Where are you taking us, damn Genoese ?!

Around 2 o'clock in the morning 12 in October 1492 Spanish sailor Rodrigo de Triana, in the crow nest of the Pinta caravel, shouting "Earth!" Announced the start of a new round of European, and world stories. The expedition of Christopher Columbus, as nothing else, justified the statement "Good luck accompanies the impudent." Going into complete obscurity - a trip across the ocean, inhabited, according to the fathers of the Catholic Church and the regulars of sailor squash, fierce sea creatures, was akin to flying into space. Expeditionary ships, proudly called caravels, were much more modest in size almost any respectable yacht making voyages with a non-poor public in its own pond. About the personnel of the crews that Columbus possessed is not to be said. Obviously, it would be easier to recruit volunteers on an expedition to hell - according to rumors, there was a lot of gold there. “Where does this damned Genoese lead us ?!” - looking at the empty ocean, like an Andalusian fisherman’s purse, the sailors threw evil. Did Columbus know where the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria bowls were going? Did he lead his squadron to the shores of India? Or maybe the future admiral knew about the location of the lands lying across the ocean and the fact that they had nothing to do with the legendary Indies and Chipango?


In times of ancient and hidden
For a long time, the so-called ocean of space in the old Europe, which was behind the so-called Pillars of Hercules, or the Strait of Gibraltar, was reasonably called the “Sea of ​​Gloom”. Local navigation was exactly local, that is coastal.

Of course, there is no doubt that eagerly jumped out of the boat into the surf wave of the future island of San Salvador, Columbus was by no means the first person from mainland Europe to set foot on the land of the New World. Archaeologically authentic swimming Normans to Newfoundland and the Canadian coast. There are quite well-argued hypotheses about the campaigns of Arabs, Celts, residents of England and Ireland to the shores of America. The most courageous conjectures suggest a visit to the continent that lies beyond the Atlantic, even the subjects of the pharaohs, the Carthaginians and the Romans.

The question is that, despite the numerous (judging by guesses and assumptions) trips to the New World, none of the navigators could gain a foothold on the newly discovered lands. In any case, at the courts of European monarchs of the end of the XVI century there was no information about the continents lying far to the west. Knowledge and information about pre-Columbian contacts, if they existed, were lost at the public level. Those who were in the subject chose not to advertise their awareness.

In many ways, the lack of interest in the colonization of America among the ancients was dictated by economic reasons.

The main driving force of almost any expansion is the expansion of the economic basis of the metropolis. This includes not only the removal of material values ​​from the local population, but also trade with it, and the trade is profitable. Hypothetically, let us assume that some Greek, Carthaginian or Roman ship, after many months of hardest navigation, finally reaches the shores of America. The hike will be extremely difficult - it is not a coasting dive into the Mediterranean from the port to the port. And not only because of the important in this case, navigation and technical aspects. The big problem of a long autonomous campaign was also the lack of long-term storage provisions. Exhausted by the Atlantic voyage, travelers tread on firm ground and encounter Aboriginal people whose friendliness raises big questions. The difference in the technical equipment of the ancient sailors and the autochthonous population of America is not as critical as in the era of the Spanish colonial conquests. On both sides of the bows and cold weapon, and the Europeans have the best quality. But the outcome of the conflict is solved in the melee, and in it the important factor is the number. And here the advantage of the aborigines will be undeniable. Or suppose that the landing took place peacefully - both sides were able, with the help of gestures and signs, to establish some sort of “diplomatic relations”. If you take bargaining, the inhabitants of America could not offer the newcomers anything extraordinary, except perhaps for jewels. What impression will the survivors leave such a long voyage if the ship, after years of hardships, returns to the shores of Europe? It is unlikely that the first contact in a single historical period was the fruit of a specially prepared expedition. Most likely, the next “discovery” of the New World occurred as a result of a lengthy storm that brought the ship (or several ships) to an unknown land. The crew had to endure the whole set of difficulties accompanying a long hike: hunger, scurvy, depressing morale. The set of trophies is small - rather, they are souvenirs exchanged from locals for ship equipment, of which there are few and irreplaceable.

Of course, information about the successful return of land and overseas overseas will be known in the appropriate environment, but is unlikely to cause panic interest. Earth is very far away. By the standards of the ancient world, just monstrously far. There is nothing special to take there - slaves and valuables can be mined in the Mediterranean basin. The path of many months - big risks. News they discuss it for a while, then gradually it is forgotten. There is no regular communication with new territories. Trading and developing expansion in that direction is simply unprofitable.

Perhaps the scheme indicated here is too typical for the unusual cases with which history is so rich. There is a possibility that the lands of America could become a haven for emigrants who decided to leave their homeland for religious reasons (for example, expulsion of adherents of some cults from Carthage) or political motives. Quite likely in a certain historical period and more or less regular trips across the Atlantic. In any case, for such a, to put it mildly, venerable ancient scholar as Aristotle, the existence of islands located behind the Pillars of Hercules was not a secret. Probably, there could be other documentary information: maps, reports of the expeditions - but the largest repository of ancient documentation was in the irretrievably lost Alexandria Library.

On the technical side, the very possibility of sailing across the ocean was proven by the brilliant reenactor scientists Thor Heyerdahl and Tim Severin. But, obviously, such long journeys did not have much expediency for the inhabitants of ancient Europe. And those who had an interest, kept the information in secret. Some of the best navigators of antiquity, the Carthaginians, were famous for their ability to hide information from outsiders. The main specialization of Carthage - trade - greatly contributed to this. Along with the collapse and death of the Carthaginian state as a result of the Third Punic War, much knowledge and information about trekking and wandering was lost.

Fortunately, not all of the ancient heritage disappeared in the fires of barbarians preparing their lunch, monasteries became a refuge sheltering knowledge from the onslaught of ignorance in the Dark Ages. Despite the public struggle against the remnants of paganism, many documents of the pre-Christian period survived thanks to the efforts of the monks. They were not only stored, but also read. For example, from the book of the Irish monk Dikuil (VII-IX century) it was known that there is information about the lands located far in the west - the islands of Happiness. On later medieval maps, the island of St. Brandan roams to different places. Did Columbus know, peering from the deck of his "Santa Maria" into the horizon, that behind the land hidden behind it? There is reason to believe that yes.

Viking trail
Despite the fact that the volume of literature written about Columbus has long exceeded the total displacement of all three of its caravels, the biography of the great navigator is not as simple as it seems. The accuracy of his date of birth is questioned. Until recently, several Italian cities challenged each other the right to be called the birthplace of the discoverer of America. There are some unexplored white spots in the early life of Columbus. There is some evidence that the Genoese allegedly traveled north in 1477. I visited the English port of Bristol, at the crossroads of many sea roads. According to some researchers, Columbus made an exploratory journey to the shores of Iceland. Behind the scenes of its results. Could the future admiral, having climbed so far into the northern waters, learn something about Viking trips to Vinland, the legends about which could still live in the form of oral folklore?

Where are you taking us, damn Genoese ?!

Map showing Vinland


The Norman phenomenon - the campaigns of the northern sea nomads - suddenly began a raider attack in 789 on the coast of England and ended with the battle of Hastings in 1066 on the British Isles. Viking expansion is a large and separate topic. The passionary impulse of the northern peoples was significant. They were no stranger to the risk and calm attitude towards the distance lying behind the stern of the Drakkar. What does Ingvar Traveler's expedition to the Caspian Sea cost in 1010? Europe owes the Vikings the discovery and exploration of Iceland and Greenland. But for the restless bearded man, this was not enough, and they are sent further west. In 986, the Icelandic viking Leif Eriksson reaches an unknown land overgrown with forest, among which “bush with berries from which wine can be made” grows thickly. In any case, a certain member of the crew of Leif, a native of the south, whom everyone called Turk, gave just such a characteristic to this plant. And, according to one of the versions, it was “wine berries” that gave the name of the open land - Vinland. These areas are rich in forest, have caused interest among immigrants from Iceland, where the rocky landscape was poor on suitable vegetation for shipbuilding. Viking trips to the shores of North America were not a secret. First, they are reflected in the oral epic - sagas, for example, in the “Saga of Eric the Red”. Secondly, these campaigns were, to put it in modern terms, documented in the work of the famous chronicler Adam of Bremen “The Geography of the Northern Lands”, which appeared in 1079 year. This was the first description of the discovery of unknown lands in the West at the level of a reputable source at that time, and not a banal retelling of port tales of a “hungry kraken”. Of course, the resilient party of subsequent skeptics, with an ironic smile, indicated that Adam of Bremen’s work was released almost 250 years after Leif Eriksson’s campaign and was based again on Scandinavian sagas, which made it possible to refer this information to the category of “epic creativity”. For a long time, official historiography held a similar opinion, until finally, in 1960, the Norwegian explorer Helge Marcus Ingstad discovered the remains of a Norman settlement in L'Annes-o-Meadows on Newfoundland. Thus, the Viking trips to America were proved, but whether this settlement was the same Vinland or not is still unknown. According to the sagas, the campaigns stopped due to conflicts with the local population.

Did Columbus know where Leif Eriksson went? How much did he have information? On the one hand, in the north, they could still remember the Vikings, not only as ruin monasteries, dashing people, but also as travelers. On the other hand, the information flows of the then Europe were far from dynamic, and the stories about Vinland could be considered fiction. But in any case, there is a possibility that Columbus could have been in contact with the captains of the ships who sailed to Iceland and who knew a lot about the local situation.

Out of familiarity to the unknown
It should be noted that Europe at the end of the XV century was at a crossroads. A number of key events took place that in one way or another influenced the entire course of not only European, but also world history. In 1453, the Ottoman Turks stormed Constantinople, finally deciding on the existence of the last fragment of the once vast Byzantine Empire. Between the Christian world and the mysterious and so attractive countries of the East, an indestructible, as it seemed at that time, bastion of the Ottoman Empire arose. Trade with the East, which was already a difficult matter, became even more problematic. The number of intermediaries who stood in the way of every pinch of pepper, a piece of silk, and other scarce goods — on the way from India, Central Asia, and the Far East — has increased by an order of magnitude. Accordingly, prices rose significantly. Eastern exotic finally goes to the category of VIP-products for the respective categories of consumers. Trading overseas wonders was at the same time extremely profitable and extremely risky. The patency of the traditional ways of getting goods from the east through Constantinople and Egypt was increasingly in doubt due to the frequent wars between Christians and Muslims. There was an acute need for new routes, which were an alternative to those that passed through the territories controlled by the Turks.

Simultaneously with the increasing onslaught from the East on the Iberian Peninsula, an entire epoch was nearing its end - the Reconquista, which had lasted for more than 700 years. The Christian kingdoms gradually, step by step, succeeding in the process of painfully biting and kicking at the opportunity and each other, forced the Arabs out of the territory of modern Spain. By the end of the 15th century, only becoming more and more immersed in a crisis, seized by strife and confusion, the Granada Emirate remained the last Arab state in Europe.

On the Iberian Peninsula, there was another inconspicuous state, which suddenly from the European backwater broke into leadership. It was Portugal. At the beginning of the XV century, the Portuguese entrenched on Madeira, in the 30-s they took control of the Azores. Through the efforts of the active Infanta Heinrich the Navigator, who provided the theoretical and practical basis for the development of maritime affairs in the country, Portugal in a few decades was able to reach the "big league". Having established a navigational school in Sagres and having access to the treasury, this statesman equipped one expedition after another. The Portuguese reached the Cape Verde Islands, explored the mouths of the rivers Senegal and the Gambia. Portuguese ships began to bring gold and ivory to the metropolis. Portugal first became actively involved in the slave trade from Africa. Although the glory of Mediterranean sailors has not yet dimmed, the inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula intercepted from them the primacy in the maritime business. Humanity has become cramped in the cradle of Western civilization, the Mediterranean Sea. The Portuguese had few of their outposts in Africa - they set the goal of reaching the countries of the East by sea.

It is not at all surprising that Christopher Columbus, armed with expedition projects in "India", first of all began to seek support for his ideas in Portugal. In 1479, Don Philippe Peresherello, daughter of the governor of the islet of Porto Santo (near Madeira), became the wife of Columbus. This same governor was an associate of Prince Enrique himself - Heinrich the Navigator. Columbus manages to go on an expedition to Diogue de Azambosha in Guinea to build a Portuguese fortress there. In addition, the Genoese was in correspondence with the famous scientist and cartographer of the time, Paolo Toscanelli, who had a great influence on the ideas of Columbus. In one of the letters, Toscanelli endorses the Genoese’s idea to go to China by the western route and speaks of a certain map on which this route is indicated. What kind of map it is, whether it was a copy taken from some ancient documents, or if it was drawn by Toscanelli himself, remains a mystery. Perhaps the Italian cartographer had access to certain sources inaccessible to the general public. In any case, Columbus clearly formulates his concept of going to India with the western route, rather than trying to reach it by circling Africa. By the way, the dark period of the Middle Ages with the accompanying savagery and ignorance led to the loss of many knowledge well-known in ancient times: for example, Herodotus reported the Phoenician voyage fleet around Africa back in 600 BC The expedition was ordered by Pharaoh Necho II. It is likely that later, in the heyday of the Carthaginian state (founded, incidentally, by the Phoenicians), this route was known.

In Europe, the period of Columbus, this knowledge has been lost. In any case, many Portuguese navigators seriously believed that to the south of Guinea, known to them, lies the ocean inhabited by monsters and there "can be burned from the bright sun."

Long way to the ocean


Sebastiano del Piombo. "Portrait of a Man (Christopher Columbus)"


Having arranged everything on paper accordingly, Columbus turned to the Portuguese king, João II. Señor Toscanelli also added fuel to the fire, supporting his correspondent with letters of recommendation and explanatory letters to the court. In one of these epistles to the same João II, Toscanelli says that “from the very familiar to you of the island of Antilia, to nothing, to the other island of Sipangu. The whole interest of the situation lies in the fact that the Antilles officially became known in Europe only after the voyage of Columbus. It turns out that they knew something in Lisbon, but they were silent. While Columbus and Toscanelli, each with their own side, were handling the king, the expedition returned to the metropolis of Bartolomeu Dias, who opened (or rediscovered) the Cape of Good Hope and reached the Indian Ocean again for Europe. Columbus himself was present at the report of Dias João and was hurt to the quick.

The position of the Genoese in the Portuguese court became increasingly precarious. The future admiral, rushing with his ideas on the western route to India, was not taken seriously by Dias against the background of his triumph. Say, we are from Africa to India at hand. It is likely that the Portuguese were deceitful. After all, Prince Enrique was known not only as the patron saint of navigators, but also as a collector of antiquities, in particular, ancient maps and documents. How to know if some documentary evidence of the existence of lands beyond the ocean did not fall into his hands from the same Arabs, who, in contrast to the not yet enlightened Europeans, were much more careful about the heritage of the ancient period. One way or another, but Columbus was given to understand that his ideas do not find understanding. It is likely that the route around Africa in Lisbon was considered more acceptable, short and safe. But at the same time, just in case, they confidently asserted that there was nothing in the west.

Having fairly kept himself up during his stay at the court of João II, Columbus moved to neighboring Spain. There he finds refuge in the monastery of Santa Maria de Rabida. The local abbot Juan Pérez de Marchena, whom the tireless Genoese devoted to the essence of his concept, in what benefit it will bring to the state and the church, expressed interest. The monk was surprisingly "the right person," who was aware of how, to whom and with what "we must come." He is developing a strategy for the correct entry into the high society of Spain. Di Marchena helps to write letters to important people who have access to the very top. One of them was the aristocrat Duke Medinaseli, imbued with the ideas of Columbus and realized that the Genoese was not just another primitive search designer who sells a philosopher stone in bulk. The duke brought him together with his uncle Cardinal Mendoza, Archbishop of Toledo. It was a very good acquaintance - the duke had direct contacts with the Spanish "business elite": bankers, merchants and shipowners. Uncle was entertained by Queen Isabella of Castile. Columbus's efforts to gradually “screw in” into the near-royal circles brought results. He was granted an audience with King Ferdinand of Aragon and his wife Isabella of Castile.

Columbus listened favorably (the cardinal conducted the necessary training), but just in case created a commission of scientists, cartographers and theologians for the possibility of carrying out the expedition. It is quite obvious that the Spanish monarchs who were preparing for a war against the Granada emirate were constrained in their means so that you could live on a great sum for an expedition with dim prospects. The commission itself met for almost four years, bogged down like an elephant in a swamp, in disputes and discussions. Columbus fervently defended his opinion, citing some sources that are evidence of his innocence. He claimed that, while on Madeira, he had repeatedly heard from local mariners about strange finds: hand-processed trees, abandoned boats and other objects west of the Azores. In a narrower circle, the Genoese allegedly claimed that in Bristol he had met with a certain skipper who showed him a map with land marked on it far to the west. Covert Columbus sparingly shared the information available. And this is understandable. At a time when many around were talking about expeditions, about distant Indies and other new lands, every enterprising character could use and turn into profit for someone else’s navigational information. But Columbus was ambitious and did not intend to share his future glory. The commission did not come to an unequivocal conclusion and limited itself to a very streamlined conclusion: there is something in it. In 1491, the monarchs formally refused to provide funds - a military operation against Granada was inevitable. Caught in a quandary, Columbus signs up as a soldier and takes part in the siege and assault of Granada, which fell at the beginning of 1492. In the wake of the general euphoria of victory and joy caused by the end of the Reconquista and the expulsion of the Moors, the Genoese decided to try his luck again.

Ambitions and hidden leverage


Expedition departure from Palos. Fragment of fresco from the monastery of La Rabida


Columbus hits the most vulnerable spot: after the end of the war, Spain finds itself in a difficult financial situation, while the Genoese promised and even guaranteed huge profits. A lot of belligerent hidalgo, all these don Pedro and Juan, whose whole meaning of life, like their ancestors, was in the reconquista, turned out to be idle. The energy of the poor military nobility had to be sent in the right direction - the struggle against the Berbers was an honorable, but unprofitable undertaking. But to send the owners of the chopped shields and torn camisoles to the development of new territories would be the best way out. Emboldened, Columbus demands titles and titles, but Ferdinand, irritated by the arrogance of the Genoese, again refuses. Columbus publicly threatens to go to France, where he will be understood. But Isabella, who favored the Genoese, intervenes in the protracted discussion. The hidden flywheels of the authorities are twisted, and, it would seem, suddenly the project receives good. Already on 30 on April 1492, the royal couple favors the appeal “don” to the rootless Genoese, that is, makes him a nobleman. It is argued that in case of success of the enterprise, Columbus receives the title of Admiral of the Sea Ocean and becomes the vice-king of all open lands. What made the original decision of the Spanish monarch change, what evidence was provided - remains behind the scenes. Queen Isabella lays part of her own jewels, Columbus finds the rest of the money from the Pinson brothers, the shipowners from Palos. Other influential friends are also helping. But in general, the equipment of the expedition leaves much to be desired. Part of the personnel has to be withdrawn from local prisons - to sail through the sea There are not many people who want to be afraid. But the envious because of skepticism and lack of perspective is not observed, so the fate of the kaverin captain Tatarinov did not threaten Columbus. 3 August 1492 of the year “Pinta”, “Nina” and the flagship “Santa Maria” fall off from the pier of Palos and, accompanied by sympathetic views, go beyond the horizon.

Secrets can wait


Piri Reis Map


It is unlikely that, before the possible invention of the time machine, it was ascertained whether Columbus knew that the lands to which his squadron was approaching had nothing to do with either China or India? As a result, residents of two continents received the name of the inhabitants of a country located in another part of the world. Did he continue to be in error or played a well-adjusted and rehearsed play, claiming to the end of his days that he had reached the countries of the East? What conclusions did the Genoese make when he saw the sheets of parchment that had faded from time to time with an unknown coastal line in the hands of the mysterious stranger? And was he really? Secrets can wait. As they are waiting for their researchers map of the Berberian Admiral Piri Reis with deposited earth, surprisingly similar to Antarctica, "Erebus" and "Terror", whose rest is kept by the icy waters of Baffin Bay, the airship "Italy", somewhere frozen into the Greenland ice. The story often laughs in response to questions asked. And not only good-natured intonation is heard in her voice.
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  1. parusnik 19 October 2015 07: 57 New
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    Great stuff Denis! Thank!In any case, many Portuguese sailors seriously believed that south of the Guinea known to them lies an ocean inhabited by monsters and there "you can be burned by the bright sun.".. There is a hypothesis that Genoese sailors, as early as the 13-14th century, reached the coast of Somalia .. Went around Africa .. The Spanish chronicler Gomara wrote in the History of India that a certain Doria and Viraldo took a voyage to Indian countries in 1293 .. But whether these things returned is not known ...
    1. Plombirator 19 October 2015 10: 39 New
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      Thank you, colleague for the support! We will try)
      1. kalibr 20 October 2015 14: 27 New
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        And where is Tartaria and the Horde discovering America? Columbus is he not the Horde?
  2. lisiy prapor 19 October 2015 08: 56 New
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    Duc, the Chinese write for years before Columbus rode to America (around Africa with the call to European ports). And to the best of the curious person could have similar information, at the level of rumors, of course. Such a dialogue could even have happened: Columbus: "Have you seen the Chinese?" eyewitness: “saw”, to: “when were you?”, about: “I was still small” to: “where did you go from?”, about: “(pointing finger) from there”, to: “thanks for the information”, about : "For nothing," to: "do not curry yourself," about: "went to ..."
    1. Riv
      Riv 19 October 2015 10: 27 New
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      Ah ... So it was the Russians! They rafted around Kamchatka, they think: why not check further? Well, they returned through the Caspian Sea.
      1. ism_ek 19 October 2015 12: 16 New
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        In vain you laugh. Tamerlane's campaigns cut off China from India, the Middle East and Europe. A huge fleet of huge ships was created, which plowed the entire Indian Ocean and found a way to Europe. The size of the Chinese ships was several times larger than the size of the ships of Columbus. Unfortunately, with the change of emperor, China’s naval expansion was curtailed, campaign data destroyed.
      2. ism_ek 19 October 2015 17: 00 New
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        Jokes as jokes, and the Chukchi crossed the Atlantic Ocean first. The indigenous population of Greenland arrived there from Eastern Siberia. The Vikings contacted them. During the warming of X-IX in Greenland there were large European colonies. The Pope even sent the Bishop there.
    2. voyaka uh 19 October 2015 14: 43 New
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      The Chinese had great sea voyages, but
      only coastal - along the coast. Cross the ocean
      they did not know how. Here the Spaniards are the first.
      1. venaya 19 October 2015 17: 35 New
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        Quote: voyaka uh
        The Chinese had great sea voyages, but only coastal ones along the coast. They did not know how to cross the ocean. Here the Spaniards are the first.

        There is such a problem, there is a tribe in the world, they are called Pomors, even Lomonosov came out of them. They often live along the sea, including the northern sea route, and even such a country now exists, is called the Northern Way or Norway in a foreign style. Often they raided and with their victories visited the north coast of France, even because of this they were called "Vikings". So, according to some studies, there is evidence that in their sea voyages, it was Pomors (Vikings, in the foul tradition of names) that crossed the Atlantic in its north, there is now plenty of evidence for this. In general, "history" is a muddy science, covered with a thick veil of fog. "About how many wonderful discoveries we have ...". I am on the question of primacy.
  3. Riv
    Riv 19 October 2015 09: 31 New
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    The author correctly noted: the cruising range is limited by the availability of supplies. Therefore, the likelihood that the Romans and Greeks reached America was virtually ruled out. They did not know how to do corned beef in the Ancient World, and there was no serious need for this. Grain is not stored in the sea for a long time. Sailing equipment of ancient ships was also adapted for cabotage and oars played a much larger role, and there were no fools to row thousands of kilometers in the open sea. Actually, the caravel became the first ocean vessel because of its two qualities: sufficient capacity and the presence of oblique sailing weapons, allowing maneuvering without oars. A little later, the main role began to play even more seafaring karakki, gradually evolving to the galleons.

    The Phoenician expedition around Africa came down to cabotage, and lasted so long because a chain of forts was built along its route. Supply went through these forts. That is, they didn’t just take and swim, but prepared seriously, just like for a polar expedition. The history is silent about the results of the Phoenician voyage. Most likely, the pharaoh, having learned about the true size of the continent and comparing it with the size of his country, abruptly got sick to begin an aggressive campaign on land, and the Phoenicians themselves on open lands were not attracted by anything special.

    Actually, Columbus, too, was not sweet. Like meat was not salted in those days, but it still spoiled. The water also stank. In general, the sailors roamed farther than they saw, and the admiral farther than all (there was more soldering). Iron people, don't say that.
  4. Reptiloid 19 October 2015 09: 37 New
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    I met strange assumptions that Columbus and other researchers KNEW where they were going.
  5. Cap.Morgan 19 October 2015 09: 41 New
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    Good article.
    According to indirect data, Columbus was quite up to date.
    Firstly, we know the map of Piri Reis, and how many of them were such cards that did not reach us ...
    Suggests thought and various other circumstances.
    Shortly before the "discovery" of America, an agreement was concluded between Portugal and Spain on the division of spheres of influence. An imaginary border was laid - to the east the world belonged to Portugal, to the west - Spain. The line passed so that Portugal withdrew "undiscovered" then still Brazil. It is interesting that the wind rose is such that in order to get to India, you must first reach almost the Brazilian coast, and only then turn east, towards Africa. In another way.
    Spanish and English ships traveled all over the world and in the port books of registration there were marks on the arrival and departure of ships. Often the dates indicated there were unrealistic. For example, there were cases that the ship from Spain to England went for several weeks, which is a very long time. It is possible that such a ship went to Bristol through America.
    Yes, and Columbus did not get anything for his trip.
    The Spanish monarchs could be blamed for anything, only they were not stingy. All conquerors of the new world bathed in luxury, ranks and titles. What can not be said about Columbus. But everything falls into place if we assume that Columbus only designed a long-committed event - the discovery of America. Why should he pay ...
  6. Riv
    Riv 19 October 2015 12: 25 New
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    Well, actually it was not so. Why do you think Columbus did not receive the award? I will tell.

    In general, when Columbus and his gopniks landed from the boat, they met three boys right on the beach. Russian of course. They say that there was some Chechen there, but I don’t believe that. Had the Chechens been there, the Spaniards would have sailed home on foot, through the North Pole, if they had survived at all. The boys rested culturally, roasted meat, smoked weed and drank "Yaga" from cans. Well, Christopher saw them and said his famous: "Look! Jaguar." That is literally translated: "We swam, swam here, and they sit and whip how much in vain." It is clear that "jaguar" is an Indian word and the Spaniards and Portuguese could not know it. And what is “Yaga” everyone knows and there is nothing incomprehensible here. Then Columbus was given local grass, he puffed a couple of times and realized that everything was not in vain. Then they treated him to a skewer on a spit, poured a glass you yourself know what and everything worked out without a dummy. He agreed that he was late.

    And he refused the royal prize. What is he to him? He brought so much American grass that he had enough for life. You yourself estimate how many sheaves can enter three ships. Why does the monopolist need miserable pennies, for which it is still necessary to stomp into the treasury? Said, "Distribute to the poor!" - and that’s it. Then in America there was much more to be found. Coca leaves, for example ... And in order to get around drug control, all hay was perl. Type: herbarium. But there were a lot of tasty things in the hay. Corn, for example, and tomatoes.

    Here's a story ..
    1. kalibr 20 October 2015 14: 31 New
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      Timur Shaaov writes: I saw a dagger on an old fresco
      And I realized - the Circassians discovered America.
      "Popocatepetl" in Circassian
      Means: "We were not called here!"
  7. Bugor 19 October 2015 13: 02 New
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    Actually, it sounds like this: "Audaces fortuna juvat". Happiness patronizes the brave.
  8. lisiy prapor 19 October 2015 13: 20 New
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    About the Chinese, I wrote seriously. Apparently the presentation style was misleading
  9. kvs207 19 October 2015 14: 05 New
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    Quote: ism_ek
    A huge fleet of huge ships was created, which plowed the entire Indian Ocean and found a way to Europe. The size of the Chinese ships was several times larger than the size of the ships of Columbus. Unfortunately, with the change of emperor, China’s naval expansion was curtailed, campaign data destroyed.


    Or maybe these “trips” simply did not exist? What do Europeans say about the influx of large Chinese ships? After all, this could not go unnoticed.
    1. ism_ek 19 October 2015 16: 54 New
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      The campaigns of the Chinese fleet in the Indian Ocean were. There are many confirmations for this. Since then, there have been Chinese colonies in Asia and Africa. And here their voyage to America is most likely a fiction
  10. kvs207 19 October 2015 14: 14 New
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    Quote: Riv
    The author correctly noted: the cruising range is limited by the availability of supplies. Therefore, the likelihood that the Romans and Greeks reached America was virtually ruled out. They did not know how to do corned beef in the Ancient World, and there was no serious need for this. Grain is not stored in the sea for a long time. Sailing equipment of ancient ships was also adapted for cabotage and oars played a much larger role, and there were no fools to row thousands of kilometers in the open sea. Actually, the caravel became the first ocean vessel because of its two qualities: sufficient capacity and the presence of oblique sailing weapons, allowing maneuvering without oars.

    I agree on this point, but then the question arises - what about the Vikings? After all, they had the same problems: direct sail and oars, supplies and water. I think that under a certain set of circumstances, the arrival of different sailors in America was likely, but not intentional. And here, Columbus, deliberately sailed to the West.
    1. abrakadabre 19 October 2015 14: 22 New
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      The Vikings had a much shorter distance. With intermediate land areas like the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland.
      Even despite the Gulf Stream.
      1. Gomunkul 19 October 2015 17: 42 New
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        The viking
        These guys were desperate sailors, here are some more evidence of their travels in America:
        Numerous traces (even if you do not take into account the sagas) were left by the Vikings in North America: Scandinavian inscriptions on the rocks in Dayton, the famous Kensington stone with runes dating from 1362, a stone tower with Viking remains at Newport, a silver coin from the time of the Norwegian king Olaf Curre Calm (1067-1093), found on the site of an ancient Indian settlement near the town of Blue Hill (Maine), dozens of samples of Norman weapons, holes drilled in granite rocks, pyramids of stones in Minnesota, thousand-year-old ruins of the settlement and forge in the area of ​​the fishing village of Lance o Meadows at the northern tip of Newfoundland. And the rock paintings recently discovered by archaeologists in West Virginia and the inscriptions deciphered by linguists under them suggest that the ancient Irish sailors at least twice reached the shores of America in the VI century! ..

        But the most amazing messages come from South America. Argentine archaeologists have discovered traces of the Vikings in Paraguay! In the Sierra di Amambai mountains, not far from the ruins of a small fortress, they stumbled upon the remains of a stone wall with Viking "autographs" - runic inscriptions. Near the city of Takuati, on the site of the ancient Norman settlement, runes and an image of the Viking supreme deity, Odin, were also discovered.

        In a virgin selva inhabited by Guarani Indians, the French expedition found 40 large caves, where the inscriptions of the Vikings, who, as scientists believe, from Mexico, were preserved on the walls. According to experts who deciphered the runes, the hypothesis is also confirmed by an ancient Mexican source, which says that “tall blondes who came from the North from the country of Hittermanaland helped the Indians build their city”. The appearance in the Gulf of Mexico, near the village of Panuco, a drakkar king, nicknamed the God of the Hunters, Danes Ulman from Schleswig, dates back to 967. The expedition of Professor Jacques Maye found in Brazil cave paintings depicting three drakkars against the background of a cross, and in Peru, a cave image of an anchor unknown to the Indians. Near Villarica (Paraguay - Brazil), among the Guyak Indians, they found ceramic dishes with runic scripts drawn in the "reverse order", as was done during the Viking era ...
      2. The comment was deleted.
  11. Roy
    Roy 19 October 2015 15: 39 New
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    The time has come - and Columbus "officially" discovered America.
  12. matross 19 October 2015 16: 18 New
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    I wonder why the civilizations of America were so technologically backward that they were relatively easily subjugated and then destroyed by Europeans? Indeed, even only transoceanic logistics provided indigenous people with a huge advantage over the "European integrators". Firearms? Primitive and quantitatively insignificant, and it didn’t particularly help the Chinese ...
    1. voyaka uh 19 October 2015 17: 52 New
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      Peoples and continents developed (and are developing) unevenly.
      The most powerful civilizations once developed in Egypt, Iraq,
      India, Greece. Then they lagged behind. Hundreds of reasons: climate, natural disasters,
      epidemics, wars, resettlement of peoples.
      Chinese civilization developed in leaps and bounds: from incredible take-offs
      to incredible falls.
      Of course, I didn’t list all. There were many other civilizations.
      In pre-Columbian America there were the Aztecs, Maya ...
      And in Africa, Australia, Oceania - it has not matured ...
      Although all of humanity once came out of Africa, by the way.
      1. matross 19 October 2015 19: 43 New
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        Yes, unevenly. But America’s civilizations developed completely in isolation from the rest of the world. It amazes me that in Europe-Asia-Africa, by the time of Columbus, the dominant European civilization stood out and reached outstanding technological and, accordingly, dominant political heights. But in America, this did not happen. There were conditions - climate, wars, relocations, etc. But Columbus, and then Cortez and others were not met, say Maya, on sailing two-deck "pies" with guns and local musketeers in steel cuirasses. By that time they hadn’t managed to invent a wheel yet! Although they built megacities and giant pyramids, they knew astronomy and almost algebra. Later, "got off the palm tree"? Is not a fact...
        1. voyaka uh 20 October 2015 11: 26 New
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          There is a hypothesis that the technological breakthrough in Western Europe
          "cold snap" in the Middle Ages "helped"
          (Thames River in London froze to the bottom).
          I had to develop an intensive industry just
          to survive: the population was already large and urban,
          all clothing, shoes, fuel for homes. And this is only by machine.
          I had to intensify agriculture.

          Why did the Indians of North America remain in such a primitive
          form ?: Chernozem, predators became extinct, millions of bison (live meat).
          What to invent? He killed a bison - ate, sleep ...
          1. matross 20 October 2015 19: 52 New
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            The hypothesis is interesting, I heard about it) But in the Old World and before the "cold snap" there was already something much more technologically advanced than bows and clothes from skins.
            Nevertheless, the racial hypothesis seems more true to me, although it is considered ... something shameful, and therefore it is not seriously studied by modern science. Africa, America, Australia - savages of various degrees of savagery before colonization. Are there many coincidences? At the same time, Japan, Korea, China, India? These are opposite examples ... In general, litter for confusion, this topic is, of course, not for amateurs (I’m about myself hi), although very interesting ...
            PySy. A grizzly bear in the North. America is still not extinct. And cougars with coyotes too wink
            1. voyaka uh 21 October 2015 10: 56 New
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              "the racial hypothesis is more true, even though it is considered ... something shameful" ////

              The racial sometimes "works" and sometimes not. To the same pre-Columbian
              America ... The Indians of North America are Mongoloids. Not developed.
              And the Mongoloids of Asia have developed very, very much. I mean Ancient China and others. Why?
              Or the population of northern India. Caucasians. Developed and ... died out. And left
              to Europe - evolved like tractors.
              Without the geographical-climatic factor, it is difficult to explain.
              In Africa, too, is not so simple. In South Africa, in the company where I worked, all
              bookkeeping were - pygmies. Very sensible, cut in statistics, mathematics.
              And the blacks of the Bantu tribes (who invaded all of Africa, moving from the north to the Middle Ages) are pretty dumb. Although also not hopeless, if they are persistently trained.
              1. KG_patriot_last 21 October 2015 11: 35 New
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                Hitler will be left with the racial hypothesis, but the climate theory is interesting. Although I personally consider another theory correct - helicity.

                All civilizations live in cycles - rise and fall. Of course, if the road will not be absorbed by others. When civilization reaches power, the citizens of the central country gain democracy and power, and then the invasion of the barbarians (peoples who had lagged behind at that time), division into principalities and civil strife for the inheritance of civilization follows. Then roll back to a new rise in consciousness. That is, some factors of civilization destroy this very civilization due to hypertrophied worship.

                For example, it is now clear that the West European civilization formed as a result of 2 world wars will be destroyed by new migrations that will create their own countries within these countries and gradually displace these peoples. Then, at some point, European civilization will rise again, such as a reaction to the rejection of Islam - people will explore previously forbidden things and combine their knowledge with the previous achievements of the indigenous peoples of Europe to build an even more powerful civilization. And at that moment no one will remember that several centuries ago people looked different.

                It seems that these are all natural processes that took place hundreds of centuries. It seemed that in Soddom the pedril cult was destroyed recently, but the next civilization is reproducing what will destroy it.

                Well, now globalization is also contributing. People have no incentive to develop. Developed countries give their achievements almost instantly. And then the old woman comes out of the hut with an iPhone in her hand and goes to graze cattle - civilization by civilization, but people always need to eat.
                1. matross 21 October 2015 19: 27 New
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                  KG_patriot_last
                  Well, I'm definitely not among the fans of the Adoss Genossa.
                  In general, as I understand it, not a single hypothesis explains everything. That is, the truth is probably "somewhere nearby" - at the junction of various assumptions. I agree about Western European civilization - soon migrants will bend and bend.
                  voyaka uh
                  About sensible pygmy accountants - it’s very interesting, I directly presented it vividly))
                  And about the "not hopeless" is still not the same. Learning and the locomotive of progress are very different things, almost the opposite.
                  I would venture to recall the banal - the world almost does not know the ingenious blacks, Indians and the like. I'm not saying they are second grade, no. Maybe they ... kakbe ... are made for another? By someone? By whom?
                  In short, climate and geography are not enough here ...
            2. Morrrow 21 October 2015 18: 27 New
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              In a cold climate, the human brain works faster - a fact.
    2. Morrrow 21 October 2015 18: 25 New
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      Because Europe got the greatest discovery from the Romans - the right.
  13. timyr 19 October 2015 23: 10 New
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    They forgot about the Basques. There is evidence that the Basques beat whales and fished near Newfoundland in the 14th century. By the way, I don’t remember who Columbus was either the captain or the helmsman from the Basques.
  14. Olezhek 20 October 2015 14: 28 New
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    Denis, thank you, excellent article on my favorite topic - Great Geographic ..
    Straight and pulls, too, to write something on this topic.