110 years ago, Nicholas II signed a manifesto that granted democratic liberties to the country. Usually, researchers evaluate this act very positively: Russia, albeit belatedly, embarked on the path of progress, becoming on a par with leading Western powers. In reality история the manifest is far from simple and very dirty.
1905 was a very hard year for the empire. There was a war with Japan. And a wave of revolution began to rise in the Russian rear. Moreover, the very same international “backstage” forces that organized our country into the war organized it. The governments and special services of various western states were involved. On the eve of the war, in July 1903, the Second Congress of the RSDLP was held in London, uniting the Social Democrats into one party. In January, 1904, the illegal "Union of Zemstvo Constitutionalists" was created - the germ of the liberal Octobrists party.
To inflame unrest under the leadership of Pinchus Rutenberg was organized a grand provocation - Bloody Sunday. It provided not only the ground for the initiation of strikes and demonstrations throughout the country. It served as a signal for action. Immediately after Bloody Sunday, future leaders of the revolution, Parvus (Gelfand) and Trotsky, rushed to Russia from abroad. From Germany, they went to Vienna, to the prominent socialist Victor Adler. He was closely associated with the Austrian intelligence services. He received money and fake documents at his apartment, changed clothes, changed their appearance - just like in a spy action movie.
However, the operation was developed in the spy key. Austria at this time tried to play the "Ukrainian card", contained and paid nationalists and separatists. Parvus, Trotsky and his wife Sedov were led across the border through their channels. True, setting foot on his native land, Trotsky did not behave like a hero. In Kiev, it seemed to him that he was being watched. He panicked and drowned dully "to the bottom" - he lodged under a false name in a private clinic. But he took custody of LB Krasin (nickname - "Winter"). A prominent Bolshevik engineer, he held a high position in the German firm Siemens-Schukkert. And the entire leadership of German enterprises abroad was associated with German intelligence.
By the way, it turned out that not only from the German one. At the same time, the transfer began from abroad weapons for combat squads. Deliveries were taken on by Basil Zakharov, one of the world's largest arms dealers. He himself lived in England and at the same time worked for British intelligence. Well, transports with rifles and revolvers flowed through German territory, and the Germans for some reason "did not notice" - despite the fact that Kaiser Wilhelm II at this time pretended to be a sincere friend and even an ally of Russia. As you can see, Krasin was a big cone, admitted to the "holy of holies" - to the sources of funding, transportation channels, "windows" at the border.
But from some of his superiors, he received a task of a different nature - to take care of Trotsky, who was still “nobody,” did not recommend himself. Krasin brought him to St. Petersburg. And ... again a breakdown! At the May Day rally Sedov was arrested. Trotsky again panicked and fled to Finland. However, Krasin with the task, which he received from someone unknown, managed successfully and patiently. I found Lev Davidovich in Finland, helped me to settle down, established contacts with him ...
Meanwhile, the situation in Russia was heating up. Contributed to this war. No, our troops did not suffer “shameful” defeats, which the liberal press shouted about. The naval battle in Tsushima was lost only because the Russian shells of the main calibers, falling into the Japanese ships, did not explode. Obviously, there was a diversion. Well, the main army of Kuropatkin deliberately imposed positional battles on the enemy, retreated several times. But exhausted the enemy, won time. From European Russia to the Far East, new contingents were pulled up. In Manchuria, 38 of full-blooded Russian divisions gathered against Japanese 20, which were worn out and povibity. Panic reigned in Tokyo. The upcoming Russian offensive was bound to inevitably end in complete defeat of the enemy.
But the revolution has already gained strength. Covered the city, spread to the village, paralyzed the route of communication, plugged insurrections and strikes Trans-Siberian Railway, on which the army depended in Manchuria. Aggravated the picture of "financial international". At the start of the war, in May 1904, the tsarist government, by offering high interest rates, secured loans in France. Now, ostensibly in connection with the revolution, Western banks have withdrawn their capital from Russia. To the war and political crisis added financial. And the "well-wishers" surrounded by the king began to convince him that all is lost ...
When the Russian government offered to begin peace talks, Japan happily agreed. Mediator volunteered to be US President Theodore Roosevelt. America led its own policy. Actively playing along with Japan, she also demonstrated “friendship” to Russia. Back in November 1904, the largest bankers were J.P. Morgan, J. Stillman, and F.A. Vanderlip, through the head of the Associated Press telegraph agency, M. Stone, organized a meeting with the Russian ambassador to Washington, Cassidy, and had a dinner in his honor. A representative of the Ministry of Finance of Russia enthusiastically reported to St. Petersburg: “From the speeches delivered at the dinner, one cannot but conclude that the mood of members of the public has changed here, the hostility towards Russia has almost completely disappeared.”
Because America did not want to strengthen Tokyo. But the prospect of defeating Japan was undesirable. After all, the US bankers themselves helped her to arm, invested huge funds in Japanese loans. To suffer losses they were absolutely useless. Well, now the moment for the conclusion of peace seemed the most appropriate. Negotiations began in American Portsmouth, where Russian Prime Minister Witte arrived. Conditions developed instantly. Our country yielded South Sakhalin, Liaodong, part of the South Manchurian Railway. The Japanese representative of Takahir gave a hint about the contribution of 3 billion rubles, but Nicholas II rejected the claim, and the Land of the Rising Sun no longer remembered him - anyhow they could make peace as soon as possible before they changed their minds.
By the way, the true authors of the defeat of Russia did not consider it necessary to keep in the background. On the contrary, they proudly demonstrated that they did it. Let them see, let them know. It was not only diplomats who came to Portsmouth, the banker Jacob Schiff also arrived - it was he who provided funding for the Japanese. Not one arrived, but with the head of the Bnite Brit box, Krauss. They were present on 28 in August when signing the treaty - so that Russia would admit its defeat not only in front of Japan, but, as it were, in front of their face. For his contribution to the victory of Japan, Schiff was awarded the Order of the Japanese Emperor. At the awards ceremony, he delivered a speech threatening the Tsar and the Russians - they say, we’ll give them something else.
And inside Russia, it would seem, completely dissimilar forces operated. Slogans put forward different, even opposite. But there were shadow directors who linked these processes together. Suddenly it turned out that dissimilar parties and groups act within the framework of a common scenario. Workers splashed strikes, terrorists carried out sabotage - and that was what ensured military setbacks. The liberal press flashed and exaggerated them, savored the "shameful defeat." She, in turn, helped revolutionaries to raise protests against the "unnecessary" war. But liberal grandees surrounded by the king received new clues to push him to put up.
However, it was worth stopping the war, as the very same “public” indignantly made a noise about the “shameful world”, declared it the best proof of the backwardness of the state system. The storm raised by the liberals helped the Social Democrats, the Social Revolutionaries, the anarchists, and in October a general political strike broke out. Well, the court and government masons, led by Witte, began to press on Nicholas II, persuading them to go for constitutional reforms. They proved that only such a step would calm the "people" and normalize the situation.
The people themselves did not ask. The people spontaneously began to rise against the revolution, to create the "Union of the Russian People" and other organizations. But the “public”, both foreign and foreign, fell upon the “Black Hundreds”. Their initiative did not receive any support from above. Most officials, representatives of the tsarist administration, too, were infected with the spirit of liberalism. They adopted the ideas of “progress” imposed by foreigners, and pressed patriots. Even the leadership of the Church did not welcome such undertakings. Forbidden to priests to participate in them. The priests accused of the "Black Hundreds" were attacked.
Thus, the government itself has torn itself from the people. In this torn world, there was a special “information field”. It was fed by streams of fraud from the same liberal press, fed by “public opinion”, demanding reforms. Minister of the Interior A.G. Bulygin proposed to agree to moderate concessions, to create the Duma with deliberative rights. Where there, this option amicably swept away all layers of the opposition. But Witte, having drawn a number of royal relatives into the union, nevertheless managed to “squeeze” Nicholas II. October 17 issued a manifesto, which the emperor gave to the people "the unshakable foundations of civil liberty on the basis of the real integrity of the person, freedom of conscience, speech, assembly, and unions." A legislative parliament was created - the State Duma. A general political amnesty was declared.
But it turns out that ... revolutionaries knew in advance that the king would sign such a document! Knew and approximate terms of signing! For example, in September, Sverdlov confidently spoke to his wife Novgorodtseva: the possibility of moving to a legal position would soon open. But Trotsky continued to hide hideously. But 14 — October 15 returned to Petersburg! Literally on the eve of the manifesto and the amnesty of the "political" - including himself. By the same moment Parvus emerged in the capital.
They are on the move launched a stormy activity. And led Parvus. He was tied to financial flows, and is clearly not Japanese. For the revolution, the Japanese had no need to pay any more, and there is nothing after a hard war. And the money was a lot. With these funds, Parvus set up the release of Rabochaya Gazeta, Nachalo, Izvestia, and they began to be printed in such large numbers that they literally flooded them with Peter and Moscow. The newspapers published articles of Trotsky, other Russian revolutionaries, Austro-German socialists - Adler, Kautsky, Klara Zetkin, Rosa Luxemburg. Through these publications were carried out and some fraud. By publishing a fake, the so-called “Financial manifesto”, Parvus managed to derail the course of Russian securities, on which Western bankers were very large. Of course, Parvus did not forget his own pocket.
But Trotsky undertook to intensively "unwind." He came before the signing of the manifesto is not by chance. For him came up with a very winning trick. Immediately after the signing of the historical document at a mass rally, he theatrical gesture tore up the manifesto. Say, do not need handouts! And Lev Davidovich, unknown to no one, having no merit, the shadow directors pushed to the post of deputy chairman of the Petrograd Soviet.
Although the true hierarchy of actors was hidden from outsiders. Khrustalev-Nosar was elected chairman of the Petrograd Soviet. A close and stupid lawyer, who gained fame in court proceedings, where he defended workers held accountable for their illegal activities, for participating in riots. He became a purely decorative figure: for the time being, cover up the main characters and not interfere with them. In the background was Trotsky. He created a much greater real weight, greater opportunities than Khrustalev-Nosar. And Parvus, the real engine of the revolution in the capital, generally kept a low profile. He carried out all his moves through Trotsky.
As for the assurances of Witte and other liberal courtiers, that the manifesto will bring tranquility to the country, they turned into a monstrous miscalculation (or deception). On the contrary, having granted "freedom", the king fell into a trap. Henceforth, revolutionaries could act legally, in the open. And they bit the bit. The country collapsed into chaos of strikes, demonstrations. The formation and training of combat squads began in various cities. Trotsky these days shone, flaunted, threw slogans. In addition to the journalist's talents, he found another one - a great gift from the speaker. He himself loved to play in public. Lit up, bringing himself to ecstasy, and knew how to light the crowd.
By the way, it is curious to compare that Lenin in this revolution turned out to be ... out of business. For example, he was not at all in the know about Krasin’s activities in supplying weapons to militants, he subsequently learned backdating. I stayed abroad, published propaganda materials for Russia. From Peter, he was informed that he could send his literature through Stockholm. He sent. It was conditionally reported from Sweden that “beer was received”, and he was sending new cargoes. And later it turned out that all of his circulations still lay in Stockholm, having filled up the basement of the People’s House. Vladimir Ilyich himself decided to go home only in October, after the declaration of amnesty. But again there was an overlay. From St. Petersburg, he was given to know that a courier with documents would arrive in Stockholm for him. Lenin uselessly waited for him for two weeks ...
As a result, he managed to get to Russia only in November. But it turned out that in the revolutionary movement already “everything is seized”, the leading posts are occupied. Vladimir Ilyich poked back and forth. I spent the night with some friends, then with others. He published articles in the New Life newspaper of Gorky. Parvus and Trotsky published three newspapers, and Lenin had to publish in someone else's! He traveled to Moscow, but even there he did not find a suitable application for himself. In general, the conclusion is clear. In 1905, backstage organizers put forward Trotsky’s revolution leader. But Lenin was otterli aside so as not to interfere.
However, the power in Russia in 1905 year was still strong. Overcoming confusion, began to take action. 26 November was arrested Khrustaliov-Nosar. In fact, it was intended for such a function - to be a "lightning rod." But Trotsky, who after him became chairman of the Petrograd Soviet, had a chance to be in this post for only a week. On December 3, he and the entire Petrograd Soviet, who met in the building of the Free Economic Society, took the white handles and sent them to where such figures should be. For jail. Soon Parvus thundered there. As you can see, the infection of the revolution was not at all fatal for Russia. As soon as the government left the path of concessions and experimentation, it began to act decisively, it was possible to overcome the odds. However, in the whole revolutionary movement there suddenly came a sharp change.
The fact is that in Europe a serious political crisis erupted. It was provoked by the German Kaiser Wilhelm II, who decided that Russia was weakened enough and the time was right for the realization of their own plans. While cruising the Mediterranean, he went ashore in Morocco, a French semi-colony, and made a number of loud statements. He indicated that he considers Morocco to be a sovereign state, that he is ready to support this sovereignty with all his might and demands that Germany be granted the same rights in this country as the French have.
This is where the French government got scared. It became clear that the matter was not only and not so much in Morocco. That the Kaiser is looking for an excuse for war. And without the help of Russia, France will certainly be crushed! England was also worried. In the war with the Japanese, most of the Russian died fleet, but now Germany became the main rival of the British on the seas. And if she guts France, she will become a complete mistress in continental Europe, try to cope with her! Under the pressure of the British, the Kaiser managed to persuade to hold an international conference on the Moroccan issue in the Spanish city of Algeciras. Although the Germans were cocky. They rattled openly in arms - they say, well, let's see what your conference has to offer. And the German General Staff suggested that William simply take and strike - without any conferences.
The powers that had just been joining Russia together began to quickly change their attitude towards it. The combination was played again through Premier Witte. Our country was in a fever of financial crisis, aggravated by the sabotage of Parvus. She was on the verge of a grand default. And foreign banks denied loans. "Public opinion" was over-excited against the Russians. British newspapers called the king "an ordinary killer," and Russia "the country of the whip, the pogroms and executed revolutionaries." The French press yelled: “Should I give money to support absolutism?”
But the French government began to persuade their bankers and parliamentarians to allocate loans to St. Petersburg. On this occasion, a special agreement was even concluded: “To consider the peaceful development of Russia's power as the main guarantee of our national independence.” An agreement was also concluded with Witte - France provided a “great loan” that would allow overcoming the crisis, and Russia for this undertook to support France at a conference in Algeciras.
Concerned and "financial international". Given the current situation, the collapse of Russia would have brought Germany the main gain, opening the way for European domination. International banking corporations did not like this prospect. It turned out that it was not time to bring down Russia. The financial flows that fed the revolution were suddenly cut short ... In the revolutionary movement, a discord immediately rolled. In Moscow, Transbaikalia, the Baltic States, Poland, the Caucasus, in a number of other places, armed uprisings broke out by inertia. But they were focal in nature and were easily suppressed by the troops.