Military Review

"Flight of the Eagle." Like Napoleon with a handful of soldiers and without a single shot captured France

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"Flight of the Eagle." Like Napoleon with a handful of soldiers and without a single shot captured France

200 years ago, 18 June 1815, Napoleon Bonaparte suffered a final defeat at Waterloo. The battle took place during Napoleon’s attempt to defend the French throne, lost after the war against the coalition of the largest European countries and the restoration of the Bourbon dynasty in the country. His triumphant return of power in France was called the One Hundred Days of Napoleon. However, European monarchs refused to recognize Napoleon’s power over France and organized the VII anti-French coalition. This war was unjust, since the French people supported Napoleon and hated the Bourbon regime. Napoleon lost the war to the strongest European powers and was exiled to St. Helena in the Atlantic Ocean.


France after Napoleon

After the revolution and during the reign of Napoleon, the Bourbons were almost forgotten. They were on the periphery of social and political life. Only small royalists, mainly in emigration, cherished the hope of restoring their power. It is clear that there was no hatred anymore. Since the execution of Louis XVI lived a whole generation. The old generation did not recall the former dynasty, and the new generation knew about it only from stories. To most people, the Bourbons seemed like a distant past.

During the 1813-1814 campaigns. Napoleon's army was defeated, Russian troops entered Paris. Napoleon was exiled as an honorary exile to Elba Island in the Mediterranean. For Napoleon kept the title of emperor, he was the owner of the island. Napoleon felt quite at ease. He and his family were provided with fairly high content. The honorary entourage of Napoleon was made up of several generals and several companies of the Old Guard (numbering about the battalion). Several other units were also subordinate to him: the Corsican battalion, the Elba battalion, horse rangers, Polish lancers and an artillery battery. Also at the disposal of Napoleon was a few ships.


Napoleon's Farewell to the Imperial Guard 20 on April 1814

The winners determined the future of France. When the French minister Talleyrand, the master of intrigue who betrayed Napoleon, offered to return the throne to the Bourbons, the Russian emperor Alexander Pavlovich reacted negatively to this idea. Alexander was inclined initially in favor of Eugene Beauharnais or Bernadotte. There was a possibility of transferring the throne to any member of the Bonaparte dynasty or another dynasty, not the Bourbons. The Viennese court and the cunning Metternich were not averse to the regency of Maria Louise of Austria. However, this contradicted the interests of England and Russia.

As a result, Talleyrand was able to achieve the transfer of the throne to the Bourbons. He began to insist on the principle of legitimacy, the legitimacy of power. “Louis XVIII is a principle,” said Talleyrand. The principle of legitimacy came to the soul of both Alexander, and the Prussian king, and the Austrian emperor. 3 May 1814, a new monarch Louis XVIII of Bourbon entered Paris, surrounded by a large retinue of émigrés who returned from exile.

Unfortunately, the brother of the executed king was not the best monarch. He wandered for twenty years in different parts of Europe, lived on the maintenance of either the Russian tsar, or the Prussian king, or the English government, grew old in fruitless hopes of returning to the throne, and suddenly, when almost all hopes were exhausted, he returned to Paris. An elderly, painful and passive king, seated on the French throne with the help of foreign bayonets, could not win the sympathy of the people. He could at least not cause hatred of people, not stir up old insults.

However, his energetic brother, Count d'Artois, the future King Charles X, leader of the party of extreme royalists, from the first days of the restoration gained great influence at the court. The Duchess of Angouleme, the daughter of the executed Louis XVI, was a match for him. Royalists wanted revenge, places of honor and money. The internal policy of the cabinet of Louis XVIII was largely determined by the returned emigrants and became reactionary, despite the relatively liberal Charter of 1814 of the year. Adherents of the emperor and the republic, as well as Protestants were persecuted, freedom of the press existed only formally. The elite of Napoleon’s empire was relegated to the background, feeling deprived. The peasantry began to fear that the lands would be taken away, feudal and church taxes would be returned.

As a result, it began to seem that a relatively small group of people, long cut off from their homeland, wants to return the past. If it depended only on the entourage of Louis XVIII, it is possible that a tough tyrannical regime would be established in France. However, the Russian Tsar Alexander, and other allies, restrained radical sentiments, because they did not want to repeat stories at first. The French king was made to understand that he would have to recognize the main changes that occurred after the revolution.

Louis XVIII had to reckon with the people who helped him to ascend the throne. The first government was led by Talleyrand. War Minister was Marshal Sult. Most of the Napoleonic generals retained command positions. However, gradually, strengthened and felt the taste for power, the royalists began to crowd the Napoleonic elite. Top positions were filled with emigrants and their relatives who did not possess any talents and did not have any merit to France. Step by step, the Catholic Church strengthened its positions, occupied leading positions in society, which irritated the intelligentsia. Glorified with victory, the tricolor banner popular in the army — the banner of the French Revolution — was replaced by the white banner of the Bourbons. The three-colored cockade was replaced with a white lily-colored cockade.

People first with surprise, and then with irritation and hatred, followed the activities of the new masters of the country. These embittered people, many of whom have long lived in the hallways and doorways of various European capitals, loved money very much. They eagerly clung to the state pie. The king distributed to the right and to the left posts, ranks which brought the big income and were not connected with intense service. But they were not enough. The general requirement of the royalists was the return of the former possessions, the property that was transferred to the new owners. The royal ordinance that part of the national property, which were previously confiscated and did not have time to sell, returned to the former owners.

However, this was not enough for them. Preparing the next step - the alienation of possessions that have passed into new hands, and the transfer to the old owners. It was a very dangerous step, as he dealt a blow at a significant layer of people who had gained from the revolution. The events of the royalists, which affected the material results of the revolution and the Napoleonic era, caused great anxiety and public irritation. Talleyrand, the cleverest of all those who betrayed Napoleon and helped the Bourbons to take the throne, almost immediately noted: "They have not forgotten and learned nothing." The Russian Tsar Alexander I expressed the same thought in a conversation with Kolenkur: “The Bourbons have not been corrected and are incorrigible”

Only a few months passed, and the new government not only did not get close to the people, on the contrary, caused discontent among almost all the main strata. New owners were afraid for their possessions, their rights were questioned. There was a threat of a new redistribution of property, already in the interests of the royalists. The peasants were afraid that the old seniors and churchmen would take away their land, restore tithes and other hated feudal levies. The army was offended by disregard and contempt for its former exploits. Many military generals and officers were gradually dismissed. Their places were occupied by noble emigres who not only did not distinguish themselves in the battles for France, but often fought against it. It was obvious that soon the Napoleonic military elite would press even more.

The bourgeoisie was initially initially overwhelmed by the fall of Napoleon's empire. Endless wars ended that harmed trade, freed sea routes blocked by the British fleet, recruits to the army ceased (in the last years of Napoleon’s empire, the rich simply could not insert hired deputies instead of their sons, since the men simply ended). However, a few months after the fall of the empire and the lifting of the continental blockade, commercial circles noted with chagrin that the royal government did not even think of starting a decisive customs war with the British.

The intelligentsia, people of liberal professions, lawyers, writers, doctors, etc., also initially sympathized with the Bourbons. After the iron dictatorship of Napoleon, it seemed that freedom had come. A moderate constitution was a boon. However, soon educated people, educated in the spirit of the French Revolution, began to resent the domination of the church. The church began to actively occupy dominant positions in the public life of the country, suppressing the Voltairian spirit. Religious fanatics were especially violent in the provinces, where many officials were appointed on the recommendation of the church.

Less than half a year since the restoration of the Bourbons, as in Paris there was widespread opposition. Even the former Napoleon’s Minister of Police Fouche entered it, several times he offered his services to the new government, warned about the danger of Napoleon’s proximity to France. But his services were rejected. Then he joined the anti-government opposition. However, not everyone wanted Napoleon to return to power. Someone wanted to establish the power of Eugene Beauharnais, others offered to transfer the highest power to Lazar Carnot.


Louis XVIII

Flight of the Eagle

Napoleon carefully watched the political situation in France. He had reason to complain. Not all obligations to him were fulfilled. He was separated from his wife, Maria Louise and son. The Austrians feared that the son of Napoleon would take the French throne and continue the dynasty of Bonapartes, hostile to the Austrian Empire. Therefore, it was decided to turn the son of Napoleon into an Austrian prince. His father was to be replaced by his grandfather, the Austrian emperor, in whose palace the future Duke of Reichstadt was brought up from 1814. Napoleon was insulted. He did not know if his wife left him, or if she was not allowed to come to him.

Nor did Josephine’s first wife, whom he once passionately loved, come to him. She died in her palace in Malmaison, near Paris, a few weeks after Napoleon arrived on Elba Island, 29 in May 1814. The Emperor received this news with great sadness.

However, it was not personal motives that influenced Napoleon’s decision, but politics. This great man was eager to return to the Big Game. He closely followed the events in France and became increasingly convinced that the power of the Bourbons annoyed the people and the army. At the same time, news reached him that in Vienna they want to send him further, to St. Helena or to America.

Napoleon was a man of action, he was 45 years old, he was not yet tired of life. It was a political player. After some thought, he decided to act. 26 February 1815 Napoleon left Port-Ferio. He happily passed all the guard ships. 1 March 1815 of the year to the deserted coastline of the Juan Bay on the southern coast of the French kingdom stuck several small ships. With him came a small detachment. The whole "army" of Napoleon at this time consisted of only one thousand one hundred people. Arriving customs officers welcomed the emperor. Cannes and Grasse recognized the power of the returning emperor without any attempt at resistance. Napoleon issued a manifesto to the French, then appeals were issued to the inhabitants of Gap, Grenoble and Lyon. These appeals were of great importance, the people believed that their emperor was back.

By rapid march a small detachment of mountain paths went to the north. To avoid resistance, Napoleon chose the most difficult path - through the Alpine foothills. The emperor wanted to succeed, to conquer France, without firing a single shot. Napoleon did not want to fight the French, the path to the throne was supposed to be bloodless. He gave the order not to open fire, not to resort to arms under any circumstances. The detachment made great transitions and spent the night in the villages where Napoleon was sympathetically greeted by the peasants. Napoleon’s tactic was to avoid collisions at the first stage, winding along little-known roads and mountain paths, where it was possible to walk only in single file.

I must say that the peasants actively supported Napoleon. Thousands of thousands of peasants accompanied him from village to village. In a new place, they passed the emperor to a new group of peasants. Rumors about the return of land to their former owners were very disturbed. And the church behaved very arrogantly. The churchmen openly preached that the peasants who once bought the confiscated land would suffer the wrath of God.

7 March Napoleon went out to Grenoble. In Paris, that Napoleon left the Elbe, learned 3 of March, then all of France found out about it. The whole country was shocked, and then Europe. French troops in the south of France were commanded by old marshal Massena. True to the oath, Massena, upon learning of the landing of Napoleon, ordered General Mioliss to locate and arrest the Napoleonic squad. General Mioliss served for a long time under Napoleon’s command and at one time enjoyed his complete confidence. However, it turned out that the squad of Napoleon was ahead of the troops of Mioliss. Either Napoleon’s soldiers marched very quickly, or Mioliss was in no hurry. But, anyway, they did not meet on a narrow path.

Meanwhile, in Paris, already panicked. The royal government took quick measures to eliminate the threat. War Minister Soult gave the order 30-th. Army move against the detachment of Bonaparte. However, Soult seemed too unreliable to a suspicious royal court. Clark replaced him. Count d'Artois himself hurried to Lyon to stop the "Corsican monster," as Napoleon called the ruling clique. Many were in turmoil. They did not like the Bourbons, but did not want a new war. France was exhausted by previous wars. The French were afraid that the success of Napoleon would again lead to a big war.

In Grenoble there was a significant garrison under the command of General Marchand. Avoid collision was impossible. At the village of Lafre, government troops blocked the entrance to the gorge. Here stood the vanguard under the command of Captain Random. Napoleon led the soldiers towards rapprochement with the royal troops. When they were in sight, he ordered the soldiers to shift the gun with the right to the left hand. That is, they could not shoot. One of the emperor's closest associates, Colonel Mallet was in despair and tried to convince Napoleon of this insane, in his opinion, act. But Napoleon took this deadly risk.

Without slowing down, the French emperor calmly approached the royal soldiers. Then he stopped his squad and went alone, without protection. Coming close, he unbuttoned his coat and said: “Soldiers, will you recognize me? How many of you want to shoot at your emperor? I'm getting under your bullets. ” In response, the command of the captain of the government forces sounded: “Fire!” However, Napoleon correctly calculated everything. He was always loved in the army. "Long live the emperor!" - exclaimed the French soldiers, and the detachment in full force went over to the side of Napoleon. Napoleon was supported by local peasants, the working outskirts who broke the city gates. The emperor occupied Grenoble without a fight. Now he had six regiments with artillery.

Napoleon continued the triumphal procession to the north. He already had an army, into which peasants, workers, soldiers of various garrisons and townspeople joined. People felt in Napoleon fortitude. Thanks to popular support, Napoleon’s campaign ended in victory. March 10 Napoleon's army approached the walls of Lyon. The proud earl of d'Artois fled from the second largest city of France, transferring command to MacDonald. He saw that it was dangerous for him to remain in the city. The whole city of Lyon and its garrison went over to the side of their emperor.

Then against Napoleon moved the most illustrious Marshal Michel Ney. He promised Louis XVIII to bring Napoleon dead or alive, preventing civil war. The royal court had high hopes for Ney. The army was much stronger than Napoleon's troops. However, Napoleon knew his former comrade well. Ney was one of Napoleon's "Iron Guard", the "bravest of the brave" could not fight with his emperor. She was sent a short note: “Her! Come meet me at Chalon. I will receive you the same way as the day after the battle of Moscow. ” Supporters of Napoleon urged Ney that not all foreign powers support the Bourbons, for good reason the British released the emperor from the Elbe. Nei hesitated. 17 March, when both armies met, Ney snatched the sword from its scabbard and shouted: “Officers, non-commissioned officers and soldiers! The case of the Bourbons perished forever! ”And the whole army, without a single shot, went over to the side of the emperor.

Now nothing could stop the powerful, unstoppable stream. It was in those days that a hand-written poster “Napoleon to Louis XVIII.” Appeared on the Vendome column. King, my brother! Do not send me more soldiers, I have enough of them. Napoleon. This ironic record was true. Almost the whole army went over to the side of Napoleon. He was supported by the common people, peasants, townspeople and workers.

On the night of 19 on 20 March, the French king and his family fled in panic along the road to Lille. Napoleon’s army was only approaching Fontainebleau, and in the capital, the White Banner was already torn from the Tuileries Palace and replaced with a tricolor. The people spilled out onto the street. Parisians sincerely rejoiced, let the sharp wits in the direction of the runaway king and royalists. The remaining royalists hurriedly hid, tore off white cockades. The power of the Bourbons collapsed.

20 March Napoleon entered the Tuileries, met by enthusiastic people. Thus, twenty days after the landing on the French coast, Napoleon without a single shot entered Paris and became again the head of France. It was a brilliant victory.

Already 20 March new government began work. It included Napoleon’s old comrades-in-arms: Kolenkurk was Minister of Foreign Affairs, Fouchet was Minister of Police, Carnott was Minister of the Interior, Davout was Governor General of Paris and War Minister, Mare was Secretary (he was one of the first secretaries of the First Consul).

It was a happy day for Napoleon. After long failures and defeats, he again won a brilliant victory. What happened in France was perceived by contemporaries as a miracle. A handful of people in three weeks, without firing a single shot, without killing a single person, captured the whole country. It was, apparently, one of the most exciting adventures of Napoleon. No wonder he was later called the "flight of the eagle." We must pay tribute to the courage, determination, ability to take risks and knowledge of the policies of Napoleon. He went to an unparalleled enterprise and achieved success.

Napoleon's triumph is due to two main factors. First, it is the uniqueness of Napoleon’s personality. He calculated everything perfectly and went for a reasonable risk. As a result, a small squad that did not use weapons, within three weeks, defeated a huge kingdom with a large army. The immense popularity of Napoleon among the people and the army played a role.

Secondly, it is parasitism and the anti-national essence of the Bourbon regime. The royal power in the shortest possible time was able to incite to itself the hatred of the widest sections of the people. The army, which was peasant in its composition, went over to the side of the emperor. When taking Grenoble, Lyon and in several other cities of Napoleon, the workers actively supported. The urban poor actively moved to the side of the emperor in Paris. Much of the officers and generals, the elite of Napoleon's empire went over to his side. The bourgeoisie and intellectuals were annoyed by the policies of the royal court. No one remained on the side of the Bourbons.

To be continued ...
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 17 June 2015 07: 42 New
    +2
    He happily passed all the patrol ships... Napoleon guarded the English fleet .. The English, knowing the character of Napoleon, just let him frolic for 100 days .. And then they destroyed him .. Soslav on the island of St. Helena ..
    1. andrew42
      andrew42 17 June 2015 16: 14 New
      +1
      Well, the British, who are actually British, that is, the servants of the British Empire, they would never have let Napoleon go. This refers to the patriots of Britain. But who gave the order not to stop him is another question. Banking houses even then could not imagine their gesheft without wars, and even then they stood behind the curtains of the British constitutional "monarchy". Those who planned to use Napoleon's return to France were just the notorious "warmongers". But WHAT was the planned result of such a "return of the king" - this is the question: a) perhaps the assassination of Napoleon was planned in an attempt to restore his power in France; b) there was probably a second option, based on some guarantees squeezed out by Napoleon, and the intention to use it under control, but the Corsican, as it happens, got off the hook.
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 17 June 2015 20: 15 New
        0
        Characteristically, this is the second case similar happened when Bonoparte fled from Egypt to France .. then the coast of France was blocked by the English fleet and lo and behold! Napoleon literally managed to leak smile and return to France .. In my opinion, war with revolutionary, and subsequently Napoleonic France was more needed for England, to weaken it, and not Europe .. but England loved to rake the heat with the wrong hands .. In Russia, Catherine II said with ideas, you can’t fight with guns .. and didn’t get into this conflict .. Pavel was useful .. but after Suvorov’s Swiss campaign, he quickly understood everything and went closer to France, for which the British decided ... By the way, the result of the Napoleonic war- Russian troops took Paris and Russia created the Holy Alliance and seems to be the winner .. But practically in the economy of Europe and politics England dominated ..
      2. sergwas
        sergwas 18 June 2015 15: 20 New
        0
        Without the Rothschilds, it could not do here.
    2. sergwas
      sergwas 18 June 2015 15: 19 New
      0
      You are not right.
  2. mackonya
    mackonya 17 June 2015 07: 54 New
    +3
    Yes, what were the times, such commanders, although much can be embellished, it is a pity we cannot read in the original the French newspapers of those times, they are only in the archive.
  3. dmit-xnumx
    dmit-xnumx 17 June 2015 07: 54 New
    +3
    For some reason, I suddenly remembered something I had read: during the parade on the occasion of the proclamation of Napoleon as emperor during the passage of the guards, Napoleon, who has a wonderful memory, called out the name of one of the guardsmen and asked how he liked everything that was happening, to which the guardsman answered: Majesty, that's just a pity for those hundred thousand who laid down their heads so that this would never happen again. "
  4. Andryukha G
    Andryukha G 17 June 2015 08: 08 New
    0
    What made Napoleon useful for France, as did Hitler for Germany - he ruined thousands and millions of his compatriots and residents of other countries (but he (Napoleon) has many monuments across the country — so the French honor their history).
    1. My address
      My address 17 June 2015 09: 19 New
      +5
      You know, he was also the strongest administrator. If you believe the books, then his officials died from overvoltage, like soldiers in battle. Under him, France lost almost everything, but did not owe a penny to anyone. And the Napoleon Code? Its foundations are still present in the laws of not only France. He moved the world forward, but ...
      But he ruined nemeryannom ...
      hi
    2. anakonda
      anakonda 17 June 2015 09: 29 New
      +1
      Quote: Andryukha G
      What made Napoleon useful for France, as did Hitler for Germany - he ruined thousands and millions of his compatriots and residents of other countries (but he (Napoleon) has many monuments across the country — so the French honor their history).

      It is not correct to compare Hitler the executioner with the great French esthete.
      1. Rey_ka
        Rey_ka 19 September 2017 12: 29 New
        0
        Of course it’s not correct. Napoleon did not have such misanthropic ideas. According to the wars of 1812 were the last knightly wars and cruel as that time, but without excessive fanaticism
    3. ded
      ded 17 June 2015 11: 56 New
      -4
      Napoleon also needed money to wage war, and this Dalba * sold all of French America to Louisiana in 1803 to the Americans. But every nation needs heroes. And then the French made a hero from this dwarf, who prosral overseas possessions and prosral war of the real Russian army.
      1. anakonda
        anakonda 17 June 2015 12: 55 New
        +5
        Judging a person by his height, one can go so far. One of the best Byzantine commanders, who later became emperor of Byzantium, was John Tzimiskes, a dwarf compared to Napoleon, the nickname Tzimiskes in Armenian means a shoe smile .Another example is one of the best generals of the great Byzantine emperor Justinian, and perhaps the best general in the history of Vizaniya Nerses was a dwarf in general, by the way he was an Armenian laughing .
      2. Rey_ka
        Rey_ka 4 March 2019 10: 17 New
        0
        P analogies can also be said about Alaska !?
    4. andrew42
      andrew42 17 June 2015 16: 24 New
      +4
      Here you can draw a partial (!) Parallel with Stalin. First, there is a strong personality cult. Secondly, Napoleon acted as the gravedigger of that vile all-devouring French revolution, if continued, France would have ceased to exist as a state later or earlier. For this Napoleon was again greeted with a bang by the common people. The people needed a strong monarchy, but without a religious Catholic press. Moreover, the weakness of the traditional monarchy in captivity to banker loans from the "powers that be" was blatant. (Historical excursion: This has happened more than once, since the decay of the Carolingian dynasty, who took money from the Rachdonites, and in return "allowed" the Vikings and Normans to plunder French cities, selling the population to the same Rachdonites into slavery.) The French did not want independent weak kings. - puppets. In this they were practically united. But otherwise, Napoleon is more like Hitler: one way or another, he is still on the hook, albeit unstructured, - the whole world is for Great France and the French, and "Drang nach Osten".
      1. Rastas
        Rastas 17 June 2015 20: 31 New
        +2
        As far as I understand, you don’t know the history of the Great French Revolution at all. So read at least Manfred, Bloos, Matthias. I'm not talking about the 6-volume work of Jean Jaurès. There is no word about the death of France. As the great Hugo wrote: Fifteen hundred years the people lived in darkness,
        And the old world, affirming its oppression over it,
        It was a medieval tower.
        But indignation rose a formidable rampart,
        Clutching an iron fist, the Titan people revolted,
        Blow - and yesterday’s world collapsed!

        And the revolution in peasant shoes,
        Going hard, with a club in his hands,
        She came, spreading the system of centuries,
        Shining with triumph, from bleeding wounds ...
        The people shook off the yoke from a mighty shoulder, -
        And the ninety-third struck!
        In addition, Napoleon himself said: the French Revolution is me. "In 1803, he insisted on the expulsion from the Institute, the highest and rarely used punishment! - one of its influential members for the fact that he dared to denigrate the revolution in his writings. Helena Island in his memoirs, he spoke positively about the revolution, the Jacobins and Robespierre.
    5. Rastas
      Rastas 17 June 2015 20: 16 New
      +1
      I, too, in childhood equated Napoleon with Hitler. For me they were the same characters, invaders. My idea of ​​Napoleon was changed by two of his biographies, written by the brilliant Soviet historians Tarle and especially Manfred. I remember reading the chapter about One Hundred Days at Manfred's and mentally myself felt admiration for Napoleon, wished him victory, and how, like Marius from the novel "Les Miserables," he was ready to shout "Long live the emperor." What is his call to the soldiers to shoot if they can at their emperor, to which the soldiers greeted him, or his words already in Paris "I hang all the traitors of France on lamp posts", or his letter "Napoleon - Louis XVIII. King, my brother, do not send me more soldiers, I have enough of them. "
    6. Rey_ka
      Rey_ka 19 September 2017 12: 03 New
      0
      You are very wrong. I recommend that you look at the will of Napoleon and see his affairs in life, not military but purely administrative and compare the economy of France
  5. ovod84
    ovod84 17 June 2015 08: 25 New
    0
    viva napoleon, viva emperor. Everyone loved him, but he was obsessed with Russia for what he paid.
    1. Stirbjorn
      Stirbjorn 17 June 2015 09: 15 New
      +3
      Well, not a fact. He valued Emperor Paul I very much and was very worried when he was killed. Perhaps this influenced his further attitude towards Russia
    2. anakonda
      anakonda 17 June 2015 09: 31 New
      +3
      Quote: ovod84
      viva napoleon, viva emperor. Everyone loved him, but he was obsessed with Russia for what he paid.

      It was the Russian emperor Alexander himself, following in the middle of British politics, that provoked this war.
      1. anakonda
        anakonda 17 June 2015 10: 18 New
        +5
        For what minus, dear, if you do not agree with me, give your reasons, but the fact that the assassination of Emperor Paul was organized by the British with the knowledge of his son Alexander and that Alexander obediently followed the wake of English policy with Napoleon is a well-known fact about dozens of historians wrote this.
      2. andrew42
        andrew42 17 June 2015 16: 38 New
        +3
        Not without it. But this is only one of many circumstances. Just a cell of an elaborate web. So it is clear that since the 10th century the final goal of the organizers of major wars is Russia, Muscovy, Russia, and the preliminary subordination and collection of European forces for the Drang nach Osten. Napoleon was a great player, and he certainly believed that he was playing himself. But! It is known that the Masonic lodges, as "workhorses", the foundation of the "Great Pyramid", technically organized the French Revolution. And they did not disappear anywhere with the accession of Napoleon, just the game became thinner. Hitler was the same player. However, both were used in the same way - for the great campaign against Russia. The peoples of both rulers also paid in approximately the same way - huge losses, humiliation and disappointment. Alexander, of course, indulging England, created a centuries-old problem for Russia. But this was "work in the rear" in relation to Russia. And Napoleon, they did not allow his power over Europe to sit in the European "corner". Anyway, one way or another, Napoleon would have been pushed against Russia.
    3. sergwas
      sergwas 18 June 2015 15: 26 New
      0
      Madame Fure!
      Sergey Efimov 2
      Forty centuries stare from the pyramids
      The French are weary of the heat
      Messengers fly ships to Madrid
      Furé is in a hurry to Paris, but for the time being
      Cruise ship between us
      Nelson's squadron is just around the corner
      She captivates "Orient", Fure is captivated,
      But immediately released and returned to the French!
      Napaleon with Madame Fure frolic,
      The husband is far away, with a package tossing in the seas,
      On horseback walks, shine from the heat,
      Her Lanites, the sun shines on her curls!
      They drink wine and play billiards,
      Bathe in an oasis and eat Turkish delight,
      Playfully, all the parades are famously accepted,
      And the King of Austria is not a godfather to them yet!
      But Lieutenant Fure returned here,
      And in the general’s house he finds his wife,
      He, like a man, was very upset
      But he was sent on the lip by the general!
      Then he was removed from Egypt,
      Madame Fure was not too sad
      I read all the pages of the manuscript,
      And he gave all his passion to the general!


      © Copyright: Sergey Efimov 2, 2011
      Certificate of Publication No. 111120603168
    4. Rey_ka
      Rey_ka 19 September 2017 12: 07 New
      0
      Well, he didn’t want to fight with Russia because he was not going to Petersburg but to Moscow! Or do you think that he knew little about geography? Napoleon measured people on his own and if he said yes read it it would be yes and not like Alexander’s! He signed the contract twice that he would not butt with Bonoparte and all the time violated the contract. so a simple "peace enforcement"
  6. valokordin
    valokordin 17 June 2015 10: 26 New
    +4
    It is interesting, which of our leaders would the people of Russia follow, like Bonaparte, certainly not Chubais and Medvedev, especially Gorbachev?
    1. sub307
      sub307 17 June 2015 13: 01 New
      +3
      "People, first with surprise, and then with irritation and hatred, followed the activities of the new masters of the country."
      Personally, I have something similar to deja vu ....
    2. The comment was deleted.
  7. Monster_Fat
    Monster_Fat 17 June 2015 10: 34 New
    +3
    Our people have already "followed" Gorbachev once ... yeah, and where he went, you can now see.
  8. Roman 1977
    Roman 1977 17 June 2015 11: 01 New
    +9
    "Flight of the Eagle." Like Napoleon with a handful of soldiers and without a single shot captured France

    We just read the headlines of the French newspapers in 1815 as Napoleon approached Paris.
    "The Corsican monster has landed in the Bay of Juan"
    "The cannibal goes to Grasse"
    "The Usurper entered Grenoble"
    "Bonaparte has occupied Lyon"
    "Napoleon Approaches Fontainebleau"
    "His Imperial Majesty enters Paris, faithful to him"

    Ha ha ha ... So speak after this about the second oldest profession.
    1. Lone wolf
      Lone wolf 17 June 2015 15: 56 New
      +1
      It was a happy day for Napoleon. After long failures and defeats, he again won a brilliant victory. What happened in France was perceived by contemporaries as a miracle. A handful of people in three weeks, without firing a single shot, without killing a single person, captured the whole country. It was, apparently, one of the most exciting adventures of Napoleon. No wonder he was later called the "flight of the eagle." We must pay tribute to the courage, determination, ability to take risks and knowledge of the policies of Napoleon. He went to an unparalleled enterprise and achieved success.

      Who does not take risks, does not drink champagne
    2. Rastas
      Rastas 17 June 2015 20: 33 New
      +1
      Moreover, these headings were written by the same edition.
  9. RuslanNN
    RuslanNN 17 June 2015 11: 03 New
    0
    Quote: valokordin
    It is interesting, which of our leaders would the people of Russia follow, like Bonaparte, certainly not Chubais and Medvedev, especially Gorbachev?

    For Putin. I wouldn’t follow Gorbachev; he would send him.
  10. Aasdem
    Aasdem 17 June 2015 11: 07 New
    +1
    It is a pity that Alexander did not support Napoleon in these "Hundred Days". Russia needed a "distraction" from the West.
  11. Aleksander
    Aleksander 17 June 2015 11: 45 New
    0
    This great man longed to return to the Big Game


    As a result of these games, millions of people died, France itself was left almost without healthy men ...
    1. andrew42
      andrew42 17 June 2015 16: 43 New
      0
      Of course. But even figures like Napoleon are just players, maximum croupiers. But not the owners of the casino.
  12. fleks
    fleks 17 June 2015 11: 59 New
    +1
    This war was unfair, as the French people supported Napoleon and hated the Bourbon regime.
    ayay
    yuyuyuyuyuyuyuyuyuyu
    and Hitler’s dominion was also supported by the people, so that our grandfathers unjustly offended Germany when they came to their den, Berlin?
    the author started talking
    1. Rey_ka
      Rey_ka 19 September 2017 12: 09 New
      0
      If trolling is very bad!
  13. father nikon
    father nikon 17 June 2015 13: 44 New
    +7
    Do not forget about the mentality of peoples. Without historical excursions, just a joke:
    On the street is a man. The reaction of women of different nationalities:
    Russian:
    - I got drunk, infection! And at home I suppose a wife, hungry children!
    German:
    - The person is bad! Call an ambulance"!
    Frenchwoman:
    - Whose man? Nothing ?! Taxi, taxi !!!
  14. napalm
    napalm 17 June 2015 13: 46 New
    +2
    Aleksander
    As a result of these games, millions of people died, France itself was left almost without healthy men.

    France saw and understood all this, but all the same she went with him to a new war that could not be won. And how heroically the Guard died at Waterloo.
  15. Jatviag
    Jatviag 17 June 2015 15: 15 New
    +5
    Quote: Andryukha G
    What made Napoleon useful for France, as did Hitler for Germany - he ruined thousands and millions of his compatriots and residents of other countries (but he (Napoleon) has many monuments across the country — so the French honor their history).


    Napoleon did a lot for France and not only for France, as it turned out in the end. One Code of Napoleon is worth it. In fact, the Code was the forerunner of all modern constitutions. The principle of separation of powers, equality of all before the law, regardless of origin, system of secondary and higher education, freedom of religion, marriage and family law, inheritance law, local government system, the creation of a modern banking and tax system, insurance system, civil liability and more many, many things.
    Right-hand traffic and the division of the numbering of houses into even and odd are also introduced under Napoleon.
  16. Soldier Sukhov
    Soldier Sukhov 17 June 2015 16: 15 New
    +3
    I don’t want to be considered too original, but if Makhno had appeared to people today, many of our people would have followed him. He was the defender of the poor and weak, he gave land to peasants and others. Longing for the punishing chieftain (leader!), Hope for truth, thirst for the gallows for the elusive bribe takers and unrighteous judicial clerks would pave the way to the top of fame for Nestor Ivanovich.
  17. andrew42
    andrew42 17 June 2015 16: 44 New
    +4
    And the article is interesting. Will the Polite People brand have to be shared with Napoleon Buonaparte?
  18. ALEA IACTA EST
    ALEA IACTA EST 17 June 2015 19: 50 New
    0
    These royalists remind me of modern "Russian" liberal fascists.
  19. Rastas
    Rastas 17 June 2015 21: 00 New
    0
    It can be seen that the author used the biography of Napoleon, written by the Soviet historian Albert Manfred.
    1. sergwas
      sergwas 18 June 2015 15: 24 New
      +2
      Maria and Napoleon
      Sergey Efimov 2
      MARIA AND NAPOLEON

      We are happy to see you in Poland.
      We are all delighted with you, Syr
      Maria is hot with a sparkle in her eyes
      Ulanov, not noticing cuirassier,
      And taking a bouquet from him,
      Saying, "God bless him,"
      Gone and without looking back,
      To Walewski is barely audible.
      Henry, find out what Madame is,
      Beauty looks like
      I’ll give a ball today,
      Let her be invited too.
      Walewski at seventy already,
      He recognizes the importance of the moment
      He gives Mary dobzhe,
      And now the ribbon is curling in the dance,
      Mary and the Great Man
      Dancing, drinking sweet wine
      And Poland’s statehood in a century,
      They glorify and sing!
      Maria, Polish wife,
      Gives birth to son Alexander
      All for health drink it!
      But Russia is watching
      This emperor is indefatigable
      And without foreseeing your shame
      Crosses the dark Neman.
      Smolensk is on, Moscow is visible,
      Kutuzov and Barclay de Tolly,
      Bagration: they have longing,
      Of their uniforms we are footcloths or something
      We won’t do it at all,
      After all, there will still be success!
      Prince Moskvoretsky - Marshal Ney,
      Davout, Murat and others like them,
      They flee from Moscow as soon as possible,
      Eugene Beauharnais in between.
      Peoples battle, renunciation,
      To rest on the island of Elba,
      Mary against the tide
      She does not care about the opinions of Light.
      She is on the Elbe with her son,
      Hastens to morally support
      Him, but he is already being sad,
      I decided to avoid that meeting.
      A hundred days again and Waterloo,
      And renunciation another time
      Elena Island and the jailer Lowe
      My story is now over.


      © Copyright: Sergey Efimov 2, 2011
      Certificate of Publication No. 111071403864
    2. Rey_ka
      Rey_ka 19 September 2017 12: 23 New
      0
      Then I also recommend the French historian Alexander Dumas (senior) Bonopart. everything is pure without fiction, pure chronicle and documents
  20. Rubber duck
    Rubber duck 17 June 2015 21: 39 New
    -1
    If General Male captured Paris, then what about Bounopart.
    1. sergwas
      sergwas 18 June 2015 15: 23 New
      0
      Talleyrand's betrayal
      Sergey Efimov 2
      In time to betray - it means to anticipate Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord

      TALEYRAN'S TRADING 1808



      You go to Alexander quickly
      He has a sister, Catherine,
      Offer her my hand
      The crown of France and honor.
      I can’t give birth to Josephi,
      And the throne to whom I leave
      May God help you in this,
      Bonapartes let the family last.
      Charles Talleyrand, lame turned
      I went to the English messenger
      From the news our messenger pouted
      I rummaged in the safe, went up to Charles.
      Here are ten thousand sovereigns
      My monarch tells you
      We are somehow without Corsican genes
      We’ll live here, let's go ahead!
      Formally, Charles fulfilled the will of the sire,
      And Alexander said everything,
      The world did not last long
      Failure Catherine he ordered.
      He upset the matchmaker,
      And with this, the world plunged into war,
      And Bonaparte made a crash,
      Fate predicted him one.
      Charles flourished, until the Corsican,
      He flourished after him,
      And from the Monarch to the Republican
      He loved to betray most of all.
      Charles died on his grave
      It is written: "And for what?"
      And even death will hold true
      The purpose of it.


      © Copyright: Sergey Efimov 2, 2011
      Certificate of Publication No. 111071405885