How Cossacks Kamchatka Fought
The biography of the Cossack ataman Vladimir Atlasov, who conquered the Kamchatka Peninsula in heavy battles with the Itelmens and Koryaks, can surpass the most violent biography of any of the conquistadors or conquerors of the Wild West in the dynamics of the plot. For some two and a half years Atlasov annexed to the possessions of Moscow Russia the richest lands, exceeding in area two and a half times the territory of modern France. The death of the “Kamchatka Yermak”, as the poet Alexander Pushkin called the Cossack pioneer, was not predetermined by his military defeat, but by the mediocre administration of the Yakutsk fortress voivodship.
Feat chieftain Kamchaty
In Petersburg Russia, the whole of the eighteenth and half of the nineteenth century was somehow not customary to study the national historical Heritage of Siberia and the Far East. If they tried to do this noble business, then, oddly enough, either ethnic Germans, or Ukrainians (called Little Russians at that time), or Russian nobles who were sent to Siberia, who finally gathered from being in the imperial shackles of the “Russian spirit” did it. .
The situation with the study of the historical heritage of Russian Asia begins to change significantly in a positive direction only in the second half of the nineteenth century. It was during this period that the colossal information from the documents of the discharge and Siberian orders of Muscovy at the end of the sixteenth century — the first half of the seventeenth centuries — falls into scientific circulation.
The archivist historian Nikolai Nikolayevich Ogloblin, a descendant of Zaporozhye Colonel Stepan Oglobli, did a huge part of the work of uncovering for scientific thought authentic historical sources of late Muscovy. Having been educated at the Kiev Theological Academy and the Archeological Institute, Nikolay Ogloblin moved to Moscow and worked for almost a quarter of a century to compile an inventory-review of the old documents of the Discharge and Siberian Orders.
Mainly due to the works of Nikolai Ogloblin, who published the book “To the biography of Vladimir Atlasov” in 1894, the first study of the difficult fate of the Kamchatka ataman, we have more or less detailed ideas about how the conquest of the land of Kamchatka went.
Little is known about the initial biography of Vladimir Atlasov. Different researchers name not only different dates of birth of the great Cossack, but also his different middle names - Timofeevich, Vasilyevich and Vladimirovich. It seems that only his Don Cossack origin can be recognized as a truly authentic fact. Atlas was born near the Yakut jail, which was inhabited in the second half of the seventeenth century by Cossacks, who came mostly from the Don.
Cossacks were growing up early: at the age of twenty, Vladimir Atlasov began to go with Cossack detachments to yasak and field raids on the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk. 1682 to 1688 The future pioneer of Kamchatka visited military expeditions several times.
Ataman qualities of Vladimir Atlasov also appeared early. Already in 1688, he was appointed clerk (almost voivode) of the Anadyr fort. Here he stayed for six years, and in 1694, he returned to Yakutsk with a yasak treasury. Immediately upon arriving at the jail, Atlasov began to convince the local voivode Ivan Petrovich Gagarin to send a military expedition to conquer the lands lying along the coast of the Bering Sea south of Anadyr. Atlasov said that, according to the information he had collected, twenty days from his journey, Anadyr began some large, very rich in fur and fish land, stretching far to the south.
Atlas was not the first to tell the Yakut administrators about the wealth of Kamchatka. Even in the period from 1658 to 1659, the year of the Don Cossack Ivan Ivanovich Kamchatyi found a land route to this unknown country. From Okhotsk Gizhiga, Kamchaty walked along the western shore of the peninsula to the Lesnaya River, which flows into Shelikhov Bay. Along this river, the Cossacks of Kamchatsky climbed up - right up to the Sredinny Range, crossed onto its eastern slope and descended along the Karaga River to the Karaginsky Bay.
On the coast of this bay, the ataman Kamchaty did not find walrus goblets (it was the walrus bone that was searched for), but he received reliable information from the local Koryak aborigines about the presence of some abundant land in the south. Returning to Gizhiga, Ivan Kamchaty immediately began to assemble a new expedition to the southeast.
In 1660-1661, passing south along the slopes of the Sredinny Range, the ataman Kamchaty discovered a rich, fish-rich river, stretching its headwaters deep into the peninsula. The Cossacks, in memory of the successful atamanism of Ivan Kamchaty, called this river Kamchatka.
Rise of the Lamut-Evens. Istchonik: Nikolai Fomin / deviantart.com Rise of the Lamut-Evens. Istchonik: Nikolay Fomin / deviantart.com
The path to Kamchatka would seem to have already been found, but a misfortune happened in late winter 1661. Suppressing the armed uprising of the Lamut-Evens (according to the common, but erroneous opinion, the Yukagirs), the whole detachment of Ivan Kamchaty was ambushed and exterminated by the Lamut. Opened, it was, the door to Kamchatka - slammed again.
"And on the enslaving receipts, take thou gunpowder potion ..."
Voevoda Ivan Petrovich Gagarin was a bright man of his time: stern character, but intelligent, immensely powerful, but able to appreciate the same powerful people of lower social rank, avid champion of the interests of his own pocket, but well aware of state interest. Having questioned Vladimir Atlasov in detail about his “Kamchatka” plans, the Yakut voivode promised the Cossack the widest possible assistance.
State support, alas, did not follow. The Moscow administration unexpectedly changed the Yakut governor. The new voivod, Mikhail Arsenyev, was a man of a completely different warehouse: secretive, over-cautious, secretly under his new position in the Asian East and considering it only as a step towards his further career.
Anticipating the undoubted danger of the Kamchatka campaign, the voivode Arsenyev constantly yulil, professionally pulled time, not prohibiting, but also not helping anything, Atlasov's plan. In principle, it was the traditional policy of relations between the Siberian governors and the Cossacks: if the Cossacks were victorious and brought “new land” to the authorities and rich yasak, this, of course, was promoted by the next voivode. If the Cossacks died in their military raids and made a "decline in serving people" - then the governor was here, of course, not at anything, because the Cossacks are free people, and sometimes the governor is not asked.
As a result, Mikhail Arsenyev did not give any money for the Atlasov military expedition.
The Cossack chieftain collected people and equipment for a trip to Kamchatka at his own peril and risk. Already at the organization of this first campaign, Atlasov’s hard style of earning money to organize his raids began to be developed.
At first, the ataman tried to verbally interest Yakut moneybags with future "great profits" from Kamchatka lands. Then he began to take money for gunpowder, lead and equipment in debt. In his subsequent "unsubscribe" about the Atlas campaign, he pointed out: "... And many people in that piece of land underwent needs - great loss of gunpowder and lead, and shooting is necessary. And then on enslaving receipts took thou gunpowder potion. ”
In preparation for the march, the breadth of Atlasov’s soul, the complete absence of stinginess and small-mindedness in his mentality, was clearly manifested. He borrowed 160 rubles from a clerk Ivan Kharitonov (a very large amount at that time!), Bought for this money gunpowder, lead and other necessary supplies and distributed it free of charge to his Cossacks. Then he took another gunpowder and lead from the salesman Mikhail Ostafiev "in bondage on 120 red foxes," and this ammunition again distributed to his people. True, this time under the obligation of subsequent compensation of fur. During this period, Vladimir Atlasov developed, apparently, a persistent dislike of the Russian tradeswoman, and a desire, and a skill, appeared - according to a long-standing Cossack custom, to force their money and supplies for the common Cossack benefit.
Unlocking Cossack Frost Cossack
At the beginning of 1697, the Ataman Atlasov performed on reindeer in the direction of passes to the Penzhina River. By the standards of the then Cossack campaigns in the east of Russian Asia, it was a large detachment: about 125 people, of whom the patrimonial Cossacks were about half, and the rest - deer kayury Yukagirs.
The Cossacks moved quickly - after two and a half weeks, covering almost 700 kilometers of the road, the Atlases reached the Penzhinskaya Bay and here, "gently and greetfully" took yasak from the local Koryaks. Then the detachment moved south - in the "Kamchatka nose".
After some time, in the valley of the Tigil Atlas, he divided his squad into two parts: a little smaller went with him along the western coast of Kamchatka, and the other, under the command of the foreman Luka Morozko, crossed the Sredinny Range and moved along the eastern coast of the peninsula.
The Koryaks from the surrounding camps immediately took advantage of the tactical mistake of the ataman. On a dull winter night, they attacked the Atlasov camp, but the Cossack patrol managed to notice the movement of hundreds of teams around the tundra, and the Cossacks met the onslaught of the Koryaks fully armed.
There was a fierce battle - three Cossacks were killed, several dozen, including Vladimir Atlasov himself, were injured.
Koryaks under the salvo of Cossack muskets. Source: ganjobio.ru
In the morning, the detachment moved to a high yar by the river, and the besieged began to erect the walls of the defensive "walking-city" from the inflowing snow. The Koryaks rose several times to attack, trying to hinder construction, but each time they rolled away with heavy losses. By evening, more than two thousand "non-peaceful aliens" gathered in the assumption of the "walk-city". Part of the Atlasov Yukagirs, frightened by the Koryak population, went over to their side.
At night, the Cossacks fought off another assault. Taking advantage of the hustle and bustle of the battle, Atlasov sent his faithful friend Yukagir on a deer to find Luka Morozko’s detachment.
In the night darkness, the Yukagir managed to safely pass the line of the Koryak blockade. He rode non-stop for three days and finally saw the camp of Morozko in the upper reaches of the river Ivtygvayam. For another four days, Luka Morozko went to the rescue of his comrades, struggling with an inner premonition that he would no longer see his twin brothers alive. Premonition deceived - Vladimir Atlasov held out.
In the full moon - in the bright dead light of the “Cossack sun”, the Morozko detachment from two sides - from the sea and from the riverbed - attacked the siege camp of the Koryaks. Not expecting an attack, the Koryaks did not have ready reindeer sleighs on hand - the entire thousandth mass of Koryak soldiers rushed to the river and fell under a new volley of Cossack muskets. The attack of the Koryaks was accomplished by the attack of Atlasov himself from the "walk-town".
Being a good diplomat, Vladimir Atlasov, unlike the "konkistado" method of ataman Mikhail Stadukhin, preferred to build relations with the Kamchatka aborigines on the basis of the policy of "affection and greetings".
However, for the saber, in those cases where a peace-loving policy did not produce a result, the Cossack ataman was taken impassively.
In this campaign, Atlasov stormed, captured and burned four Itelmen "towns" - fortress. And when the deer Koryaks hijacked reindeer from him - “in order for them, the Cossack Volodymer and his comrades, there was nothing to serve the great sovereign”, he immediately chased after the robbers. Already near the Okhotsk coast, he “stuck his hands” on the Koryaks. “We fought day and night,” the chieftain later wrote in his report, “and with God's mercy and sovereign happiness, they were beaten, Koryak, about a hundred and a half people and their deer were beaten.”
The combined Cossack detachment crossed the Sredinny Range and descended into the valley of the Kamchatka River, rounded Russia's highest mountain peak (outside the Greater Caucasus) - Klyuchevskaya Sopka Volcano (4 835 m). The valley of Kamchatka struck the Cossacks with the population and wealth of the local Aboriginal settlements.
Vladimir Atlasov with a group of Cossacks set up a cross at the mouth of the Kanuch River as a sign of its joining the Russian state. Source: kamlib.ru Vladimir Atlasov with a group of Cossacks establish a cross at the mouth of the Kanuch River as a sign of its joining the Russian state. Source: kamlib.ru
At the mouth of the Kanuch River (another name is Krestovka), the Atlasov detachment installed a large wooden cross. This cross through 40 years is still preserved - it was seen by the famous Kamchatka researcher Stepan Krasheninnikov. The Cossacks proudly wrote on the cross: “7205, the year [1697 of the new chronology. - NL], July 18 of the day put this cross Pentecostal Volodymer Atlas with the goods 65 man. ” Only the Cossacks at this time could be in their worldview not "servile sovereigns", not "serving people", but - "goods".
Having completed the exploration of the Kamchatka River, the Atlas River again crossed the Sredinny Range and moved along the Okhotsk coast to the south. On the river Icha, he built a fortified island and winterized there. He took a prisoner from the local Itelmen, a Japanese sailor Denbey, who ended up in Kamchatka as a result of a shipwreck.
“In the spring of 1698, taking Denbey with him,” historian Vladimir Dodonov narrates about these events, “Atlas moved south and met the first inhabitants of the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin - the Ainu. There is no exact data on the southernmost point of the peninsula that its expedition reached, but it is known that Atlasov managed to visit near Cape Lopatka, from where the first island of the Kuril ridge, Shumsh, is clearly visible. ”
Heartless royal satraps
In the late spring of 1699, leaving a detachment of Cossacks led by Potap Seryuk in the well-fortified Verkhnekamchatsky prison, Atlas headed back. At the very beginning of July, he arrived with a yasak, travel records and maps of Kamchatka in the Anadyr prison.
The new Yakut voivode Dorofei Traurnicht, having received information about the results of the Atlasov expedition, immediately realized all their uniqueness and importance. A smart, energetic German decided to immediately send a Cossack ataman with a personal report to the Siberian order to Moscow.
At the beginning of February 1701, Atlas arrived in Moscow and, after discussing his skating about Kamchatka in the Siberian order, 15 of February received a personal audience with Peter I.
Young Peter, with his lively, albeit fussy mind, was very interested in information about the new Kamchatka lands, saw the prospects for creating a naval base in Kamchatka for subsequent voyages to America. Atlasov received the rank of Cossack head (actually a colonel) and was appointed head of a new expedition to Kamchatka.
The Cossack Ataman, having finally seen the sincere interest of the Russian state in acquiring the “Kamchatka land”, gave Peter I an expeditionary petition. “It is necessary to give for this campaign,” Atlasov wrote to the king, “100 Cossack children: 50 from Tobolsk, and 50 from Yeniseisk and Yakutsk; if there are not enough Cossack children, then take and Russian industrial people - hunters and in bondage. " In addition, Atlasov asked for “100 squeals, 4 small guns, 10 powder and poods for bullets as many, 500 iron cores, 5 pounds of wick, the regimental banner, and for gifts to foreigners pud azure and 100 knives”.
The map of Vladimir Atlasov’s campaign to Kamchatka in 1696 – 1699. Source: kamlib.ru
As we see, Atlasov’s wishes for the material support of the expedition to a distant, still unconquered country were the most minimal.
After reviewing Atlasov's petition, the Siberian order's clerks did what the central Russian authorities did for centuries: in principle, having approved the idea of the expedition, the royal nobles decided to shift its actual supply to the regional authorities. Letters were sent to the Tobolsk, Yenisei and Yakut governors with instructions to assist the new expedition of the Cossack head Atlasov. After that, both Atlasov and Kamchatka were firmly forgotten.
Such an order of the Siberian order actually made Atlas hostage goodwill or, conversely, the arbitrariness of the local royal satraps. The help of the German Mournichta Atlas did not doubt, however, in order to get to Yakutsk, it was necessary to safely pass the “zone of responsibility” of the Tobolsk and Yenisei governor.
Atlasov was lucky in Tobolsk - local governor Mikhail Cherkassky was an enlightened, easy-going person, and besides, capital Moscow was not too far from Western Siberia. Cherkasy quickly gave Atlasov the necessary quota of provisions and equipment, allowed him to quickly recruit willing Cossacks to the expedition, and gave transportation.
Quickly, at the beginning of a short northern summer, having reached Yeniseisk, Atlasov met a completely different reception here. The local governor, Bogdan Glebov, was old (older than 60 years), a sophisticated official still in the old Moscow batch. He instantly hated the energetic, decisive, health-numbing Atlasov and, with truly Byzantine cynicism, began to put a “stick in the wheel” to the Cossack ataman.
To begin with, the voivode Glebov actually boycotted the recruitment of the local Cossacks on an expedition, offering in return some kind of eternally drunk ragged one. Then the expedition was left without equipment - in Yeniseisk there was not a single extra peep for Atlasov and not a pound of gunpowder. All summer, the Yenisei satrap "marinated" under various pretexts of Atlasov and only on the yellow foliage of the trees he selected, finally, the board-ships for the further expedition to Yakutsk.
Stage Yeniseisk-Yakutsk was the most difficult stage of the expedition movement to the place of final formation. The Cossacks had to go up the Yenisei to the Angara, then - again against the current - go through the whole Angara to Ilimsk, then cross the Lena River and go down to the Yakut jail.
Having begun sailing along the Yenisei, the Cossacks soon discovered that the planks highlighted by voivode Glebov were rotten through and through. From one vessel had to constantly scoop water. There was not enough food, it was necessary to take care of gunpowder, since nothing was received in Yeniseisk. It became obvious that Glebov obviously hoped that the Cossacks would not have time to freeze up to reach Yakutsk, would have to be wintering somewhere on a deaf shore, and then frost, hunger and scurvy would powerfully draw a line under the ambitious dreams of a restless ataman.
It is possible that all this would have happened so, but at the mouth of the Angara Ataman Atlasov met a merchant's transport convoy, which included a large, well-made boardwalk of the eminent Moscow guest Login Dobrynin. Commanded by the merchants merchant clerk Belozerov.
Wanting to save his people and ensure rapid advancement to Yakutsk, Atlasov ordered (or Cossacks with self-righteousness, perhaps, did it) to rob clerk Belozerov and transplant him to that rotten plague, which “generously” singled out expedition of voivode Glebov. This, of course, seems to be the clear desire of the ataman to give an absentee slap in the face to the vile governor.
When Belozerov, constantly scooping out the cold water, did swim to Yeniseisk, voivode Glebov probably passionately crossed himself. Still would! It presented an exceptional opportunity to quickly bungle detective work on the failed Kamchatka "hero." A slander about a robbery immediately flew to the Siberian order, and all the commanders of the Asian East were immediately sent to detective units on the “Volyama Taty”.
Detectives managed to unleash quickly: in Moscow, the famous guests of Dobrynina went where they needed and with what they needed, and in Yeniseisk the old rogue Glebov raged on detective activity. What kind of new Kamchatka expedition there ?! The case must be spun - a criminal case! So a soulless state machine of late Muscovy crushed with enthusiasm into a valuable trash — both materially and geopolitically — an idea.
“I was questioned with great passion”
The man who gave Russia a territory of two and a half of France — in fact, a whole country abounded with sable, fish, wood, the most valuable minerals, was arrested for a dozen scrolls of Chinese cloth and frail, cut down by an ax with a plate. In Moscow, in the Detective Order, the heirs of the merchant Dobrynin obtained instructions to investigate the crime of the Cossack ataman "without any ado and punishment", that is, through the rack, whip, stretching on the wheel.
At the back of the masters, that is, in a modern way - the investigators, the Atlas case was going tight. Sysk testified that from the Angara mouth, the Ataman Atlasov paid Chinese goods requisitioned from Clerk Belozerov with Chinese goods for the supply of provisions for his Cossacks, for carts and horses. The goals of personal enrichment in the "acts" of Atlasov were not viewed. Therefore, it was necessary to find these goals. And for some reason, no one thought to whip up the governor Bogdan Glebov on the rack - for sending Orthodox co-religionists through the jungle of the north on a rotten little ship without provisions, and therefore - to starve.
Koryak archers. Photo: rt-assorty.ru Koryak archers. Photo: rt-assorty.ru
The arrested researcher Kamchatka snubbed in a musty torture on the rack. “And Volodimer Olasov,” Dorofei Mournicht, who instantly replaced mercy with anger, “reported to Moscow in an instant,” was questioned with great passion, and [he was tortured by strangulation.] And raised [on a rack. - NL], and at the temple there was a long time [compression of the temples by a special torture device resembling a puncher. - N.L).
Torture, in the end, did not give anything. Atlasov continued to stand his ground, claiming that he had robbed the merchant solely for the purpose of organizing food and quickly advancing the expedition.
"Kamchatsky Yermak" spent more than four years in a Russian prison. How much of his health, hitherto indestructible, was destroyed by the prison - only the great God knows. Ataman constantly bothered to revise his case. Initially, no one paid any attention to his petitions, but in 1707, Atlasov was unexpectedly released. The reason was not in the mercy of the unexpectedly enlightened Russian Themis, but in that the affairs in Kamchatka went very badly - the dullly organized colonization of the region caused a fierce interethnic war on the peninsula and the rise of criminality.
“They made him sleep and slaughtered!”
The colonization of Kamchatka, which Atlas successfully started, in its absence simply collapsed. Kazak Potap Seryuk, left by Atlasov in Verkhnekamchatsky prison, waited patiently for his chieftain for three years, but did not wait. He almost ended the powder, and therefore, inevitably had to bring people to Anadyr.
Seryuk had few military forces: 15 Cossacks and 13 Yukagirs. In the area of the Tymlat River, this small detachment was attacked by more than a thousand Koryak soldiers. Potap Seryuk, having taken a perimeter defense, successfully fought off for two days, but the powder ran out and all the Cossacks were killed. This catastrophe was the first result of the "detective case" against Vladimir Atlasov.
The second sad result was the complete arbitrariness in respect of foreigners, who began to repair on the peninsula a crowd of rabble, coming along the route of Vladimir Atlasov from Okhotsk, Gizhiga and even Anadyr. In 1705-1706, a real rebel war broke out in Kamchatka, which was started by “aliens” who were being plundered from different sides. In October, 1706, from the 29 man, the yasak collectors did not return to Gizhiga — all were killed by the Koryak insurgents. To the south, in the Kamchatka River basin, the Itelmens burned to the ground the Verkhnekamchatsky fortress, killing all its inhabitants, including women.
Under these conditions, the Yakut Voivodeship was again required in Kamchatka a tough arm of a clever ataman, who knows well — where it is necessary to apply “affection and greetings”, and where only a saber is needed.
The liberation of Atlasov became the height of cynicism: it suddenly turned out that he did not commit anything reprehensible to the ataman on the Angara. He was given the title of Cossack head, was confirmed as a clerk of Kamchatka, compensated for financial losses during the years of hard, senseless stay in the prison prison.
In the 1707 year, the Atlas again and last reached the once blessed Kamchatka. On the peninsula, a real war of all against all was raging - amid the Kamchatka outrages, the terry crime of cowboys in the Wild West would have seemed like child's play.
With the inherent rigidity of Atlasov, the ataman began to restore order. His entourage, Cossack Ivan Taratin with a detachment of 70 people with fire and sword passed the eastern coast of the peninsula. It got to everyone: the aliens who killed the yasak collectors, and the local Cossacks, who became evil devil for the aliens.
Atlasov’s rigidity did not please Cossack freemen, which had become accustomed over the years to complete impunity. In December 1707, the Cossacks assembled a Circle, where Atlasov was dismissed from the post of ataman and imprisoned. In Yakutsk, wanting to justify themselves for their actions, the Cossacks sent a messenger with a “unsubscribe”, in which they did not spare the black paint to describe Atlasov’s “evil deeds”.
Vladimir Atlasov did not stay long in the new prison at the rebels, he fled from there and came to the Nizhnekamchatsky prison.
Voevod power in Yakutsk, meanwhile, amid the alarming news coming incessantly from Kamchatka, finally lost its head. In 1709, the Yakut voivode sent a new clerk, Peter Chirikov, to replace Atlasov, and the following year, another clerk was appointed instead of Chirikov - Osip Lipin. At the same time, the official powers of neither Atlasov nor Chirikov were terminated. So on the peninsula at the same time there were just three salesmen at once, which, of course, only aggravated the outbreak of chaos.
Peter Chirikov turned out to be a mediocre warlord. Even on the way to Kamchatka, he lost Cossacks and all military supplies in the battles with the Koryaks 13. Having finally arrived on the peninsula, he sent Cossacks to pacify the Itelmen on the Bolshaya 40 river. The Cossacks set off without any intelligence, were ambushed, immediately lost eight people killed. After that, a whole month of delight sat in the siege, and only with great difficulty, re-cut to the last man, barely managed to carry off his legs.
Peter Chirikov’s military setbacks adversely affected the reputation of his successor, Osip Lipin. In the local Cossack environment, the idea of ending the control of clerks was gaining more and more popularity, and then creating a kind of military republic with an elected Cossack ataman.
In January, 1711, in Verkhnekamchatsky prison, there was a rebellion: the Cossacks killed Lipin, and unlucky Peter Chirikov, bound, thrown into a hole. The rebels were well aware that their victory would hardly be lasting if Vladimir Atlasov found out about their atrocities. It was decided to kill Atlasov, who had a reputation as a fierce and skilled fighter, by deception.
Not having reached half a verst before Nizhnekamchatsky prison, the rebels sent three Cossacks to Atlasov, who were to introduce themselves as couriers from the Yakut governor. At the moment when the chieftain would read the letter, he should have been dealt a traitorous blow with a dagger.
So describes the death of the great pioneer in his study B.P. Field: Atlas, opening the letter, turned to the candle and at that moment received a fatal stab in the back.
Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin, who collected material for a book about the conquest of Kamchatka, argues in his notes that Vladimir Atlasov was caught sleeping by the killers and immediately killed in a dream.
Finally, the “unsubscription” of the rebels themselves, apparently compiled by their instigators Danila Antsyferov and Semyon Kozyrevsky, has been preserved. “Volodymer in his house began fighting with servicemen,” replied Cossacks wrote to the Yakut authorities, “grabbed a sword from the spokesman, and with that palashim rushed at service people; and the service people, fighting from themselves, his Volodymer in his house, from our council, the Cossack, were killed, so that: Volodymer was afraid of him for his slaughter ”.
This description is most similar to the truth. It is unlikely that an experienced military leader could be caught up in a dreamless dream in the conditions of an inter-Cossack distemper. Equally doubtful is the version of Atlasov’s naivety, as if he were immediately “bought” for a trick with voivodal writing. On the contrary, knowing from historical sources about the strong-willed, uncompromising character of the great Cossack ataman, it is easy to imagine that this person could have perished in this way: weapons in his hands violently challenging the cautious rebellious crowd.