaucasian Front on the Fourth Air Army from September 9 1942 of the year.
“Nikulina Evdokia Andreevna on the front of the Patriotic War against the brutal fascism from 27 May 1942 of the year. During this time, she showed herself to be disciplined, sustained, initiative, able to mobilize personnel to perform combat missions, the order said. - The squadron, commanded by Comrade Nikulin, made a 501 combat night aircraft. Bombs dropped on the head of the Nazis 107,614 kg. "
Junior Lieutenant Nikulina on the U-2 aircraft personally made 75 combat night planes to destroy manpower, fortify the fortifications and enemy vehicles in the villages of Snezhnoye, Aleksandrovka, Novobakhmutsky, Marienheim, Gustafeld, Pisarevsky, Uspensky, Sukha Krynka, Moskovsky, Zozhnoe, Moskovsky, Pryarivsky, Pryarivsky, Pokorovsky, Pokorovsky, Pokolevsky, Pryonovskiy , Salty, Kalinin, Middle Egorlyk, White Clay, Voroshilovsk, Nevinnomysskaya. Of these, 75 was effective, and the most:
29 June, performing a combat mission in the area of the village of Pokrovskoe, was caught by the six searchlights of the enemy. Maneuvering, out of the rays of searchlights, perfectly dropped bombs right on target.
On the first of July, 1942, we hit the bombs in the village of Uspenskaya, a large fire was caused, which lasted more than 30 minutes. The fire was observed by pilots - Makarova and Troparevskaya.
On the next day of July 2, in carrying out the task of destroying enemy personnel, after the bombing, strong explosions were observed (it can be assumed that a warehouse with ammunition was blown up).
7 July 1942, performing a task in the village of Razdorskoye on the destruction of the crossing, the bombs dropped on the target. As a result, there were strong explosions at the crossing. This confirms the crew of the pilot Parfyonov. On the same night, again flying to the area of the village of Razdorskoye, dropped bombs on a cluster of cars on the southern bank of the Don River, as a result there were strong explosions. And for the third time Nikulin flew out that night. In carrying out the task of destroying the crossing, it destroyed the barges with a direct hit, strong explosions were noticed.
5 August, fulfilling the task of destroying enemy equipment in the area of the village of Voroshilovsk, after dropping bombs, strong explosions were observed, accompanied by thick black smoke.
On August 18, fulfilling the task of destroying enemy convoys in the Altub settlement, three fires occurred after dropping the bombs. This is confirmed by the crews of Raspopova and Nosal.
Dina Nikulina flew in the most difficult weather conditions, day and night. As noted in the award documents, perfectly mastered the technique of piloting at night. “Comrade Nikulin is a strong-willed commander, directs and teaches his subordinates, is demanding of himself and his subordinates. In captivity and the environment was not in the ranks. "
Dina received her first Order of the Red Banner 9 September 1942 of the year. The Second Order of the Red Banner is 26 on April 1944 of the year, and the third Order of the Red Banner was awarded on 15 on June 1945 of the year. Two of the orders were kidnapped by bandits who mutilated Dean in 1992. But more on that later.
In 1943, the brave pilot received two awards - the Order of the Patriotic War of the first degree (the order of awarding was signed on April 27), and the order of its awarding of the Order of Alexander Nevsky was signed on October 25. As indicated in the documents, the aviation squadron under the command of Nikulin made 3 134 combat sorties at night on U-2 aircraft, with a total 4240 flying hours. At the same time, about two battalions of enemy infantry were destroyed, six crossings were destroyed and damaged, three searchlights and two antiaircraft guns were destroyed, 287 produced strong fire outbreaks and an 274 explosion.
Indicated in the award documents and sad, combat losses. "In battles with the German invaders, the squadron of Comrade Nikulin has combat losses - five planes and five personnel".
Here’s how the work of Krylya Sovetov (from 28 February 1942 of the year) was described by Nikulina:
“Machines are in full readiness. The pilots are looking forward to the combat departure. Some time passed and the signal was given. One by one, the planes smoothly lift off the ground, disappearing into the blue of the night sky.
The first lies on the course of the order-bearing crew of Lieutenant Nikulin. Two hundred and fiftieth time he flies on the enemy. Nikulin confidently leads his plane.
This time it was ordered to destroy the enemy’s railway station. This station is of great strategic importance, and the Germans therefore cover it with powerful anti-aircraft artillery fire.
Even from a distance, having heard the sound of engines, enemy machine guns open firing, and searchlights begin to fidget around with their tentacles across the dark sky. But all this can not stop the fearless patriot, reaching the goal.
Station detected. Bombs, aptly dropped by Junior Lieutenant Rudneva, lay down for their intended purpose. Bright flashes of explosions flashed on the ground, and thick clouds of black smoke clouded the target ... ”
At the end of the war, Dina Nikulina made twelve sorties for one night, carrying out the bombing of Stettin, Danzig, Gdynia, the concentration of enemy troops in the Baltic Sea region.
According to the website “Feat of the People”, where Evdokia Nikulina’s award documents are located, in April 1945 of the year “Comrade Nikulin has only 740 combat sorties with a military attack of 920 hours. Personally, after the last award, she made 142 combat missions with high efficiency. She was dropped on the enemy troops 22 900 kilogram bomb cargo. As a result, 15 was caused by strong fires, 19 explosions. Destroyed one spotlight, one crossing, two zenith points. Squadron for the same period after awarding comrade Nikulin under her direct command made 1400 combat missions with a touch of 1350 hours. As a commander, she skillfully aimed the entire squadron personnel at the defeat of the German invaders. Itself, along with the entire composition of the aviation squadron, without sparing the strength and life itself, flew to carry out the combat missions of the command. She led her pilots and navigators to combat exploits by personal example. It flies exceptionally boldly, not fearing any anti-aircraft fire, nor the enemy's searchlights. The effectiveness of combat work is exceptionally high. ”
On the night of February 20, 1945 destroyed the cluster of enemy troops in the village of Grudzyansk. During the night, she made six sorties, caused an explosion and a hotbed of fire with a precise bombing strike. This is confirmed by Guards Junior Lieutenant Gorbachev and Guards Junior Lieutenant Rylskaya.
On the night of April 25, 1945 made eight combat missions to destroy enemy troops in the settlements of Pomiranzdorf and Ptettin. An accurate bombing attack suppressed the fire of a German artillery point in the Ptettin area and caused a fire in the village of Pomiranzdorf. This is confirmed by Guards Junior Lieutenant Yushina and Guards Lieutenant Bespalov.
And on May 7, the pilot and her friends made their last combat sorties in this war, dropping bombs on the airfield and fascist troops stationed in the Polish town of Swinoujscie (in German - Swinemund), where the main naval base of the enemy was located.
And then the world came to earth, Dina went to the reserve to build a new life on a peaceful land. In 1948, she graduated from the Rostov Party School, and 1954, the Rostov Pedagogical Institute. She had two daughters - Inna and Valentina. (Ina's photo is on the right).
Interestingly, during the years of Soviet power, in the 70s of the last century, Dina was given the title of honorary citizen of Rostov among the very first honorary citizens. But in 90's, when perestroika time was going on, the name of Dina was deliberately forgotten, scored with pseudo-democratic appeals and leveled the amazing fate of this woman in the muddy stream of market information. It was then, in the era of the past hard times, she was gone.
The eldest daughter Inna Akimovna says with pain and sadness that many journalists simply unscrupulously distorted many facts relating to this atrocity. She still remembers everything that happened 22 a year ago, 7 July 1992 year. That day, Dinu was attacked in her own apartment on Zhuravleva Street. Some mass media still incorrectly state the circumstances of the incident and write that Evdokia Andreevna died at the hands of the thug 23 March 1993 of the year. No, it was different.
Not 23 March 1993 of the year, but 7 July 1992 of the year to the house at the address: Zhuravleva street, 104, two ambulance carriages were called. Doctors carried on two stretchers two people in an unconscious state. It was Dina and her four-year-old granddaughter.
The two "fast", alarming beeping, rushed in the direction of the emergency hospital №2. And Dina’s two daughters — the eldest Inna and the younger Valentina, remarkably similar to their mother — also went there.
According to her daughter, it’s just beyond words that they experienced on learning of what had happened.
After all, their heroic mother was all the best and the brightest in their lives. They could not believe that this could happen! It could not happen to their wonderful, intelligent, kind mother. One can imagine that the daughters had experienced when they arrived at the hospital, and found out that the mother had been taken to the most difficult, intensive care ward, and there, as we know, relatives are not allowed.
Therefore, they sat and waited. They were approached by a familiar doctor. He, who knew Dinu well from his previous work, simply did not recognize her and told the eldest of the sisters, Nina, that they had brought some battered old woman today and that her face, her head was not even visible - everything was in blood.
The doctor gasped when Inna said: "This is my mother."
Immediately they began to look for the right medicines, which at that time were not in any city hospital and pharmacy: there were 90s in the yard.
Surprisingly, the drugs were given in one of the colonies. Even prisoners serving their sentences in the colony refused to believe that an attack on a woman, the Hero of the Soviet Union, had occurred.
A criminal case was opened into the attack. In the course of urgent investigative actions, it turned out that the robbery was committed in order to seize the government awards of E.A. Nikulina. The purpose of the bandits was the abduction of the Golden Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union and all its orders and medals. A blasphemous crime.
And only one, the third, the Order of the Red Banner remained lying on the floor. His gangsters in a hurry dropped and did not notice.
Neighbors interviewed as witnesses were able to recall that the day before an unknown man came to their house on Zhuravleva Street and asked where the famous pilot lives. But the signs of the criminals just could not describe.
After a long treatment, Dean finally came to her senses. About a month later she was able to tell the investigators and her daughters about what happened in reality.
“They allegedly came to me from the city of Aksai and began to invite me to the wedding,” said Dina, when she was alive. Then it was fashionable to invite famous people to celebrations.
“We talked, and I conducted unfamiliar guests,” Dina Nikulina told further. - And it seemed to me that I locked the door.
In fact, Dinah just closed the door.
“And I went to the kitchen,” Dean said further.
She walked. Behind her, the door slowly opened, and a terrible blow to the head overtook her. In the kitchen they beat her in the kitchen cruelly and for a long time, on the head, on the face. Bloody mess ...
The heroine pilot she could wake up and survive even after all that had happened. But the injuries and physical and psychological severely undermined health. For a long time, seemingly always healthy and cheerful Dina could not.
After eight months, 23 March 1993, the Hero of the Soviet Union and the honorary citizen of the city of Rostov-on-Don was gone.
Evdokia Andreevna was buried in the Alley of Heroes of the Northern cemetery of the city.
Criminal case for the assault on E.A. Nikulin, as they say, turned out to be resonant, and was placed under special control. It shook the public of the whole city. After all, there was an attack on a woman - a hero of the Soviet Union, who had worked for many years as an instructor of the city committee of the CPSU, and on retirement - an active public figure who worked with veterans' public organizations.
But unfortunately, either because of the insufficient qualifications of the workers who were entrusted with the investigation, or because the country was going through a difficult period of its history (the “spirited” nineties), the criminals were never found.
22 of the year has passed. Until now, the killer of the legendary pilots have not been established. The stolen government awards, including the Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union, were not found and not returned.
And then the public of the city after 22 of the year decided to return the Hero's Star (posthumously) by installing a new commemorative star in the alley in her honor - the Star named after Evdokia Andreyevna Nikulina.
Another fact is symbolic. Then, in the 90-ies, the name of Dina disappeared from the city streets. In Rostov-on-Don, the famous Alley of Heroes of the Soviet Union was liquidated. Those who made the relevant resolution will still show time: after all, the archives must have kept the relevant decisions signed by more than one city official. But the declassification of archives will take time. But still, the descendants will recognize the signatures and the voting hands of those who destroyed the memory. Nothing is forgotten and no one is forgotten - these words from the war acquire a special meaning and understanding in this case.
But more than one generation of Rostovites came here, to the Alley of Heroes. But someone from above decided, for the sake of time, to remove all that was connected with the Soviet Union. But people could read about the feat of each of the characters, show them to their children and grandchildren.
Portrait of EA Nikulin and brief information from her combat biography was also among the heroes.
And Dina continued to live in the memory of very many people who surrounded her in the post-war years. She taught everyone, above all, kindness and humanity.
It is noteworthy that the memory of Dina Nikulina began to revive with the revival of memory and the other Heroes of the Soviet Union.
And only today, decades later, in Rostov-on-Don, they again returned to the idea of reviving the once-lost avenue of Heroes of the Soviet Union and, at the same time, adding Heroes of Russia. So far, officials and relevant departments are negotiating and, as it happens, numerous approvals. Not so long ago, on the eve of the anniversary of Victory, one of the local city leaders, Yuri Dvornikov, deputy director of the Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, announced a preliminary decision that perhaps memorable books with names of 117 Rostovites - Heroes of the Soviet Union may appear on the Theatrical Memorial square. While the alley of Heroes of Russia will be located in a completely different place, perhaps it will be on the square of military glory on Sholokhov Avenue.
It is noteworthy that the memory of Dina Nikulina began to revive with the revival of memory and the other Heroes of the Soviet Union.
And Dina continued to live in the memory of very many people who surrounded her in the post-war years. She taught everyone, above all, kindness and humanity. After all, they did not even forget about it in the war and took care of each other. Here Dina Yevgeny Rudnev’s navigator, who, unfortunately, did not live to see Victory, even in letters asked her mother to take care of her if something happens to her.
And they embroidered, carefully kept their creations, embroidered with satin stitch and cross. Thus, amazingly beautiful carnations, cornflowers, bright roses appeared. After all, they were women and they did not forget about their essence even in this terrible war, where they, like many others, were always waiting for unexpected death.
And the fascists, who called them “night witches”, “kaffeemühle” (coffee grinder), “haltsnähmaschine” (sewing machine), never guessed that these women's hands could embroider and accurately drop bombs of FAB-100 and FAB- type on their heads 50, ampoules with a mixture of "COP", bombs ZAPTOTSH (with thermite balls) and ZAB-50, AO-2,5; AO-10 and with 1943 AO-25-35; SAB-100 (lighting) and AGB-100 (campaign) bombs.
... There comes a solemn moment. The right to open the memorial sign was granted to the guest of honor, the daughter of the heroic pilot Inna Akimovna Nikulina. Red carnations and red roses lay on the ground poured with autumn rain, where a brass star is embedded in a granite slab the size of 600 x 600 millimeters. And inside this star was depicted the same U-2 - Dina Nikulina's combat aircraft. Now she is with us forever on the Alley of Heroes.