Military Review

Alexander Pokryshkin

44
Alexander Pokryshkin


He was known and feared by the enemies. Already in 1943, the flight style of A.I. Pokryshkina became known to the Nazi air command. Hitler's observers on the ground and in the air warned their pilots: "Attention! Attention! In the sky Pokryshkin!" This panic warning was also the highest certification to our glorious pilot.

Among the names of combat pilots, the name Pokryshkin stands alone. The first three times Hero of the war, and so he was the only one until the end of the Great Patriotic War. He was the author of new tactical constructions and methods of air combat, an inflexible fighter against routine, a model of a fighter - skillful, violent and noble.

Nature is extremely stingy. With reluctance, she shows the world gifted people, and even less often - real geniuses. But what always distinguishes extraordinary people is that they invariably have a harder time in life, they are not comfortable for others in everything. The reason for this, most likely, is the nature of the person. Outstanding and aware of themselves as such, as a rule, people with character, and even with what! However, character in itself does not yet serve as a pass to the world historical personalities. It takes will to manifest it. The presence of both qualities in a person often makes him outstanding. This is exactly what Pokryshkin was. His temper and character were shaped by the time in which he lived - romantic, patriotic and difficult. They often said: Pokryshkin was lucky. But, is it really so.

He is from a folk, poor and large family. His father, Ivan Petrovich Pokryshkin, gave his surname to his sons and daughter in the town of Novonikolaevsk, Tomsk Province. The construction of new cities was associated with the arrival of many people from distant places. Came and Ivan Petrovich, without money. And he found shelter on the outskirts of Novonikolayevsk, which had just become a city. Poor people sheltered them, giving a little shack from the same room. Here is 6 March 1913, and Alexander Pokryshkin was born, becoming the second son after Vasily. A year later, my sister Maria was born, then the brothers Alexey, Peter, Valentin, Victor. Now it is difficult to imagine how this large family of 9 people was located and lived in one small room with three windows.

In 1928, Alexander graduated from a seven-year school and went to roofers. However, two years later, the profession changed: Pokryshkin entered the FZU College in Novosibirsk to study the specialty of a metalworker and healer. According to the Komsomol ticket he was sent to aviation School in 1932, but became a pilot just before the war, having successfully graduated from 3 military schools and having served as an aircraft technician for 4 years. In a word, it was necessary to go through a difficult, long and thorny path in 8 years, to write 39 military reports to commanders, the commander of the Air Force, and the narcotics of defense in order to graduate from a flight school and become a pilot. You cannot call luck luck ...

Pokryshkin's first military aviation school was Perm. While he was driving, the pilot training course was reduced. And the full name of this school was: "Perm Aviation-Technical School No. XXUMX". Alexander decided to pick up the documents and return home. But at the head of this educational institution the question was decided abruptly: either to stay in college and study for aviation, or to put a Komsomol card on the table. The first decision was taken: to become a military technician. He studied diligently, deeply studied aviation technology. In 3, he graduated perfectly. Then - Leningrad Aviation School of Theory (1933-1933 years). Pokryshkin learns, almost a round student. And the first stage of Alexander’s military biography begins: the service of a senior aviation engineer. On many reports the answers were negative: “Refuse”, “Refrain”.



During the holidays, Pokryshkin turns to the head of the Krasnodar Aeroclub with an application for permission to pass exams with credits in theory and practice in the amount of a full two-year course. Seeing Pokryshkin in the officer's uniform - in chrome boots, blue riding breeches, a green tunic, with "cubes" in blue buttonholes, the head of the flying club was confused. This have not happened before. This was the first time. Pokryshkin insisted, the chief surrendered. For 17 days passed all exams, tests, practical flights with an instructor and carried out the first independent flight on Y-2 (By-2).

After that - the 40 report with a copy of the excellent certificate from the Krasnodar flying club. Now, the commander of the unit nevertheless sent Pokryshkin to the well-known Kachin aviation school. The pilot became in 1940 year and was sent to the fighter regiment in Moldova.

Alexander Ivanovich entered the mortal battle with the Nazis on the morning of 22 on June 1941 of the year. He ended the war on 9 in May of 1945. On this day, in 18 hours of 9 in May, 1945 of the year in the sky over Prague, led by Alexander Ivanovich - George Golubov - shot down the last Nazi aircraft. And it was the last Hitler aircraft destroyed in World War II. As well as the 1147 th aircraft, shot down by the Skryshkin division.



There are few heroes in world military history comparable to Pokryshkin. In aviation history there are even fewer of them. Only his personal confirmed air victories and combat results of the division are an unsurpassed achievement. Even in the Air Force, who experienced an incredible load, there are few pilots who have had as many successful air battles as Pokryshkin. He completed over 650 sorties. He twice went through a warring country from the western borders to the Caucasus and back with battles from the Caucasus to the western border, and then in the skies of Romania, Poland, Germany, Czechoslovakia. Pokryshkin did not have a single serious wound or contusion, after which they are in hospitals. But he constantly, throughout the war, looked death in the eye. He was shot down over the territory occupied by the enemy. However, he returned to the battle formation of squadrons, regiments, divisions and again conducted air battles.

He created his air combat tactics, introduced his fighting techniques, his basics of shooting when meeting with the enemy, his standards of fighter behavior, unlike those that were approved by the Commander-in-Chief of the Air Force and the People's Commissar of the country's defense before the war. This air tactics and combat techniques spread in all the Air Force, on all fronts.

With his roots, Pokryshkin’s “academy” goes back into his long-standing records, where he collected information about Nesterov and Krutyna, about battles in the skies of Spain and Khalkhin Gol, dismantled his findings and failures in parts. Why did Pokryshkin quickly prove that he is not just a technician, but a brave pilot? He was distinguished from others by excellent piloting and deep knowledge of the design of the fighter and its engine. The level of knowledge made him stand out among others, turned the young pilot into an instructor. In the future, he will be better than others to train and educate the newly arriving young recruits and will take the post of assistant regiment commander for air-infantry service.

His reference book was the memoirs of the distinguished pilot-ace of the First World War, R.P. Fonka "My air battles." It described in detail the tactics of air battles of the time. Fonk was a recognized ace and hit 75 airplanes. But Pokryshkin did not copy Fonk’s theory. He implemented the fundamentals of the combat use of Fonk, his combat maneuvers, managed to develop and improve in relation to the 40's fighters.

The knowledge of mechanics obtained in Perm and Leningrad allowed the pilot to solve tactical tasks. He was helped by excellent knowledge in mathematics, theoretical mechanics, physics. Based on them, he always sought to calculate his maneuvers and the actions of the enemy. With the help of his calculations, sketches and schemes, he could prove that a well-trained pilot on a bad fighter can successfully fight a less well-prepared enemy pilot on a better aircraft. Pokryshkin was the author of unexpected and rapid attacks. He helped him to create the theory of these attacks was the fighter pilot Sokolov - the same soldier in the first squadron, where he served as a Siberian. There appeared in his diary entry: "The key to victory - this is maneuver and fire!"

Not immediately successful skills in aerial shooting came to Pokryshkin. He needed hard training in shooting a towed cone in order to understand the reasons for the low shooting results. The trajectories, the rate of fire were again calculated, formulas, drawings and graphs were written. As a result - another entry in the diary: "Success depends on shooting from a short distance."

Next came the justification of the best position for striking the support. This is how the “academic” Pokryshkin's tent developed. She was nicknamed by his colleagues. It hung out the charts, diagrams, classes were held, debriefing. The tactics developed by Pokryshkin helped the Soviet ace to "take off" the straitjacket of horizontal maneuvers, which was prescribed by the Air Force guidelines.

During 1941-1942, pilots were retrained. New monoplane planes opened the era of vertical maneuver in fighter battles. Pokryshkin was a pioneer among the first to make a significant contribution to the development of a new tactic. So, in the sky of Kuban, the main formula of a successful air combat was developed: "Altitude, speed, maneuver, fire". On good planes prepared as Pokryshkin, fighter pilots were not afraid of any enemy in aerial combat. The notebook, called "Fighter tactics in battle", containing notes, sketches, sketches, calculations, became the basis of the Schwäck science win. This notebook was transferred to the Central Museum of the Armed Forces.

Already in the spring of 1943, the nazi warning posts, using agents, were tirelessly warned - the famous Soviet ace in the sky. It was prescribed - to increase caution, to get out of the air battle, the "hunters" to gain altitude, and inexperienced pilots immediately return to the airfields. Those who beat the ace, promised high awards. There were a lot of people willing to go on this feat. But it did not help. And it's not only in the outstanding skill of Alexander Ivanovich, it is worth recalling that in his aviation division there were such aces as Rechkalov and the Glinka brothers, Clubs and Babak, Fedorov and Fadeev. If such a group entered the battle, hoping to bring down the commander was simply naive.

In the Kuban began the second period of the combat biography of the Hero. Here his military talent revealed brightly, hence his name became known on all fronts, including abroad. The main thing that distinguished Pokryshkin from others was the use of new combat techniques during air battles, the use of elements of new tactics. But these combat techniques were not provided for by the pre-war manuals on the use of fighter aircraft in battle. And for this he received repeated reproaches, remarks, caused discontent among senior commanders and superiors. Sometimes it ended with more stringent measures, including the removal from office, not submitting to encouragement, reward or recall of materials with award sheets.



Commanders and commanders during the war, Pokryshkin had a lot. Among them are commanders of regiments, divisions, corps, commanders and front commanders. Among them is the commander of the 55-iap, lieutenant-colonel V.P. Ivanov and regiment commissar MA The cellar. This pair of managers remained in his memory forever - smart, business organizers and leaders. Among the commanders of the air armies were generals Naumenko, Vershinin, Khryukin, Krasovsky and Vershinin (in the post-war years he became Commander-in-Chief of the Air Force). All of them left their mark on the combat biography of Pokryshkin.

In the spring of 1943 of the year, rearming with the Aero Cobra, the regiment began combat operations from the airfield near Krasnodar. The air battle in the sky of Krasnodar was the most intense in the Great Patriotic War: over the month of 2 more than 800 of enemy aircraft were destroyed. 12 April Pokryshkin shot down four Me-109. Then Alexander Ivanovich destroyed three more enemy vehicles and brought the number of planes shot down in one day to seven.

Since August, the 1943-th 16-th Guards Iap has participated in battles over the waters of the Black Sea and the Dnieper. In the battles in Ukraine, Alexander Ivanovich destroyed 18 "Junkers" and "Messerschmitts." Among the most victorious and fierce air battles was the fight in the sky of the Great Tokmak. Famous ace with his follower G.G. Golubev carried out a "free hunt". Noticing the fascist vultures preparing for the bombing over the front line, Pokryshkin swiftly launched an attack, shot down one bomber, damaged two more and entered into a battle with cover aircraft. In the second combat mission as part of the four fighters, having found the Ju-88 group, Alexander Ivanovich letting her go to the rear, gained altitude and, turning from the sunny side, decisively attacked. On the wings of the bombers flashed yellow glare. So sometimes our red stars reflected. Pokryshkin, gave the order "do not shoot" and went ahead. However, seeing the crosses on the machines, he made a sharp half-loop with lightning speed and, finding himself behind the leading fascist group, gave a cannon-line through it. The last one exploded. Our cockpit's "Aecobra" flew through the center of a strong explosion, but remained intact. Neighboring Junkers caught fire from falling debris. Pokryshkin again performs the sharpest turn and attacks again. The enemy wants to be saved by a steep dive, but he is hit by a second Cobra attack. This famous battle was seen by hundreds of people, dozens of memories and pictures were written about it.



On the eve of the spring of 1944, Pokryshkin was offered a general's position in Moscow. In the office of the Commander-in-Chief of the Air Force, Alexander Ivanovich abandoned the post of the Moscow apartment: only the front, only to fight and shoot down enemy planes. Marshal agreed. Twice the Hero returned from Moscow to his division and continued the combat path.

19 September 1944 of the year, in the Kremlin, Pokryshkin was awarded the third Golden Star. The first and only three times Hero of the Soviet Union during the war became known to the whole world, on all continents.

In 1945, Alexander Ivanovich commanded a division in the course of the Vislo-Oder, Lower-Silesian, Upper Silesian, Berlin and Prague offensive operations. The division under his command received the honorary title "Berlin" and was awarded three orders. Pokryshkin himself was the last sortie executed on 30 on April 1945 of the year.

At the Victory Parade.

His exploits and military talent recognized 39 states of the world. In 1944, President Roosevelt officially declared Pokryshkin "the best fighter pilot of all the allied armies." He had to be in many dozens of countries. And in each accepted, met the first person. Each of them wanted to see, hear a person of world fame. He was awarded 19 awards from other countries. The first among them is the United States of America. Our fighter pilot was the first to receive the American high award back in 1943, when the war was in full swing. US Vice President Johnston showed keen interest in Pokryshkin and his family when in the fall of 1944 he returned from Moscow after meeting with Stalin and other USSR leaders in his country and stopped in Novosibirsk to meet with Pokryshkin’s relatives.

The peoples of many countries of Europe, Asia, Cuba, recognizing the talent of the Russian pilot, presented the highest awards to Alexander Ivanovich. Pokryshkin was awarded two orders of Romania, two - Poland, two - Mongolia, the awards of Germany, Czechoslovakia, Vietnam, France, Syria and other countries. Name of Air Marshal A.I. Pokryshkina is immortalized in the names of streets and squares, educational institutions, in monuments and memorial plaques of Moscow, Rzhev, Kaliningrad, Krasnodar, Novosibirsk, Novokuznetsk and other cities of Russia and the near abroad. His name is the minor planet, an island in the Far East, the Novosibirsk metro station.



Sources:
Kozlov, M.M. World War II 1941 — 1945. M .: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1985. C. 567-573, 582-656.
Timofeev A.V. Alexander Pokryshkin. Great pilot of the great war. - M .: Yauza; Eksmo, 2009. C. 12-15, 128-133, 206-208.
Yuzhaninov L. Alexander Pokryshkin // Siberian lights. 2005. No.5 C.26-27.
Kaminsky P., Khazanov D. Not only speed, motors and guns // Aviamaster. 1997. No. 2. C. 14.
Ustinov Yu. The first three times hero // Wings of the Motherland. 2001. No.5. C. 29-31.
Demin A. “Laptezhniki” under the fire of the Soviet aces // Aviation and Cosmonautics. 2001. No.10. C. 36-37.
Documentary film "Alexander Pokryshkin". Directed by D. Demin. Creative Association "Screen". USSR State Radio and Television, 1985.
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  1. Siberia 9444
    Siberia 9444 31 March 2015 06: 45
    +43
    Our Hero is my fellow countryman, we in Novosibirsk are proud of Alexander Ivanovich! Thank you for the article + and could photograph the metro station named after Alexander Ivanovich and not only the station.
  2. Siberia 9444
    Siberia 9444 31 March 2015 06: 51
    +27
    Here with the aero cobra P 39 No. 100 this is his car on it, he shot down Luftwaffe pilots
    1. Karabanov
      Karabanov 31 March 2015 08: 12
      +3
      Is it in Novosibirsk? And where is this famous exhibit located?
      1. Siberia 9444
        Siberia 9444 31 March 2015 08: 40
        +7
        Leninsky district st. Stantsionnaya 30 Novosibirsk Technical College. A.I. Pokryshkina. This fighter was stroked many times by the legendary thing!

        So for reference Baidukov, Georgy Filippovich Born on May 13 (26), 1907 at the Tarysht junction (now Tatarsky district, Novosibirsk region)

        1. Karabanov
          Karabanov 31 March 2015 09: 08
          +5
          Thank. I’ll be in Novosibirsk, I will certainly drop by to admire the famous rarity.
          1. almost demobil
            almost demobil 31 March 2015 10: 48
            +5
            Quote: Karabanov
            Thank. I’ll be in Novosibirsk, I will certainly drop by to admire the famous rarity.

            Take your time. While the plane was removed, they want to put in its place the Yak-9, which is now being restored by the guys from the technical college. And the aerocobra has been removed somewhere, it will be in the Pokryshkin Museum.
          2. Argon
            Argon 31 March 2015 11: 21
            +3
            Unfortunately, in Russia there is not one original P-39 left in Monino and on Poklonnaya Gora there are mock-ups using individual elements of real aircraft (and of different modifications of the P-63 !!!). In the USSR, it was not customary to say that the heroes fought American weapons. The original "Airacobra" was on a pedestal in Murmansk - in the dashing 90s they were removed "for repair", they were lost somewhere. Your "Novosibirsk" was assembled from elements of two machines found near Irkutsk.
            1. Precious Fluids
              Precious Fluids April 8 2015 07: 26
              0
              the plane is actually bad, therefore it did not find application in the US Army Air Force, and in general it was an attack aircraft according to the American classification.
              In the USSR, they were supplied, which themselves were worthless, according to Lend-Lease.

              The rate of climb, as befits a cannon attack aircraft, was not at all, and under Pokryshkin's fire the Germans were driven into the "bookcase" by his slaves, who walked on verticals on other machines, mainly on "Yaks".

              Kozhedub flew the Lavochkin, not the Aircobra
          3. strong man
            strong man April 2 2015 01: 04
            0
            In the skillful hands of Alexander Ivanovich, the P 39 aero-cobra was a very formidable weapon, although the American Air Force abandoned it and almost all the cars went on Lend-Lease in the USSR, and our aces fought on them and defeated the German pilots who fought on the most upgraded BF 109 modifications! Eternal Glory and Eternal Memory to our Heroes !!!!
    2. almost demobil
      almost demobil 31 March 2015 11: 03
      +7
      Quote: Siberia 9444
      P 39 No. 100 is his car on it, he shot down the Luftwaffe pilots

      You are mistaken, countryman. This plane did not fight, it was found somewhere near Irkutsk, for some reason it did not reach the front. Restored in Novosibirsk, in the form of a layout. But Alexander Ivanovich trolls the adversary on just such a yes
      1. yugan
        yugan 31 March 2015 14: 34
        +2
        I remember reading somewhere that the P-39 of Alexander Ivanovich was bought by some collector from Bulgaria. Our state would buy it - the memory of a wonderful pilot is more expensive than any money. What educational moment for the younger generation?
        1. Bagatur
          Bagatur April 3 2015 10: 08
          0
          It's a fact! But where it is ... probably in the aviation museum at the Krumovo airbase on the outskirts of Plovdiv. I read "The Sky of Wars" 30 years ago ... In 2013 it was reissued in Bulgarian for the 100th anniversary of the hero
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        1. panfil
          panfil 31 March 2015 12: 10
          +10
          Thank! It is very interesting to read such things. I didn’t ask my grandfather about the war, I didn’t want him to remember that war. Although now I regret it a little, because I can’t talk to my grandfather anymore ... Let it be a little pathetic, but the eternal memory is HEROES !!!
        2. riegel
          riegel 31 March 2015 12: 31
          -6
          Quote: Gamdlislyam
          I’ve already specially switched to the wave of fighters, and again: “Attention! I am the "hundredth"! Going to work!"
          And the same picture - not a single German fighter in the air! Neither before the goal, nor after.
          At dinner, Golubev reminded me: “I told you, our“ father ”knows the magic word ...”


          I didn’t understand why the Germans did not react?
          1. yugan
            yugan 31 March 2015 14: 49
            +10
            Quote: riegele
            I didn’t understand why the Germans did not react?


            Because they knew the tactical number of Alexander Ivanovich. And the Wehrmacht radio interception service was delivered very well. And when they heard him, they preferred not to get involved - for without loss for them this meeting would not take place.
            On this occasion, there is the story of the pilot of the Pokryshkin division - Devyatayev, who was shot down in 1944 (if memory serves). So, he was taken prisoner, and since he flew on a combat mission without awards and it so happened that he was in a soldier's uniform, he decided to "dumb the fool" during interrogation, posing as a young pilot. However, the Gestapo man who interrogated him chuckled and gave him a look at an album with photographs of the most experienced Soviet pilots operating on this front. Where Devyatayev saw his photograph, in full dress, so to speak. Guess whose photo was there at # 1? That's right, Alexander Ivanovich.
            PS And then Devyatayev stole the Junkers from the Germans and returned from captivity with a group of our fighters.
          2. Pomah
            Pomah 31 March 2015 19: 04
            +2
            and you’ll probably never understand (
            1. riegel
              riegel April 1 2015 02: 24
              -3
              Quote: POMAH
              and you’ll probably never understand (

              Like, they were afraid to fly into the air because Pokryshkin was in the air?))), so these tales can be told to pioneers on a bench in the evening at the entrance and not on a site with a military bias.
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  5. wasps
    wasps 31 March 2015 07: 09
    +9
    Bravo! Thank you for the article! All the same, we have the best fighters in the world ...
  6. Serg65
    Serg65 31 March 2015 07: 17
    +9
    The article is definitely a plus! As far as I remember, the first downed plane of Pokryshkin was the Su-2 of the future Hero of the Soviet Union, Air Marshal Pstigo II And this is not surprising, in the confusion of the 22 of June it was quite possible to confuse the Su-2 with the Yu-87.
    1. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 31 March 2015 07: 28
      +15
      Quote: Serg65
      this is not surprising, in the confusion of June 22, it was quite possible to confuse the Su-2 with the Yu-87

      Dear colleague Sergei, in this case, this is not "confusion", but a banal ignorance of the silhouette of our bomber. Before the war everything was classified, and this secrecy reached the point of insanity. Often they did not even know which vehicles were in service in neighboring regiments (and even more so about the silhouettes of new vehicles). Therefore, they were confused. Therefore, in the memoirs of front-line soldiers there are descriptions that in the early days our fighters first flew up to enemy aircraft (to identify their state ownership), and after receiving a handful of "lead" in response, and making sure that it was an enemy, only then attacked.
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  7. parusnik
    parusnik 31 March 2015 07: 36
    +2
    Definitely a plus ... Content article ... Thank you!
  8. Sergey Sitnikov
    Sergey Sitnikov 31 March 2015 08: 35
    +2
    I read Pokryshkin himself - "Knowing yourself in battle" (as it was called), and so the first plane he shot down on 22.06.41/3/XNUMX was our bomber (TB-XNUMX in my opinion), deep disappointment with myself only slightly reassured that no one was hurt, except A. Pokryshkin (he writes himself) was almost sent to a military tribunal for cowardice, he was saved by an intelligent aircraft technician - he found the reason for not receiving fuel from the outboard fuel tanks, for some reason Ivan Trud was not mentioned in the article from his comrades-in-arms.
  9. DesToeR
    DesToeR 31 March 2015 08: 59
    +9
    Quote: Sergey Sitnikov
    I read Pokryshkin himself - "Knowing yourself in battle" (it was like that), and so the first plane he shot down on 22.06.41 was our bomber (TB-3 in my opinion)

    Wasn't it a Su-2? Moreover, Pokryshkin, by the will of fate, after the war, met with the pilot of this machine at "one desk" at the Academy.
    1. blizart
      blizart 31 March 2015 12: 03
      +12
      Quote: DesToeR
      Quote: Sergey Sitnikov
      I read Pokryshkin himself - "Knowing yourself in battle" (it was like that), and so the first plane he shot down on 22.06.41 was our bomber (TB-3 in my opinion)

      Wasn't it a Su-2? Moreover, Pokryshkin, by the will of fate, after the war, met with the pilot of this machine at "one desk" at the Academy.

      Yes, it was Su-2 due to the small number of these aircraft, few people knew their silhouette, especially at the beginning of the war. If you read the book, then you probably remember how inquisitively and constantly he reflected on everything related to air combat? Whatnot, loitering over the object of cover without losing speed - these are just some of his tactical finds, and he came up with aerobatic "traps" hoo. For many German pilots, panic from an unexpected 100-ki maneuver was the last feeling in life. The book describes in detail the discovery and use of the "tub" - an uncoiled barrel, the forerunner of "Pugachev's cobra". But I remember the TV show of the times of "timelessness" when the old Pokryshkin was showing some kind of maneuver in his hands, but it was all just a background for the voiceover, who said what an arrogant and limited person he was, and he wrote down the victories of others. was a squadron commander and not like Hartman and other "baida". What saved you from reformatting? Pioneer childhood! I remembered that story and Pokryshkin's real voice! And this is what he said: "Look, here is a German on the tail! I slide onto the wing, he follows me. At the very beginning of his maneuver, I find myself in an unseen space just below him! Sharply the gas all the way and slide into an ascending barrel under the belly of the German And now I am taller than him, but he did not understand at all where I had gone! "
      When I saw "9th company" I thought that a director who will someday grow to a film about Pokryshkin, but through "Inhabited Island" Masaraksh degraded to "Stalingrad". Who will insert the right "bookmarks" into the brains of our children? Because they don't read at all
  10. Sergey Sitnikov
    Sergey Sitnikov 31 March 2015 09: 02
    0
    Quote: DesToeR
    Quote: Sergey Sitnikov
    I read Pokryshkin himself - "Knowing yourself in battle" (it was like that), and so the first plane he shot down on 22.06.41 was our bomber (TB-3 in my opinion)

    Wasn't it a Su-2? Moreover, Pokryshkin, by the will of fate, after the war, met with the pilot of this machine at "one desk" at the Academy.

    I read it as a schoolboy))) because maybe su-2
  11. Miner
    Miner 31 March 2015 09: 12
    +8
    Thank you for the article!


    I have something to say about Pokryshkin, why I didn’t really like him at first - at first I liked Ivan Kozhedub more and why, along with growing up, I respected and later fell in love with Alexander Ivanovich (the same story was with Alexander Sergeevich - at first I respected Lermontov more, but then, with age, he knew and fell in love with Pushkin) and began to put him in first place among our air forces of the Great Patriotic War.

    I have something to say, but I won’t do it.

    Now the desire is only one thing - to get up, stretch out and give honor to glorious deeds to the Master and Mentor of our Air Force !!!


    PS
    Just recently I found an old photo in which Pokryshkin, along with Kozhedub, both three times heroes, colonels. Tidied her up. I intend to pick up a frame and hang it in my office.
  12. werwolf74
    werwolf74 31 March 2015 09: 17
    +5
    I was still reading his memoirs as a schoolboy. I literally read to the holes. How I fell in love with aviation so still I can’t stop loving))
  13. Miner
    Miner 31 March 2015 09: 19
    +3
    The first and only three times Hero of the Soviet Union during the war became known to the whole world, on all continents.

    Yes.

    But in the light of the current "trends", things are probably already different ... :(
  14. atos_kin
    atos_kin 31 March 2015 09: 19
    +15
    Before the arrival on the anniversary of the regiment of Marshal A.I. Pokryshkin, the orderlies in the company were instructed to all and sundry, so as not to "shame" and not "fall face down" when the renowned marshal enters the barracks. And so, three times Hero, a marshal in full dress with all the awards crossed the threshold of the company. From the brilliance of such an "iconostasis" the orderly "jammed", did not make a sound. "What can I say, son?" - asked the marshal affectionately. "Hurray-ah-ah" - the orderly squeaked quietly with a dying look. Marshal asked not to punish the soldier.
  15. Valkh
    Valkh 31 March 2015 09: 21
    +3
    Article class !!! Thank you so much!!! good
  16. igorka357
    igorka357 31 March 2015 09: 26
    -9
    That's right, a Hero and an air ace, a man with a capital letter ... in the air a deadly enemy for the enemy! But the story that the Germans broadcast on the radio "carefully in the air Pokryshkin" is still a bike)) !!
    1. KBR109
      KBR109 31 March 2015 11: 50
      +4
      No, not a bike. About a dozen pilots were awarded this honor. Achtung, Achtung, yes Pokryshkin in der play!
    2. riegel
      riegel 31 March 2015 14: 09
      0
      Quote: igorka357
      That's right, a Hero and an air ace, a man with a capital letter ... in the air a deadly enemy for the enemy! But the story that the Germans broadcast on the radio "carefully in the air Pokryshkin" is still a bike)) !!

      why not? I’m sure that everyone will do this, knowing that you will be dealing with a virtuoso, warned armed, of course a little bit nicer, they say the Germans immediately got into their pants and ran away))) and everything to mine is very logical, it's like playing a card with a sharpie, about which you were warned)))
    3. DRA-88
      DRA-88 April 2 2015 02: 29
      +1
      Quote: igorka357
      But the story that the Germans broadcast on the radio "Pokryshkin carefully in the air" is still a bike)) !!

      It is a fact!
      There was also such a book about the famous ace Pavel Kamozin: "Attention! There is Kamozin in the sky." This documentary book was published in 1975: Tula: Priokskoe book publishing house, 1975.
      Circulation: 5000 copies.
      This book describes precisely such facts of the non-departure of German aircraft when the Soviet Ases were in the sky !!!
    4. DRA-88
      DRA-88 April 2 2015 02: 33
      +1
      Quote: igorka357
      ! But the story that the Germans broadcast on the radio "Pokryshkin carefully in the air" is still a bike)) !!

      . From the very first day of the war, yesterday's locksmith of the Krasny Profintern plant, Pavel Mikhailovich Kamozin, was at the front. He took part in battles on the South, Transcaucasian, North Caucasian and other fronts. During the war years, he made 750 sorties, shot down 35 enemy aircraft personally and 13 in group battles. In one of the battles in 1943, he shot down an aircraft that was guarded by 6 Messerschmitts. Then 16 fascist generals and officers were killed. And in another battle Kamozin destroyed the plane of the fascist pilot, nicknamed "The Count", on the fuselage of which was drawn an ace of diamonds - the sign of a fighter - ace. "Graf" was in Goering's "diamond" squadron, had hundreds of sorties and many awards ... In May 1943, P.M. Kamozin was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, and a year later he was awarded the second Gold Star medal.
      In the seventies, the writer Georgy Reimers created a documentary - fiction story "Attention! In the sky Kamozin", dedicated to the exploits of the famous Bryansk ace
  17. Russian Uzbek
    Russian Uzbek 31 March 2015 09: 33
    +7
    They say that Pokryshkin simply "gave" most of the downed German planes to his partners and colleagues, ie. they were credited to their account
    1. KBR109
      KBR109 31 March 2015 10: 53
      +6
      There was such a thing good but there’s another stroke: during the retreat at the end of 41st-beginning of 42th, the ground column of the regiment was destroyed including and cars with documentation .... About 19 Pokryshkin's wrecked cars went into oblivion ... According to the latest estimates of specialists - archivists of historians and flyers, there are 91 cars on his account. soldier
      1. yugan
        yugan 31 March 2015 15: 10
        +4
        More. There are about 116, because he "handed out" the shot down to his wingmen and group pilots. While saying that they provided him with victories. In general, Alexander Ivanovich said that no matter what the personal score, all those shot down on the account of Victory. In addition, before 1943, those shot down over the territory controlled by the Wehrmacht and over the sea were not counted without confirmation of our ships. Pokryshkin, absolutely correctly believed that German bombers should be met on their side of the front, until they met with escort fighters. What he did. And his hunt is over the Black Sea.
  18. Pate
    Pate 31 March 2015 10: 32
    +3
    Pokryshkin, along with Kozhedub and Amet-Khan Sultan, legends of heaven during the Second World War!
  19. The comment was deleted.
  20. DesToeR
    DesToeR 31 March 2015 12: 54
    +8
    Quote: blizart
    But I remember the TV show of the times of "timelessness" when the old Pokryshkin was showing some kind of maneuver in his hands, but it was all just a background for the voiceover, who said what an arrogant and limited person he was, and he wrote down the victories of others. was a squadron commander and not like Hartman and other "baida".

    Hartman agrees with him ... The merits of Pokryshkin after the Second World War are also impressive, especially the high level of DOSAAF development that the organization has achieved under his leadership.
    1. KBR109
      KBR109 31 March 2015 13: 30
      +1
      DOSAAF - honorary resignation for the harsh, demanding incl. and to the authorities, an impartial and competent specialist. I didn’t lick it ... - they removed it into the shade. soldier
      1. Gamdlislyam
        Gamdlislyam 31 March 2015 15: 50
        +6
        Quote: KBR109
        DOSAAF - honorary resignation for the harsh, demanding incl. and to the authorities, an impartial and competent specialist.

        Well, don’t tell me, dear colleague Igor, if you look at the condition Colonel General A. Pokryshkin accepted. DOSAAF, and what he had become at the time of his departure, the decision to appoint him the head of this organization was correct. We must take into account his fame (which was probably inferior only to Brezhnev L.I. and Gagarin Yu.A.), and the authority that he enjoyed in the USSR. Prior to his arrival, DOSAAF units huddled in basements, in sheds. Under him began the construction of educational institutions, workshops, hangars, training grounds, simulators, airfields. DOSAAf began to transfer equipment from the SA (Soviet army): obsolete combat aircraft and helicopters (but having a sufficient resource), armored vehicles, radio equipment, small ships and boats, etc. For this technique were built base station, repair shops. New training and sports cars and equipment began to arrive from the factories. Educational institutions were opened where they trained (or retrained) instructors and teachers for the DOSAAF system. And Alexander Ivanovich solved all these problems. What DOSAAF was in the early 60s and what it became by the end of the 70s is like night and day.
        The government of the USSR appreciated his merits in the construction (or rather revival) of DOSAAF, conferring the rank of Marshal of Aviation.
        1. AGG024
          AGG024 31 March 2015 17: 29
          0
          Some air centers are worth it !!!
  21. Raphael_83
    Raphael_83 31 March 2015 13: 31
    +4
    Excellent article!
    Plus, I recommend to everyone the recollections of the Hero of the Union Konstantin Sukhov, "The squadron is fighting" (M. 1983 ed.), Who studied under Alexander Ivanovich and fought under him in the 16th GIAP. Now it is already read and perceived a bit naive, but very vital, frank, modest and without unnecessary pathos.
  22. testerman
    testerman 31 March 2015 13: 31
    +4
    Article Plus, Thanks to the Author
  23. igorka357
    igorka357 31 March 2015 13: 59
    -1
    Quote: igorka357
    That's right, a Hero and an air ace, a man with a capital letter ... in the air a deadly enemy for the enemy! But the story that the Germans broadcast on the radio "carefully in the air Pokryshkin" is still a bike)) !!

    Yes, I’m not offended at your minuses ... I don’t have a habit of reacting to the crackers ..))), I’ll just ask at least some confirmed fact that the Germans warned their pilots ..)), there won’t be such I’ll have more minuses, with what they will put them in the quack quackers ..)) !!!
  24. Sendi7s
    Sendi7s 31 March 2015 14: 40
    +4
    Great article about a legendary man! Thanks to the author!

    I would like to add a little ... True, not personal, also read about him, but giving a clue to his personality.

    “It is impossible not to mention the high sense of responsibility, inherent in A. I. Pokryshkin, for the fate of military friends.

    He, leading the groups, closely monitored the actions of his wards, directed them when an acute situation in the battle was created - rushed to the rescue. How many wonderful air fighters he brought up during the war years! And this is what colleagues say: none of the followers of Alexander Ivanovich died while fighting the enemy in the same ranks as the illustrious pilot. In battles, A.I. Pokryshkin always performed the most difficult task: knocking down group commanders, the most aggressive enemy pilots. This was his rule: to take on the most difficult and difficult task.

    I would like to mention another important feature of A.I. Pokryshkin in the afterword. In the book, the reader probably noticed how meticulously, strictly and scrupulously Alexander Ivanovich examines each combat mission. Here is a typical situation: after successfully completing a combat mission, a group under the command of the Sotogo returns to its airfield. It would seem that what could be better: the order of the higher command has been carried out, considerable damage has been inflicted on the enemy, all the pilots of the group are alive, only the equipment has suffered ... But the author in the book talks about the shortcomings, unused opportunities. And A.I. Pokryshkin is especially strict in his assessments when fighting friends die due to tactical blunders, unclear implementation of the general battle plan, conceived by him as the senior of the group, when higher-ranking commanders in their decisions did not take into account the current situation, the experience of the battles. In such cases, officer Pokryshkin was harsh, persistent, never compromised.

    The commander, educator, he was irreconcilable to shortcomings, did not tolerate falsities in assessments, did not smooth out corners. He reported to the command about sorties with his directness. I must say, among front-line pilots this aroused special respect. And fighting friends saw behind this line a big human heart, the care of an experienced air fighter, the just demanding commander.

    Probably, all these qualities of the renowned pilot crystallized out of a high sense of personal responsibility, developed in conditions of merciless severity towards himself, towards his actions. "(C) from LF Yasnopolsky's Afterword to Alexander Ivanovich Pokryshkin's book" Know thyself in battle ".
    1. Barmalej
      Barmalej 31 March 2015 18: 43
      +2
      Quote: Sendi7S
      "Know yourself in battle"

      Hmm, and I read "The Sky of War" ... We must read this one too
  25. Dudu
    Dudu 31 March 2015 15: 08
    0
    Pokryshkin is certainly magnificent. But reading this is somehow strange:
    "He ended the war on May 9, 1945. On this day, at 18 pm on May 9, 1945, in the skies over Prague, Alexander Ivanovich's wingman, Georgy Golubov, shot down the last fascist plane."
    и
    "The division under his command received the honorary name" Berlin "and was awarded three orders. Pokryshkin himself flew the last combat sortie on April 30, 1945."
    It is clear that Prague was taken later than Berlin, but when did he finish fighting? It is necessary to more clearly inform the reader about the facts.
  26. Karelian
    Karelian 31 March 2015 16: 02
    +4
    Quote: Argon
    The original "Airacobra" was on a pedestal in Murmansk - in the dashing 90s it was removed "for repairs" - lost somewhere.

    We do not lose. They earn like this. All "lost" pops up over the hill, in museums and in private collections. There are a lot of examples. At least the donative Yak-3 Eremina. Or a unique collection of cars from the Ryazan Automobile School.
    1. Argon
      Argon 31 March 2015 22: 18
      +1
      This is exactly what I had in mind. By 2010, about 112 aircraft (found remains) were exported from the territory of the former USSR - according to the law, everything found (both ours and German) belongs to the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. Is it all customs clearance? I won’t be surprised that scrap metal. Where did Gabe look?
  27. yugan
    yugan 31 March 2015 17: 40
    0
    [quote = Raphael_83] Great article!
    perceived a bit naive

    And what is "naive" in the memoirs you voiced?
  28. Cerega
    Cerega 31 March 2015 17: 58
    +2
    We are proud and venerated by Alexander Ivanovich Pokryshkin, a hero for centuries. I began to tell my children a little about the Great Patriotic War.
  29. Pomah
    Pomah 31 March 2015 19: 05
    +2
    And after such a war, some Galicians-Zhidobandera ... want to take our VICTORY !!!! Rather, the whole world will stop !!!
  30. andrey56
    andrey56 31 March 2015 22: 14
    +1
    Thanks for the article and some comments!
  31. Aleksander
    Aleksander April 1 2015 13: 53
    +1
    Hitler's observers on the ground and in the air warned their pilots: "Attention! Attention! Pokryshkin is in the sky!"


    Grandfather fought in the Kuban on the Taman Peninsula. So he himself heard these warnings, but apart from Pokryshkin he also heard: "Glinka brothers in the sky!"
  32. Alena Frolovna
    Alena Frolovna April 2 2015 00: 01
    +3
    It was gratifying to read and recall the great pilot.
    I will also make a small contribution to the piggy bank.

    The award sheet read: "The brave of the brave, leader, the best Soviet ace».
    Pokryshkin was officially and unofficially recognized as allies and enemies.
    Only in three cases did pedantic Germans switch from digital radio messages to plain text: “Akhtung, partisan!” (partisan surprise attack); "Akhtung, panzer!" (breakthrough of Soviet tanks) and - "Akhtung, Pokryshkin!».
    1. riegel
      riegel April 2 2015 00: 13
      0
      Quote: Alena Frolovna
      It was gratifying to read and recall the great pilot.
      I will also make a small contribution to the piggy bank.

      The award sheet read: "The brave of the brave, leader, the best Soviet ace».
      Pokryshkin was officially and unofficially recognized as allies and enemies.
      Only in three cases did pedantic Germans switch from digital radio messages to plain text: “Akhtung, partisan!” (partisan surprise attack); "Akhtung, panzer!" (breakthrough of Soviet tanks) and - "Akhtung, Pokryshkin!».


      so this is a common warning, Attention tanks, plates, aliens laughing
      Pokryshkin deserves respect as a fighter, but I will not believe that the Germans were sitting like a mouse under a broom after a warning, it's ridiculous, you could play the message "Akhtung Pokryshkin" on the radio around the clock on all fronts and not a single German would take off.
      1. Gamdlislyam
        Gamdlislyam April 2 2015 08: 12
        +1
        Quote: riegele
        so this is a usual warning, Attention tanks, plates, aliens Pokryshkin deserves respect as a fighter, but I don’t believe that the Germans sat like a mouse under a broom after a warning, it's funny, you could have the message "Akhtung Pokryshkin" played on the radio around the clock on all fronts and no German would take off.

        Dear colleague riegele, during the war there were some unspoken (and maybe regulated) rules of conduct in the air. If you remember, according to the memoirs of the war veterans, in 1941 - 1942, our fighter pilots, when meeting with German fighters, stood in a circle (began to fly one after another in a circle). At the same time, often, the Germans did not have a numerical advantage, but their TTD machines exceeded ours.
        The Germans had a different order. They might not have to fight with our fighters if they were not sure of a successful outcome. This is also noted in the memoirs of the pilots (on both sides). If the surprise attack failed, then the Germans rolled off to the side or went up to the heights, and no longer launched attacks if additional help was not suitable. Or they waited for someone to fall behind or gape.
        After Pokryshkin received the second star of the Hero, he was forbidden to fly for free hunting (he could fly only as part of a unit of at least a squadron), and by the end of 1944 they were completely forbidden to make sorties without permission from the command of the air army.
        All this is the flip side of the radio intercepts and messages "Akhtung, Akhtung, Pokryshkin in the air." The Germans not only warned of the appearance of an ace in the air, but also took measures to destroy Pokryshkin (hence the prohibitions on sorties). Ours also began to conduct (like the Germans) radio intercepts, and made appropriate conclusions.
        And the fact that radio interception is not an empty lesson is clearly stated in his story by General Punev, T.P.