Demon Poetry. Mikhail Yurjevich Lermontov

It is time, it is time for ridicule
Chase away the fog;

What is the poet's life without suffering?
And what is the ocean without a storm?
M.Yu. Lermontov




Great-grandfather of the great poet was a Scottish nobleman named George Lermont. He served the Poles, and in 1613 he was captured by Russian soldiers during the siege of Belaya fortress. The mercenary never returned to his homeland, preferring service in Russia. As a reward in 1621 in the Kostroma province, he was granted an estate. Lermontov's father, Yury Petrovich, was a military man, and having retired with the rank of infantry captain, he married Maria Mikhailovna Arsenyeva, who was descended from an “old noble family”. After the wedding, the newlyweds settled in the Penza province in Arsenyev estate called Tarkhany. However, Maria Mikhailovna, who was not in good health, went to Moscow, where medical aid was more developed. It was in the capital on the night from 14 to 15 in October 1814 in the midst of the storm that raged over the city, a boy was born "with painful leg and arm shapes". Maria Lermontova survived the birth hard, causing fear and the condition of the baby, named after his grandfather Michael.

Only by the end of December, Maria Mikhailovna finally recovered and returned home with her son. No matter how happy the appearance of the newborn grandmother Elizaveta Alekseevna and the father of the baby, and the hostility between them has not diminished. From the very beginning, Maria Mikhailovna’s mother was categorically against her daughter’s marriage with the “poor noblewoman.” However, Masha chose with her heart, according to the remaining information, the retired captain Lermontov was a rare handsome man with refined manners. After the wedding of her daughter, Elizaveta Alekseevna did not allow the newlyweds to dispose of the inheritance. Lermontov's position was “accustomed”, but the hardest thing was Maria Mihailovna, who was caught between two fires. The break in the relationship of spouses occurred when the mother of the poet learned about Yury Petrovich’s infidelities. Soon after, she fell ill: first mentally, and then physically. In February, 1817 was gone. Before her death, Maria Mikhailovna forgave her husband and begged her mother not to break off relations with him. In the spring of 1818, the father requested the child to come. The grandmother at the thought of losing his grandson was panicked, and she made a will, under which she promised Misha a legacy only if he lived with her for up to sixteen years. Yuri Petrovich, realizing that he could not provide a good future for the child, gave up.


M. Yu. Lermontov at the age of 6-9 years


Michael grew up a sickly child - because of the scrofula, his entire body was constantly covered with wet scabs and a rash. She was taken care of by Lermontov's well-behaved old nurse, Christina Roemer. With its help, the boy perfectly mastered the language of Schiller and Goethe, and Jean Cape, a Napoleon Guardsman, who remained after 1812 in Russia, taught him French. The tutor also taught him his first riding and fencing lessons. Often Afanasy Stolypin came to Tarkhany (Arsenyeva's younger brother) and told the boy about the Patriotic War, in which he participated. The mobile and lively mind of Lermontov received a lot of new impressions during his trips to the Caucasus to Arsenyev’s relatives. Elizaveta Alekseevna drove him there three times. Salubrious climate and sulfur baths really helped the child - scrofula retreated. Michel himself was fascinated by the freedom-loving world of local peoples. Upon arrival home, he sculpted figures of the Circassians, and also for the game "in the Caucasus" he made himself a small amusing army out of the peasant boys. Lermontov did not feel a lack of comrades, by the way - Arsenyeva called his peers from among relatives, as well as children of neighboring landowners suitable for them, to live in Tarkhany. The maintenance of this restless gang cost the grandmother every year ten thousand rubles. Children not only misbehaving, but also received primary education. Michael, in particular, showed a talent for drawing and modeling from colored wax.

In the summer of 1827, Lermontov visited the estate of his father, and in the fall, Arsenieva took him to study in Moscow. Her choice fell on the Moscow noble guesthouse, renowned for its benevolent atmosphere and its educators, striving to develop the natural talents of the students. Alexander Zinoviev, a teacher of the Latin and Russian languages, undertook to prepare the boy for admission. In all likelihood, he thoroughly pulled Lermontov - Mikhail passed the exams immediately to the fourth grade (there were six in total). In the fall of 1828, a teenager began his studies at a boarding house. True, the conditions of his studies were special - the grandmother, still not wanting to part with him, knocked the administration’s permission to take her grandson home in the evenings. However, at home Lermontov continued to study science. Incredibly capricious and purposeful, he wanted to become the first student in the class. At his request, Arsenyev hired an Englishman tutor, and soon Mikhail read Byron and Shakespeare in the original. And the boy drew it in such a way that the artist who was engaged in painting with him was amazed by his hands just in amazement. However, poetry became a true passion of Lermontov. It was in 1828 that for the first time he "began to dirty verses." The world saw the poem "Circassians", then "Prisoner of the Caucasus", "Caucasus", "Prayer", "Corsair" and the first version of "The Demon". But Lermontov was in no hurry to show, let alone publish his works. Even his teachers, the famous poets Alexei Merzlyakov and Semyon Raich in those years, did not see the works, under whose supervision Mikhail comprehended the basics of literary skill and the theory of versification.

Abilities to arts and diligence Lermontov quickly identified him from a number of other boarders. Michael's paintings were recognized as the best in 1829 during the arts exams. He enthusiastically played the piano and violin, remarkably recited, loved and knew how to dance. In the pension, Michel was surrounded by a rather free-loving atmosphere. Older pupils, for example, didn’t express themselves, not expressing their sympathy to the Decembrists. It was for this “spirit that is detrimental to the fragile minds” that the king disliked the guesthouse and in March 1830 decided to personally visit the “school of debauchery”. During the imperial visit, a curiosity happened - the students did not recognize his majesty, and there were no teachers nearby, as the imperial person came to visit without warning. When one of the boarders finally saw the tsar in Nikolai Pavlovich and greeted him in all his form, the comrades shouted him - how bold it is to greet the general as emperor. Nicholas I was furious and soon the privileged boarding school was demoted to a regular gymnasium.

Most of the boarders, and among them Lermontov, have decided to “resign” from the school. Still, Mikhail left the senior class, having achieved his goal - in public tests in the spring of 1830 for his academic achievements he was awarded the first prize. The memoirist Yekaterina Sushkova who knew him remarked in her memoirs: “It was gratifying to watch him triumphant ... His thought from his youth that he was not folded, bad, not of noble origin ... He confessed to me more than once how he would like to get into people and no one should be in this. " By the way, the poet got acquainted with Sushkova in the winter of 1830, and already in the summer, resting in Serednikovo with her relatives, he fell head over heels in love with the “black-eyed” girl. However, the eighteen-year-old Catherine only laughed at the clumsy fifteen-year-old boyfriend.

The sixteenth birthday of her grandson, Elizaveta Alekseevna, waited with anxiety, fearing that Yuri Petrovich, who had again declared his intention to reunite with her son, would be able to take over. Misha also wanted to leave with his father, but at the last moment, seeing the suffering and tears of his grandmother, he did not do this. On this multi-year family drama ended, leaving indelible scars on the hearts of all participants. At the end of the summer 1830 Lermontov passed the exams at Moscow University. At first he chose the moral-political department, but soon he realized that the verbal faculty was more in tune with his inner aspirations, and switched to it. However, before this young man, like all Muscovites, survived the cholera epidemic, which began in September 1830. The poet's fellow student, writer Peter Wistenhof, recalled: “All offices and educational institutions were closed, trade stopped, public amusements were banned. Moscow was cordoned off by a military cordon and quarantined. Those who had time, fled from the city ... The rest were locked in houses ... ”. Elizaveta Alekseevna chose not to get off her familiar place, relying on the fact that the observance of sanitary measures would help avoid contagion. The floors in the house were washed several times a day and always with bleach, all fruits and greens were excluded from the food, and it was allowed to leave the yard only in case of an urgent need and with a personal permission from Arsenyeva. Once in isolation, Mikhail began composing the romantic drama People and Passions, based on the conflict between father and grandmother.

In winter, the cholera epidemic receded, and the city returned to its usual life. The university resumed classes, and Lermontov plunged into the study of science. However, very soon he was surprised to find that the level of training of teachers leaves much to be desired. The poet began to skip classes, studying independently at home. And very soon, most of the teachers surpassed their knowledge. It is known that once he entered into an argument with the teacher of elegant literature Peter Pobedonostsev (by the way, the father of the famous Ober-Prosecutor of the Synod). According to the memoirs of the same Wistenhof, the learned husband’s brisk answer was interrupted by the words: “I did not read this to you and would like you to answer me exactly what I gave”. The answer discouraged him: “This, Mr. Professor, is true. What I said now you didn’t read to us and couldn’t give, because this is new and has not reached you yet. I use sources from my own modern library equipped with everything. ” Similar stories occurred at lectures on numismatics and heraldry.

During these years, Lermontov began to appear in the light, he could be seen at balls, masquerades, in theaters. The former timid young man gradually faded into the past - henceforth the poet knew how to impress the social lionesses. The recipient of the love lyrics of Mikhail Yuryevich in 1830-1831 was a certain Natalia - the daughter of playwright Fyodor Ivanov. Unfortunately, she did not share his feelings, but news about her marriage and completely plunged the poet into despondency. In the fall, the young man met Varenka, the younger sister of his good friends the Lopukhins. Pretty soon, Lermontov's passionate love for Varya was no longer a secret to others. This time, Mikhail Yuryevich was granted reciprocal sympathy, but he was not in a hurry to declare himself as a potential bridegroom.

In winter, the poet learned about the death of his father. In the last testament letter, Yury Petrovich instructed him: “Although you are still young, I see that he is gifted with mental abilities. Do not neglect them and most of all be afraid to use them for something useless or harmful - this is a talent in which you will once be obliged to give a report to God ... ”. Lermontov remembered his father's request in the spring of 1832, wanting to get a better education, filed a petition for transfer to the St. Petersburg Imperial University. The administration of Moscow University without delay has prepared all the papers, happily getting rid of too clever student.

The poet didn’t get along with the northern capital at once - the puffy desire for luxury hurt his eyes, forcing me to sadly recall the simple Moscow. Perhaps the first impressions would have been different, the poet’s idea with the translation would not have failed - the university management refused to count Mikhail Yuryevich on the courses he had attended earlier and offered to start training from scratch. After consulting with Elizabeth Alekseevna, Lermontov decided to try to show his talents in the military arena. Before his eyes, Arsenyeva had brilliant examples of his brothers: Alexander Stolypin, a former biographer and adjutant of Suvorov himself, as well as combat generals Dmitry and Nikolai. Mikhail Yuryevich wrote Lopukhina: “Until now, I lived for a literary career ... and now from now on I am a warrior. Maybe this is the special will of Providence ... to die with a bullet in the chest is no worse than from the slow agony of old age. ”

Demon Poetry. Mikhail Yurjevich Lermontov
M. Yu. Lermontov in the uniform of the Life Guards Hussar Regiment. Portrait of P. Z. Zakharov-Chechen


In November, 1832 Lermontov as a volunteer enrolled in the Hussars Life Guards Regiment, and soon there was a misfortune with him. Driven by his senior comrades, the poet sat on an unbroken mare. His horse began to run between the others, and one kicked the rider into his right leg, breaking it. The treatment lasted for several months, but the leg had grown together incorrectly, which was strongly striking afterwards. Despite this, in April 1833 the poet easily passed the exams at the Cavalry Junkers School and the Guards Undersigns. Meanwhile, Lermontov's grandmother took a house near the School of Junkers on Moika and almost every day sent her grandson "smuggling" in the form of various delicacies. Arsenyeva had the hardest time in the summer, when all the junkers were sent to the cadet camp. Mikhail Yuryevich himself bivouac life demolished patiently, sharing her comrades with him. Especially close in those years, he became acquainted with the future writer Vasily Vonlyarlyarsky and his cousin Alex Stolypin, nicknamed "Mongo". Having escaped from under the tutelage of the grandmother — the junkers were allowed to go home only on Sundays and holidays — the poet plunged into a wild life, often becoming the initiator of various pranks. As a joke, Mikhail Yuryevich called himself "Maeshka" - in honor of the character of French caricatures, the hunchbacked freak, the vulgar and rogues. The frivolous Lermontov works “Ode to the Shelter,” “To Tizengausen,” “Ulansh,” “Goshpital,” “Peterhof Holiday,” revered by officers and cadets as truly hussar things, make intelligent literary scholars to this day blush.

In December, the poet 1834 again met the "black-eyed" Ekaterina Sushkova. However, this time the “executioner” and the “victim” changed places. Lermontov, falling in love with a girl, upset her wedding with Alexei Lopukhin, and then, having compromised in the eyes of the world, he threw it away. In one of the letters, the poet explained this by saying that he “repaid for the tears that coquetry m-lle S made to shed five years ago.” The intrigue had a different background, Lermontov tried at all costs to protect his comrade from Sushkova, calling her "a bat, whose wings are hooked on all the oncoming." However, revenge did not pass for the poet without a trace. Varenka Lopukhina, misinterpreting the relationship between Lermontov and Sushkova, in the winter of 1835 in despair responded by agreeing to the rich landowner Nikolai Bakhmetyev who had long been wooing to her. The news of the marriage of Wari plunged the writer into shock. Even the literary debut did not console him - “Haji Abrek” was published in the popular magazine “Library for Reading”. It should be noted that the manuscript in secret from the author was referred to the editor by a distant relative of Lermontov, Nikolai Yuriev. Mikhail Yuryevich, having learned about the publication, instead of gratitude, “was raging for almost an hour”. Varya Lopukhina remained the love of all life and the main muse of the great poet. Lermontov made it the prototype of the Faith from the “Hero of Our Time”, “Princess of Lithuania” and “Two Brothers”, dedicated many poems and poems. Three watercolor portraits of Vari by Mikhail Yuryevich have been preserved. By the way, Bakhmetev was jealous of his wife for the poet all the years of his marriage, forcing her to destroy all his correspondence with him. Varya survived Lermontov only by ten years, having died at the age of thirty-six.

In November, 1834 Lermontov became the cornet of the Life Guards Hussar Regiment. Army exercises and summer campaigns were replaced by dashing hacks in Tsarskoe Selo and winter ball seasons in St. Petersburg. Mikhail Yuryevich lived, thanks to his grandmother’s stately salary, on a grand scale. Being an ardent horseman, he did not spare any money for the horses. For example, it is known that in the spring of 1836 for 1580 rubles (a huge amount in those days), the writer bought a horse from one general.

In late January, 1837 Lermontov fell ill and was sent home for treatment. There he learned the news about Pushkin's duel. The very next day, shocked Mikhail Yuryevich composed the first part of the poem “The Death of a Poet”, and his friend Svyatoslav Raevsky made a number of copies. The work quickly spread among the youth, and their author, who formulated the general mood very precisely, immediately hit the target of the chief gendarme of the country, Benkendorf. By the way, initially Alexander Khristoforovich, who was a stranger with the Stolypin, reacted condescendingly to impudent lines. But soon Mikhail Yuryevich finished sixteen more lines beginning “And you, arrogant descendants ...”. There was already a “smell” not by the simple arrogance of the young man, but by the ringing slap in the face of secular society, “an appeal to revolution”. In mid-February, the poet was taken into custody.


Georgian Military Road near Mtskheta (Caucasian view from the sacley). 1837. Painting M. Yu. Lermontov. Oil on cardboard


Under arrest, Lermontov worked enthusiastically. His relative recalled: "Michel ordered to wrap bread in paper and on these scraps with the help of a match, oven soot and wine, he wrote several new plays." By the way, in order to compose, Lermontov never needed any special external conditions. With equal ease he could write in his office, sitting in a carriage or in a tavern. Literary historian Pavel Viskovatii testified: “Everywhere he threw scraps of poems and thoughts, entrusting to the paper every movement of the soul .... He used every piece of paper that came across, and much was irretrievably lost ... He jokingly said to his man: “Pick up, pick up, over time they will pay big money, you will become rich”. When the paper under the hand did not happen, Lermontov wrote on the cover of books, at the bottom of a wooden box, on the tables, wherever he went. ”

Arseniev, to save his beloved grandson, raised all his influential relatives to his feet. An important role was played by the fact that Mikhail Yuryevich “repented” of his “delusion”. In late February, it became known that the emperor gave permission to discharge the poet in the same rank in the Nizhny Novgorod Dragoon Regiment, stationed in Georgia. In March, 1837 Lermontov left St. Petersburg, and in May arrived in Stavropol, where he was warmly received by his mother’s relative, General Pavel Petrov, who was chief of staff. The first thing the writer organized a trip around the neighborhood. On the left bank of the Terek, he drove to Kizlyar, but then due to fever he was forced to turn back. Stavropol doctor sent an officer for treatment in Pyatigorsk. Having recovered, Mikhail Yuryevich began to visit the local "water" society. He did this not only for the sake of entertainment, the idea of ​​a new work matured in his head.

In August, Lermontov was instructed to arrive in Anapa. Out of curiosity, the poet drove into one "vile seaside town" on the way there. There, obviously, the story described in “Taman” happened to him. Mikhail Yuryevich hid all the details of returning to Stavropol without traveling things and money, stingyly stating that he was robbed on the way. At the same time, Benkendorf, pushed by the pleas of the “venerable old woman” Arsenyeva, succeeded in transferring the poet to the Grodno Hussars. In early January, 1838 Mikhail Yuryevich arrived in Moscow, and two weeks later he appeared in the northern capital. In a letter to a friend, he said: “All those whom I pursued in verse now shower me with flattery ... Pretty women seek me poetry and praise them with triumph ... There was a time when I looked for access to this society, but now Little by little I start to find it all intolerable. ” In late February, Lermontov arrived in Novgorod at a new place of service, but did not stay there for a long time. Through the efforts of Benkendorf, he returned to the Life Guards Hussar Regiment.

In mid-May, Mikhail Yuryevich was in Tsarskoye Selo. At the same time there was his last meeting with Vary Bakhmeteva. Unfortunately, none of them left memories of this meeting, but since then, more and more often the poet has become overpowered. In Tsarskoye Selo, Lermontov finally realized that the suit of salon red tape had become too small for him and no social entertainment was able to save him from boredom. What the writer really cared about was creativity. To the joy of the poet, "Tambov Treasurer" was approved by Vyazemsky and Zhukovsky. This gave him confidence, and in August, Mikhail Yuryevich first appeared in the cabin of Yekaterina Karamzina, one of the centers of St. Petersburg literary beau monde of those years. In literary living rooms it was customary to read their works, but Lermontov followed this tradition reluctantly and rarely. One of his friends wrote: “He didn’t have an excessive pride of authorship, he didn’t trust himself and willingly listened to the critical remarks of those people in whose friendship he was sure ... He wasn’t encouraged by selfish calculations, making a strict choice to the works that were determined to be printed” . At the same time, another of his comrades noted: “When he was alone or with those he loved, he became pensive, his face took a serious, unusually expressive, slightly sad expression, but as soon as one of the guards appeared, he immediately returned to his feigned gaiety, as if striving to push forward the void of secular Petersburg life, which he deeply despised. ” It should be noted that Lermontov had amazing insight. Philosopher Yury Samarin wrote: “You did not even have time to talk to him, but he already saw through you ... He never listens to what you say to him, he listens to you and observes ...”.

In 1839, the star of the journal Notes of the Fatherland has risen on the Russian literary horizon. Virtually every issue printed works by Mikhail Yuryevich, and the poet himself continued to combine the service of the sovereign with the service of the Muses. He lived in Tsarskoye Selo together with Stolypin-Mongo, and their "hussar officers gathered most of all." In December, 1839 Lermontov was promoted to lieutenant, and in mid-February, 1840 held his first duel. The enemy was the son of the French ambassador de Barant, and the cause was the young princess Maria Shcherbatova, who became interested in Mikhail Yuryevich. Shcherbatova responded to him in return, and Ernest de Barant, dragged behind the princess, could not stand it, demanded satisfaction in accordance with the rules of honor. According to another version, an old verse, The Poet's Death, provoked a quarrel. A few days before the challenge to the duel, Father de Baranta found out who Lermontov was in defiance of him: one Dantes or the entire French nation.


M. Yu. Lermontov in 1840 year


The duel passed behind the Black River. In an explanation to the regimental commander, Lermontov wrote: “Since Mr. Barant considered himself offended, the choice weapons I provided him. He chose swords, however there were pistols with us. As soon as we managed to cross the swords, as my end broke ... Then we took the pistols. They should have been shooting together, but I was late. He missed, and I shot to the side. After that, he gave me a hand, and then we parted ways. ” The decisions of Nicholas I, Mikhail Yuryevich, waited while sitting under arrest. Contrary to universal expectations, the emperor treated Lermontov extremely severely, sending him to the Caucasus in the Tenginsky infantry regiment. It should be noted here that Nicholas I, wishing to leave a good memory of himself, very carefully followed all dissident writers. Mikhail Yurevich came into his field of view immediately after the appearance of “The Poet's Death”. According to the memoirs of contemporaries, the emperor, after reading the verses, said annoyedly: "This is not even an hour, will replace Pushkin's country." By 1840, Lermontov, who had already mastered the minds of the reading public, became for Nicholas I a source of hidden threats and constant irritation. When there was a reason to send the poet out of sight, the king realized that the best solution was to ensure that Mikhail Yuryevich never returned from exile.

Just before sending (in May 1840) the poet spent two weeks in Moscow. He waited for the release of the first edition of The Hero of Our Time, participated in Gogol's wires abroad, in which, at the request of those present, he read an excerpt from Mtsyri. To some extent, Lermontov was pleased with his Caucasian exile, the change of scenery only spurred his creative genius. But the commander of the troops on the Caucasian line, General Pavel Grabbe grabbed his head. Being a highly educated man who closely followed Russian literature, he understood perfectly well what place he already occupied and what the exiled lieutenant could take in the future. In violation of the royal decree, Grabbe did not send the poet to the forefront of the infantry, but seconded General Apollo Galafeev to the cavalry detachment. His people were based in the fortress of Grozny and made forays along the left flank of the Caucasian line. The chances of surviving here were much greater.

Summer for Lermontov turned out to be hot and not only because of the hot weather - Galafeev's subordinates constantly engaged in a fierce skirmish with the Chechens. In mid-July, an assault on enemy blockages occurred, later described in the “Journal of hostilities”, on the Valerik River. An unknown chronicler reported that Mikhail Yuryevich, with "excellent courage and composure", watched the actions of the front column, "notified the chief of the successes," and then "with the first bravest broke into the enemy obstructions." In carrying out the assignment, the poet had to ply through the forest, in which an enemy could hide behind every tree. The very next day, Lermontov shifted the picture of the battle onto paper, so the famous "Valerik" was born.

Throughout August, Mikhail Yurievich rested on the waters, and at the beginning of autumn he returned to the army in the field. Soon he was put in charge of a detachment of hundreds of Cossacks. Almost immediately, Lermontov earned the respect of his subordinates - he demonstrated an excellent knowledge of military affairs, shared with ordinary soldiers all the burdens of everyday life (to the extent that he ate with them from one boiler) and rushed to the enemy first. The “ardent courage”, courage and quickness of the poet drew the attention of the command. In the award list, in particular, it was stated: "It is impossible to make a better choice - everywhere Lieutenant Lermontov, everywhere the first was subjected to shots and at the head of the detachment dedication rendered above all praise." For the encouragement of Lermontov, Grabbe himself and Prince Golitsyn, the commander of the cavalry, petitioned. In response, they received only the monarch's reprimand for daring to arbitrarily “use” the poet in the cavalry detachment.

At this time, Arsenieva was doing everything possible to get her grandson out of the Caucasus. However, all that she has achieved is that Lermontov’s vacation was paid off. In February, 1841 Mikhail Yuryevich arrived in St. Petersburg, where he stayed until May. On the way back he went with a heavy heart, the poet was tormented by bad forebodings. On the road from Stavropol to the Dagestan fortress Temir-Khan-Shura Lermontov and his faithful companion Stolypin-Mongo got stuck because of the rain at one station. Here friends decided to call in the resort Pyatigorsk. Later, upon arrival at the site, Lermontov and Stolypin obtained fictitious conclusions regarding the need for water treatment - under certain conditions, the military doctors were going to meet the officers. The main secular point in Pyatigorsk was the house of General Versilin. It was in 1841 in mid-July that the quarrel between Mikhail Yuryevich and Nikolai Martynov, a friend of the poet from the time of the school, occurred.

Lermontov spent the last hours at her cousin Ekaterina Bykhovets, who knew nothing about the upcoming fight. In parting, he kissed her hand and said: "Cousine, there will be no happier hours in this life." At the seventh o'clock in the evening of July 15 at the foot of Mount Mashuk a duel was held. Following the team "converge" the poet froze in place, turning his right side to the enemy, closing his hand and raising his weapon up. Martynov, on the contrary, taking aim, quickly went to the barrier. He pulled the trigger, and Lermontov "fell down" fell to the ground. At that moment, according to legend, thunder struck, and a terrible thunderstorm began.


Lermontov on the monument "The Millennium of Russia" in Veliky Novgorod


The full truth about this ridiculous duel, most likely, no one will ever know. The inconsistencies are already visible at the time of the poet's call. According to the official version, the duel provoked Lermontov’s joke, who called Martynov in the presence of the ladies a “highlander with a huge dagger”. However, on such trifling occasions nobles, as a rule, did not shoot. According to another version, in Pyatigorsk, Mikhail Yuryevich became interested in Emilia Verzilina, but she preferred Martynov to him. Stung poet brought down on the opponent a hail of jokes, epigrams and caricatures. It should be noted that Martynov, a vain and arrogant man, was in a state of extreme depression that summer, as he was forced to resign a few months before, having been caught on a card cheat. The duel itself abounds in solid “white spots”. The fight was organized against all the rules, in particular, there was no doctor and crew on the spot. At the same time, with the filing of Martynov, the conditions of the duel were the most severe - they were shot at a distance of fifteen steps from powerful pistols to three attempts! The official seconds were Prince Alexander Vasilchikov and the cornet Mikhail Glebov, but there is every reason to suspect the presence of Stolypin-Mongo and Sergey Trubetskoy, whose names were mutually persuaded from investigators because they were already exiled in the Caucasus. And most importantly - Lermontov, according to contemporaries, was a great shooter, able to "put a bullet on the bullet." On the eve of the duel, he publicly stated that he would not shoot at Martynov. At the duel, Mikhail Yuryevich repeated: "I will not shoot at this fool." And supposedly shot in the air. In this light, Martynov killed a defenseless man. In the court opinion it was stated that a bullet had pierced the right lung, and the poet died instantly. However, according to the testimony of the servant of Lermontov, "during transport, Mikhail Yurevich was moaning ... he stopped moaning halfway and died calmly." But it was transported to Pyatigorsk four hours after the duel. Nobody believed in the tragic outcome of the duel in the city, the officers bought champagne, set a festive table. There were also no people interested in an objective investigation - one of the seconds of the duel was the son of the favorite of Tsar Illarion Vasilchikov, and the matter was urgently needed to be hushed up. Possible witnesses — Sergey Trubetskoy and Stolypin-Mongo — took all the secrets with them to the grave, and Martynov's associates subsequently spent a lot of energy in order to rehabilitate themselves in the eyes of the descendants.

At the funeral of Mikhail Yurevich gathered almost the entire city. Only nine months later, Arsenyeva was allowed to transport the grandson’s ashes home. The great poet found a last refuge in the Tarkhany family chapel. Elizaveta Alekseevna survived him by only four years.


Portrait of Lermontov in a coffin


Lermontov's life was cut short at the moment when the star shone with his bright light on the horizon of Russian literature - titanic abilities and great talent combined with purposefulness and creative will promised to give the Fatherland a genius, whom she had not yet known. In memory of the great poet, little remained until the offensive, in the heyday he wrote only about seventy poems, a number of poems and one novel (Mikhail Yuryevich’s total creative heritage was four hundred poems, 5 dramas, 7 tales, 25 poems, about 450 drawings in pencil and pen, 51 watercolor and 13 works in oil). The philosopher Vasily Rozanov stated in his writings: “Lermontov rose an immeasurably stronger bird than Pushkin. Nobody else in the domestic literature has had such a tone ... ”In light of this, the words of Leo Tolstoy seem not such an exaggeration, that“ if this boy remained alive, neither Dostoevsky nor I would be needed ”.

According to the materials of the site http://www.mlermontov.ru/ and the weekly edition “Our history. 100 Great Names »
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  1. candidate 17 July 2015 06: 26 New
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    ... Greatness manifests itself in deeds
    History will judge their scope ...
    1. cth; fyn 19 July 2015 21: 11 New
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      One story was recalled: before the start of the war, one guy got to serve in Siberia, and his mother, a metropolitan little thing, considering that for her child de climate in Siberia is too severe, his transfer to Moscow was exhausted, a week after the start of the Second World War, his mother received a funeral.
  2. Moore 17 July 2015 06: 59 New
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    In November 1834, Lermontov became the cornet of the Life Guards of the Hussar Regiment. Army exercises and summer campaigns were replaced by dashing revels in Tsarskoye Selo and winter ball seasons in St. Petersburg. There lived Mikhail Yuryevich, thanks to the laid official salary and generosity of his grandmother, in a big way.

    Guides of Pushkin and Peterhof still tell about Michel's art. Apparently, Mikhail Svet Yuryevich was a significant headache for his superiors. Going out for a divorce guard to guard the royal residence with a toy saber is one of his most innocent jokes.
    Later, upon arrival at the scene, Lermontov and Stolypin obtained fictitious conclusions about the need for water treatment - under certain conditions, military doctors met the officers.

    Well, what can I say ... A good brave officer, a fair amount of bells, a womanizer and a poet. If we reject all praise in excellent tones - our man ...
    1. saturn.mmm 17 July 2015 18: 37 New
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      Quote: Moore
      If we reject all praise in excellent tones - our man ...

      It is a pity his life was too short.
      One of my favorite poems by Mikhail Yurievich:

      They loved each other so long and dearly,
      With deep anguish and passion insanely rebellious!
      But how the enemies avoided confession and meeting,
      And their brief speeches were empty and cold.

      They parted in a silent and proud misery
      And a cute image in a dream was only sometimes seen.
      And death came: a date came beyond the grave ...
      But in a new world, they did not recognize each other.

      And Borodino!

      You do not see such battles! ..
      Banners fluttered like shadows,
      In the smoke, the fire shone,
      It sounded like a bulat, sarc bittered,
      The hand of the fighters is tired,
      And the cores were prevented from flying
      Mountain of bloody bodies.

      Talent.
      1. cth; fyn 19 July 2015 21: 29 New
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        What about the demon? that's where the tragedy is! There, it’s not so much Tamara who pity as a demon, to believe that you love, and then it’s cruel to realize that against your nature you are nothing, cruel, extremely cruel.
  3. parusnik 17 July 2015 08: 08 New
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    Lermontov’s life ended at a time when the star shone with its bright light in the horizon of Russian literature..Died poet, slave of honor .. wrote about Pushkin, but it turned out about himself ..
  4. Vladimirets 17 July 2015 08: 56 New
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    If, as the author writes, "The complete truth about this ridiculous duel, most likely, no one will ever know." , then why does she further expose Martynova: "Martyn’s comrades subsequently spent a lot of energy in order to rehabilitate themselves in the eyes of posterity." Mikhail Yuryevich was a very difficult person and really "the poet brought down on the opponent a hail of jokes, epigrams and caricatures", so his mockery of Martynov’s fashion of wearing mountain clothes, and even in the presence of ladies, simply became the last straw.
    1. cth; fyn 19 July 2015 21: 14 New
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      And you can show off, then you won’t become a laughing stock.
  5. PPL
    PPL 17 July 2015 09: 25 New
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    The article is a plus, but there is a little inaccuracy.
    ... the poet met Sushkova in the winter of 1830, and already in the summer, resting in Serednikov with her relatives ...

    Serednikovo (then called Srednikovo) was the Stolypin estate, whose grandmother M.Yu. Lermontov. The estate of Sushkovs - Bolshakovo was in the neighborhood (Bolshakovo can now be found not far from Serednikovo). So it was not at her relatives that Lermontov met Katya, but the Sushkovs came to the bride to see Misha’s grandmother EA Arsenyeva (Katya Sushkova, starting in 1829, was regularly taken to the light).
  6. 222222 17 July 2015 09: 38 New
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    Quote: candidate
    ... Greatness manifests itself in deeds
    History will judge their scope ...

    .. "And you, arrogant descendants
    Known meanness of illustrious fathers,
    Fifth slavish remnants of wreckage
    A game of happiness for offended deliveries!
    You, greedy crowd at the throne,
    Liberty, Genius and Glory hangmen!
    You are ransacked under the law,
    Before you, the court and the truth - keep quiet! ..
    But there is also God's judgment, confidants of debauchery!
    There is a terrible trial: he is waiting;
    It is not accessible to the ringing of gold,
    And he knows thoughts and deeds in advance.
    Then in vain you will resort to evil thoughts:
    It will not help you again,
    And you will not wash away all your black blood
    Poet of righteous blood "
    (MU LERMONTOV "To the death of the poet")
  7. I love Motherland 17 July 2015 09: 49 New
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    Genius ... why in Russia they are so treated ... bitterly ... ashamed ...
    1. oldkap22 17 July 2015 14: 59 New
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      and HOW to relate to them ...!? He is a brilliant poet but also OFFICER ...!
  8. rakiuzo 17 July 2015 09: 55 New
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    Moj perevod stihotvorenija turetskogo poeta Cenaba Shehabettina:
    .
    Truly great people
    Looks like beautiful trees-
    Shelters are built on their branches,
    Tired people rest in their shade
    People touching their flowers
    Breathe in the wonderful smell
    Their fruits feed the hungry
    And through their leaves
    The pouring rays of the sun
    Awaken the earth to life.
    .
    Lermontov odin iz nih!
  9. Selevc 17 July 2015 10: 06 New
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    Lermontov is a man of honor. He lived so little and managed so much. He is one of the pillars supporting the cultural foundation of the Russian world ...
  10. bionik 17 July 2015 10: 52 New
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    Leo Tolstoy said: "If this boy stayed alive, neither I nor Dostoevsky would be needed."
  11. dmit-xnumx 17 July 2015 11: 39 New
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    "Russian poetry began with two corpses (Pushkin-Lermontov), ​​two corpses (Yesenin-Mayakovsky) and ended" (I. Erenburg)
    1. washi 17 July 2015 12: 05 New
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      Quote: dmit-52
      "Russian poetry began with two corpses (Pushkin-Lermontov), ​​two corpses (Yesenin-Mayakovsky) and ended" (I. Erenburg)

      I do not agree with you.
      Just now, good poems are often known to the small circle, because not in demand by modern society accustomed to pop and “fashionable”, i.e. stupid, scribes.
      There are many sites with poems by our contemporaries. Whoever wishes, he will find. And there is not only about "love."
      I will not recommend it. Everyone has different tastes. For example, I only appreciate fairy tales from Pushkin. And for someone he is Our All
  12. VSkilled 17 July 2015 13: 22 New
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    Without in any way diminishing the talent of Mikhail Yurievich, one cannot but admit (and this is noted in the testimonies of his contemporaries!) That he had the most extreme character.

    And, on the other hand, it could not be otherwise. "Grandmother's upbringing" is a natural result.

    On the one hand, I recall my grandmother with the warmest feelings.

    On the other - I see how my mother-in-law ugly spoils my son. Parents here will understand me.

    Here it is, here - the "eternal conflict" ...
  13. evil partisan 17 July 2015 14: 46 New
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    Yes. Great is Mikhail Yuryevich. And his “Hero of Our Time” is one of the 3 highest peaks of Russian prose. Along with Dead Souls and Belkin's Tales.
    1. tasha 17 July 2015 20: 56 New
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      Having parted with Maxim Maksimych, I quickly rode the Terek and Darial gorges, had breakfast in Kazbek, drank tea in Lars, and in the evening I slept in Vladykavkaz. I will spare you from the description of the mountains, from exclamations that do not express anything, from paintings that do not represent anything, especially for those who were not there, and from statistical remarks that no one will decisively read.
      I stayed in a hotel, where all the travelers stopped and where, meanwhile, there was no one to order to fry the pheasant and cook soup, for the three people with disabilities to whom she was entrusted were so stupid or so drunk that they could not get any sense.
      They told me that I had to live here for another three days, because the "opportunity" from Yekaterinograd had not yet arrived and, therefore, could not be sent back. What an opportunity! .. but a bad pun is not a consolation for a Russian person, and for fun I decided to record Maxim Maksimych’s story about Bel, not imagining that he would be the first link in a long chain of stories; you see how sometimes an unimportant case has cruel consequences! .. And you, maybe, don’t know what “opportunity” is? This is a cover consisting of half an infantry and a cannon, with which carts go through Kabarda from Vladykavkaz to Yekaterinograd.



      Ah, to read this in the current scarcity of speech!
  14. Sonata17 17 July 2015 16: 05 New
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    A Russian / Soviet officer is always a little artist, a little poet - in general, a creative person. Until the time of the Russian Federation, the army always attracted talents.
    1. Pissarro 17 July 2015 22: 49 New
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      why did they spit on the current officers? That service in the 90s, which fell to their lot, could not be seen by the officers of Nicholas I in a terrible dream. The ball, water and estate did not shine, and the Chechen bullet did not cause sympathy among fellow citizens
      1. cth; fyn 19 July 2015 21: 18 New
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        And how many boys in Chechnya these mediocrity and boobies put? Yes, what sympathy they have, they must be despised as Roman dogs.
  15. moskowit 17 July 2015 17: 03 New
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    Dear my friends. The theme of the poet and hero of the Caucasian War still requires its own researcher. Mikhail Yuryevich was killed in a duel in the 1841 year, he was 27 years old, and how much he already wrote. Great verses, not only love lyrics and verses with a clearly expressed civic position, amazing prose, drama relevant for that time, the experience of writing historical prose, and which poems !!!
    Read the descriptions of the exploits of the hundredth commander, I would call him the father of Russian special forces. The team of his "hunters" composed of Cossacks, various troops, Caucasians of the Orthodox faith, baptized "Tatars" and other risk-takers, adventure and deeds, worked wonders of heroism.
  16. moskowit 17 July 2015 17: 08 New
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    Anyone interested in the biography of the Great Poet, I recommend not articles from any sites, but decent deep works and research. Read Irakli Andronnikov, who devoted almost his entire life to the study of Mikhail Yuryevich’s work. Read other authors. There are great books ...
  17. moskowit 17 July 2015 17: 09 New
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    Very interesting book about the poet's childhood
  18. RoTTor 17 July 2015 17: 14 New
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    To some Lermontov’s anniversary in the 2 floor. 19-m century were published the memoirs of contemporaries about M.Yu. Lermontov.
    His school mates and colleagues, paying tribute to his literary talent and abilities, as a man spoke about him invariably negatively.
    Unlike his classmate Martynov, who became a major, a handsome man, an excellent officer, a good comrade, and a good fellow.
    Apparently, a nondescript appearance and a not very good childhood resulted in an inferiority complex that made Lermontov unpleasant for his comrades.
    If he had fired on time from service, he would have sat in Tarkhany and would have written poetry ...
  19. moskowit 17 July 2015 17: 17 New
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    Then, one must be careful with the known facts. Georg Lermont, according to legend, is the ancestor of Mikhail Yuryevich, but not his great-grandfather ... The poet was born 200 years after the capture of a landsknecht mercenary. In addition, the poet himself derived his family tree from the Spanish grandeur Lerma and the first began to write his name through "O". His famous cousin Admiral Lermantov wrote his name through "A"
  20. moskowit 17 July 2015 17: 25 New
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    Then, if Andronnikov’s memory serves me correctly, the documents of the investigation file for the investigation of the duel were published, as well as the penitent letter of Martynov, written many years after the KILLING !!!
  21. RiverVV 17 July 2015 17: 57 New
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    Hussar, yes ... You need to understand what it meant in those days. I don’t remember who said: "If a hussar is twenty-five and he has not yet been killed, then he is not a hussar, but a rag." Seidlitz seems. The elite of all the European armies of the time. Sharp on the tongue, quick on the arm. Undoubtedly this determined the whole future life of Lermontov. All his duels, risk, epigrams and, as a result, early death.

    Martynov is now commonly accused of murder, but few are aware that, according to the dueling code of that time, the caller simply had to shoot at the target. For Martynov in this situation, shooting into the air meant general contempt. He would be considered not even a coward, but a complete idiot: why did he call? Hit of course. Not a civil servant, his hand did not tremble, and none of the world, which is typical, then did not condemn him. The challenge to a duel was also quite reasonable. Lermontov, as they say now, did not follow the bazaar and donned Martynov with epigrams.
  22. moskowit 17 July 2015 17: 57 New
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    Book Andronnikov I, L, "M.Yu. Lermontov, documents and studies"
  23. moskowit 17 July 2015 18: 08 New
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    I propose to read ... The publication is somewhere near the end or middle of 60's. I read the blue ...
  24. moskowit 17 July 2015 18: 20 New
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    Quote: RoTTor
    To some Lermontov’s anniversary in the 2 floor. 19-m century were published the memoirs of contemporaries about M.Yu. Lermontov.
    His school mates and colleagues, paying tribute to his literary talent and abilities, as a man spoke about him invariably negatively.
    Unlike his classmate Martynov, who became a major, a handsome man, an excellent officer, a good comrade, and a good fellow.
    Apparently, a nondescript appearance and a not very good childhood resulted in an inferiority complex that made Lermontov unpleasant for his comrades.
    If he had fired on time from service, he would have sat in Tarkhany and would have written poetry ...

    "Face to face do not see,
    see each other in the distance .. "(A. Blok)
    This is the trouble of all contemporaries of great people that they see themselves as equal, and to geniuses and talented people have a certain jealousy. As a "cadet" Lermontov, being the leader of the "Numidian" squadron, joking freshmen and the writer of "free" and rather "hardy" verses for the manuscript journal of the School of Guards Sub-Ensigns and Cavalry Junkers, he could be evaluated by his colleagues and fellow students only as an equal ... In those days, noble offspring knew well the basics of versification and the skills of fine art.
  25. moskowit 17 July 2015 18: 25 New
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    Please read the "Cadet Prayer", the "Tambov Treasury" or the poem "Sasha" ... Or a very beautiful poem, "Happy Moment", but it is, however, published only in the academic edition of 63-64 ...
  26. tasha 17 July 2015 21: 10 New
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    Yes I am protected from flies
    From virgins who don't know love
    From friendship too tender - and -
    From romantic old women.
  27. Pissarro 17 July 2015 23: 15 New
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    As always, they threw mud at Nikolai Palych with the article, the tradition is smile
    Meanwhile, it is unlikely that in our history there was generally a king who was more versed in literature and carefully read contemporary poets and writers. Regarding Lermontov, his characteristic is that the person is infinitely talented, but at the same time spoiled by his grandmother’s upbringing, wherever he is , with whom he wouldn’t communicate, be it co-workers, fellow students, girls, scientific and military authorities, he was accompanied by a scandal everywhere and a desire to take such a shot to hell. Without male education, the boy will not be able to live normally in the world of men, extra confirmation
    1. cth; fyn 19 July 2015 21: 23 New
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      The tsar should not understand poetry, but should govern the state well, and he ... Yes, you yourself know that of the Romanovs only Peter was cool, and the rest was trash.