Tragic история with the death of the junior sergeant of the Moscow police Andrei Bannov during the detention of the offender again highlighted the problem of the preparedness of employees and their right to use weapons.
Recall that on the night of May 27, a Gazel with an alleged ATM hijacker was caught up by police at the 25 kilometer of the Moscow ring road. One of the criminals immediately tried to hide in a forest belt located on the other side of the highway. He rushed through the Moscow Ring Road, and after him, after the younger police sergeant Andrei Bannov rushed.
He caught up with the gangster, but failed to hold him up, as he received three blows with a knife in the stomach. The offender beat immediately to defeat. Later, the killer - 25-year-old Azerbaijani citizen Nemat Rashidov - was taken to a Moscow apartment, and during the arrest he tried to resist the police.
Andrei Bannov was posthumously awarded the Order of "Courage." Eternal glory to him and the same memory. But, as it should be after such tragedies, the police department had to undergo a thorough analysis of the incident. And colleagues must answer a number of very unpleasant questions for themselves. Yes, at least one: why did Andrei pursue the gangster alone and without weapons?
The death of the police in such situations, unfortunately, is not uncommon. Every year in Russia, hundreds of policemen die in the line of duty. Here is a dry statistic. In 2010, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia lost 410 employees, in 2011 and 2012, these figures exceeded 300 people annually, and in the following years - although they decreased significantly, they still remained unacceptably high. In fact, one policeman dies every day in Russia, several more are injured and injured. In most cases, this happens during the arrest of criminals and in the attack on employees to seize weapons.
Recall that in an interview with Rossiyskaya Gazeta, Alexander Makarov, head of the Main Directorate of Internal Security of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, said that police have recently been targeted more often than in the nineties: “In nine months of 2012, 9519 attacks occurred, more than 50 employees died. This is comparable with a full-time police station serving a community in which approximately 50 thousands of residents are registered. "
What is going on? Why do people called to protect residents sometimes become victims of bandits themselves? The correspondent of "RG" talked with a dozen employees working, so to speak, "on the ground" - operas, precinct, patrol. From all heard, you can make two conclusions. First, he is the most banal and obvious: poor preparation. The second one is paradoxical: the police (adults, men wise with life and combat experience) are simply afraid to use weapons — they torture with prosecution and other checks. And not the fact that they will acquit, you can fly out of the service, or even sit down. It is better to try to do somehow without shooting - maybe it will. Maybe Andrei Bannov, having heard a lot of senior comrades, also decided to “somehow manage”?
So, about the combat and physical fitness. The problem is that for almost twenty years nobody seriously trained employees of the internal affairs bodies. Sounds, of course, wild, but - a fact. The author of these lines, with amazement, learned that with the collapse of the USSR, it was collapsed, or rather, ceased to exist, and the special training system. And the new impulse “science of the special forces police” received only after the first Chechen war. Even such superfighters as sobrovtsy collected their methods literally from scratch and from systems of different special forces, according to the principle - who served where before. The former paratrooper captain, say, shared with the new colleagues the features of the battle in the environment, the Marine - overcoming water obstacles, the "maroon beret" - how to storm the building. So, gradually everything superfluous was filtered out and the most necessary was collected. Now the Russian police "specialists" of the "Lynx" squadron are giving odds to many of their foreign counterparts. It is known that even the famous Austrian “Cobra” was not ashamed to admit that it had adopted many tricks from the Russians. For example, landing from a helicopter on the heads of terrorists.
But this is special forces. But with the usual guards, precinct and operas, everything is still much worse. They were not prepared at all. If you do not take seriously the "course of the young fighter", which each recruit to the police passes in the Center for professional training of the territorial body of internal affairs, where he is going to serve. And from time to time, they are satisfied with the so-called inspection inspection test for professional suitability. The police openly admit that this is a common formality.
In principle, on paper, everything looks right and even beautiful. The Law "On Police" states that "a police officer is obliged to undergo special training, as well as periodic checks on professional competence to act in conditions connected with the use of physical force, special means and firearms." But the paradox is that in most of the territorial internal affairs agencies there is no organization of combat and service training of employees. Moreover, there are practically no staff instructors in combat and physical training in the Russian Interior Ministry. As a rule, the functions of organizing and conducting official employment are assigned to personnel employees. Is it necessary to explain that many personnel officers are able to conduct serious practical exercises only optional? At best, they gather personnel to read orders and even conduct firing. The policeman put three or four bullets a month into the target, depending on the number of the planned exercise from a Makarov pistol, almost a sniper. That is, operas and patrols do not teach not only some special tactics of street fighting, the specifics of detention, but even elementary methods of sambo and the rules of aiming from a pistol. There are simply no such teachers. As in the joke: they gave the PM, a baton and a certificate - turn around as you can. But not everyone can. And this leads to tragedies.
The situation is best in Moscow. A year ago, the head of the Main Directorate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for Moscow, Lieutenant General of Police Anatoly Yakunin issued an order on special combat training for all police officers. For this, he ordered to create an institute of staff instructors. 200 should be made from police by skillful fighters by specially trained officers headed by the head of the district vocational training center. Study takes place in five special centers.
Policemen are trained by a special technique, which is fundamentally different from all other combat systems, where all manipulations ultimately result in murder or, at best, in severe disability. Their main task is to deliver alive and, preferably, the whole person suspected of a crime. After all, it is not yet a fact that he is a dangerous criminal, even if he tries to object to the police. All of his actions will study the investigation, and evaluate - the court. However, according to experts, the traditional system of combat and service training is ineffective. The whole trouble is that in most training centers, the rate in the learning process is placed on an unresisting enemy, on static situations, on stationary poses - on something that does not happen in life. Life is always movement. In the new methodology, employees are not repelled by schematic methods, but by the circumstances that have emerged at the moment. A person immersed in a modeled reality begins to survive in it through the tactics of movement, possession of weapons, improvised, and communicative means.
Here is just one example. On the usual household scandal came three policemen. One officer presses the bell button, the door opens, and from there, an ax falls down on top of it. The second man barely manages to push his comrade with his foot, otherwise he would have been cut in half. On the threshold, a drunken Amber in shorts and a T-shirt with an ax, yells: "I will decide everything!" One policeman is trying to twist the rowdy with the help of the traditional bend of the hand behind his back. And the apartment is small-sized, the corridor is narrow, the ambal in it barely fits. And the employee has no room for maneuver. He twists his arm, and twist something nowhere. His colleague, in order to save a comrade, with all his might, beats the peasant with his foot in the groin, but to that at least that! He is the second, third time, all to no avail. As a result, the rowdy was thrown into a corner, the three of them were pinned down, and strapped. Caused the help and "First Aid". And the arriving doctors were stunned: "Yes, this is our old client, he is registered in the mental hospital. He has no pain threshold at all." So neither bending a hand, nor a blow to the groin would help to hold it. Just a little bit, and he would have packed all three patrolmen with an ax.
But this problem - with the training of employees - is completely solved within the police department. And it is gradually solved.
But what about the other - the fear of responsibility? In the words of Prussian King Frederick II, "a soldier is afraid of the sergeant-major felice more than the bullets of the enemy." Remember, in the summer of 2013, at the Moscow Matveyevskiy market, they broke the head of the police captain Anton Kudryashov - the opera of the district "slaughter" department of the search? Then he came to detain a minor rapist. But he ran into an aggressive crowd of Caucasians and found himself in a hospital bed, miraculously remaining alive.
How would the law have to detain? In the Ministry of Internal Affairs there is a regulation, where the sequence of actions of employees during the detention, inspection, search and convoy of people suspected of a crime is described. This is a document for special use, that is, it can hardly be read in free access. But it is known that at least 3 armed officers must leave for detention. If the future detainee is not dangerous - he follows a “fraudulent” article, then for security purposes the operatives keep in touch with the duty personnel of the teaching staff, the immediate response team. Typically, this is the 2 or 3 crew on the 3 employee each. If it is necessary to take armed and dangerous gangsters, conduct searches in the company where there is a private security company, connect the SWAT. Moreover, the head of the Department of Internal Affairs is obliged to make an application to the Special Forces Center in advance, so to speak, order a "mask show."
Moreover, when there was a threat to life, they were obliged to shoot - there was a clear attack on a police officer. The first shot - a warning in the air, the second - in the leg or to the defeat, you must act according to circumstances (as required by the police regulations). But in practice, as you know, the police are afraid to use weapons - the prosecutor's office thoroughly investigates each shooting case, especially if there are victims. Therefore, at that time, the explanations of the beaten Kudryashov, that he did not want to shoot because of a large crowd of people, his superiors were taken quite favorably.
By the way, exactly the same argument was put forward by the employees of the St. Petersburg security company "Alex West", transporting money belonging to the bank "Otkritie". Last year, the hijackers attacked the raiders and took 139 million rubles. The guards did not shoot back - the attack occurred in a crowded place and they were afraid to hurt passersby. Perhaps this is correct, especially since the court took their side. But, on the other hand, and if the bandits shot down these humane "non-opponents", as often happens with collectors?
The interlocutors of the "RG" in law enforcement agencies believe that it is necessary to change the practice of bringing to responsibility for the use of police weapons. It is clear that there is a danger of “bending the stick,” but the constant “syndrome of future guilt” does not contribute to the normal performance of official duties by law enforcement officers.
How are they?
In the US, this situation is impossible in principle. The police officer has the right to shoot immediately to defeat at the slightest suspicion of possible aggression against him. Recently, a court acquitted a policeman who shot a black teenager. They killed people armed with toy pistols. They killed even because the person dropped his hand too quickly into his pocket - what if he reached for his weapon? Therefore, the American police always warn the people they are turning to: do not make sudden movements, keep your hands in sight, and get your documents very slowly.
According to The Washington Post, in the first five months of 2015, US police shot and killed 385 people.
In March, 2015, the American police killed 111 people. Curiously, since 1900, all of the UK police have killed 52 people.
On average, two people are killed in the United States every day as a result of shooting by law enforcement officers. In general, the vast majority of the victims - more than 80 percent - were armed with firearms or melee weapons. As it turned out, out of 385 cases of death of people from police bullets, only in three cases law enforcement officers were charged with criminal charges, which is less than 1 percent. Over the past decade, American police have opened fire thousands of times, and criminal charges have been made only in 54 cases.
The USA Patriot Act, adopted after the 11 terrorists' September 2001 attack on the World Trade Center, gave the police almost unlimited powers. Congress passed the law almost unanimously.
After its adoption, the killings flywheel by police began to gain momentum. The number of shot citizens, where they could have done without shooting, has increased significantly. Utah occupies the first place in incidents - it accounts for 15 percent of such victims. The court, as a rule, justifies the shooters.