Underground struggle against the USSR after the end of the Second World War

The end of the Second World War was a turning point for the life of the Russian emigration. In Eastern Europe and Northern China, the Soviet secret services conducted large-scale arrests. True, it cannot be said that they “took” everyone, first of all they arrested those who had already fled under Soviet rule; from the “old emigration” those who were not seen in anti-Soviet acts were not touched. Those who collaborated with the Germans and the Japanese, prominent White Guards, members of anti-Soviet political organizations were arrested.

In Prague, the leadership of the Labor Peasant Pariah (TKP) was arrested, and documents were found in its archives that indicated leaks of top-secret information from the Kremlin at the end of the 1930s. However, it was not possible to find out through which channels she was walking - TKP leader AL Bem, during interrogation, committed suicide by jumping out of the window. More than a hundred activists of the People’s Labor Union (NTS) were arrested.

Part of emigration under the influence of the victories of the Red Army and the diplomatic successes of the USSR revised their attitude towards Soviet power. PN Milyukov (leader of the cadets in the Russian Empire) in 1943, before his death, wrote an article that had a great influence on Russian minds. He noted the merits of the Soviet government - the strengthening of statehood, the creation of a powerful army, the development of the national economy. Another cadet, deputy II-IV State Duma, former ambassador of the Provisional Government in France V. Maklakov and sociologist P. Sorokin developed the theory of "convergence", thinking that there would inevitably be a convergence in political-economic and social forms between the powers of the anti-Hitler coalition.

When the Soviet Embassy was opened in Paris after his release, Maklakov, former Minister of the Provisional Government Verderevsky, Deputy Chairman of the Russian All-Military Union (EMRO) Admiral Kedrov visited him, saying: “The Soviet Union won, Russia is saved, and the whole world is saved. The new statehood and the new army turned out to be unusually steadfast and strong, and I gratefully welcome them and their leaders. ” The Soviet ambassador A.S.Bogomolov, in turn, expressed his praise to the Russian emigrants: “We could have expected that the Germans used emigration in the struggle against Russia, but this did not happen. Those who went to the service of the Nazis, was relatively small. On the contrary, in different countries emigration showed its sympathy for the Soviet people. ”

In honor of the Victory, Moscow took conciliatory steps towards Russian immigration: the Presidium of the Supreme Council announced an amnesty, gave the right to obtain Soviet citizenship to those who had Russian citizenship before November 7 1917 of the year. The same right was given to people who lost their Soviet citizenship, and their children. But few actually decided to return to the USSR, so in France they expressed their readiness to receive Soviet citizenship of 11 thousand people, but only 2 thousand left for the USSR. Most, even after receiving citizenship, chose to stay abroad, there was a familiar environment, a circle of acquaintances, yes and there was a distrust of the amnesty.

For those who remained abroad, the main pivot of their existence has disappeared - the preservation of the “old Russia”. The war has shown that the USSR is strong, as never before, and is not going to crumble. The theory of "convergence" is also not justified. As a result, organizations of emigrants began to turn into clubs of interest, their children quickly assimilated, becoming French, Americans, British, etc., completely losing the Russian mentality.

But in the course of the war another wave of emigration spilled out abroad - some of the former prisoners, “Ostarbeiters”, refugees, nationalists, Vlasovites, fighters of various collaborationist units left in the West remained in the West. The exact figure of this "wave" is unknown, they say about 100 thousand people. These people had a completely different psychology than the emigration of the “first wave”. They did not live by hopes of return, saving the “old Russia”, they, on the contrary, tried to become “non-Russian” faster - Canadians, French, Americans, etc. Therefore, the process of their assimilation went much faster.

Their anti-Soviet organizations were completely oriented toward the West, primarily in the United States. They didn’t ask themselves the question whether their activities would harm the Russian people and the Russian statehood. The Russian service of Voice of America was headed by a defector, a Soviet diplomat and intelligence officer who fled to the West, Barmin, and was accepted into the Office of Strategic Services (the future of the CIA). Under the patronage of the United States and its NATO partners, various Russian national anti-Soviet organizations are being created. But information warfare became the main activity, powerful radio stations were targeted against the USSR: Voice of America, Air Force, Svoboda, Free Europe. Attempts were made to transfer campaign materials in the USSR to the garrisons of Soviet soldiers located in Eastern Europe.

By 1948, the formerly crushed NTS had restored its structures, strengthening the ranks due to the “second wave” of emigration. Found finances for the publication of the newspaper "Echo", "News"Magazine" Sowing "," Edge ". The union changed its ideology in the direction of the West, so, by the “people's labor system” they began to understand the Western democratic system. Then its own radio station, Free Russia, was opened. To work among the Soviet soldiers were established campaign centers in Germany and Austria. Similar activities were carried out in large ports where Soviet vessels entered. Since 1951, there has been a throw in the USSR, with the help of air balloons, millions of leaflets, newspapers, hundreds of thousands of magazines, brochures. The Soviet secret services responded: several NTS activists were kidnapped in Berlin and Vienna and convicted for various terms of imprisonment. Agents were introduced into the ranks of this organization, several times they blew up the building where the radio station and “Posev” publishing house were located. But the NTS turned out to be good patrons - the attempts on the leaders failed, information leaks occurred, agents were exposed.

They tried to throw groups in the USSR, with the help of the Americans and the special services of the US allies. Most of the groups were caught, but some were able to settle down and start clandestine activities. For underground workers, the chairman of the NTS, VD Poremsky, developed a "molecular theory." It was recognized that it was impossible to create large groups of underground members in the USSR, but it was possible to create a multitude of "molecules". They will not be connected with each other and foreign centers, so the failure of one “molecule” will not entail the collapse of the entire network. The main methods of work of the “molecule” are “small” forms, propaganda among friends, acquaintances, relatives, distribution of literature. As a result, these “molecules” should have corroded the body of the USSR. Such “molecules” were created not only by abandoned activists, but by people who survived in the USSR, who, after listening to Radio Free Russia, decided by “self-acceptance” to join the NTS.

Situation in the USSR

The conditions for anti-Soviet propaganda after the war were quite good - there were grandiose migrations of the population, many people were cut off from their usual life, place of residence, the old circle of acquaintances, etc. Millions of people - soldiers, prisoners of war, “Ostarbeiters” - became acquainted with Western life, their views on life, their way of life. And Marxism-Leninism, as an ideology, did not have the most powerful immunity against external influences. A part of the intelligentsia (especially the creative ones) had hopes for a weakening of the regime, relaxation, rapprochement with the West. This was largely due to the fact that “greenhouse” conditions were actually created for the intelligentsia, compared to ordinary people. They lived more satisfyingly, had all sorts of benefits, valued them, protected them, they had access to foreign films, books, the opportunity to visit abroad, and as a result, many had the impression of their being chosen and exclusive. They wanted to continue the “banquet” - foreign “freedoms”.

But it was necessary again to “mobilize” the economy, the population (for the third time, first the years of industrialization and collectivization, then the war) for the rapid restoration of the country. As a result, in the second half of the 40-s, youth opposition circles and organizations were opened in Leningrad, Moscow, and Voronezh. Their views were similar to the positions of the opposition crushed in 20-30-s, they were for communism, but without “Stalinism”. Those who denied communist values ​​altogether were few.

Stalin responded by campaigning against "servility to the West," and actively began to promote the achievements of Russian science, culture and art. A. Zhdanov personally led the work with the creative intelligentsia, many considered him the successor to the leader. Subjected to criticism pleased works, including Zoshchenko, Akhmatova. But no one was repressed - they wanted to make a “warning”, to return discipline to loose ranks.


Supported by Western intelligence services and nationalists - the war ended, but for several years there was a “forest war” in Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Ukraine. Washington did not officially support the Bandera movement, because considered him "not democratic", placing this function on the "junior partner" - the British.

It was beneficial for the West to support “popular resistance” - the USSR spent considerable forces and means on fighting it, instability was maintained in the western regions, in the Western media it was possible to talk about “resistance of the people” to the Soviet regime. Only after the establishment of communist regimes in Czechoslovakia and Poland in 1947-1948 did it become possible to suppress the UPA movement, whose gangs were hiding from large raids in adjacent territories.

Underground struggle against the USSR after the end of the Second World War


It was in the post-war period, and not in the famous 1937-1938 years, that the GULAG system reached its maximum - its “population” reached 2,5 million people. Has grown at the expense of "Vlasov", "Bandera", Baltic "forest brothers", various kinds of collaborators. And you need to know that the majority of the prisoners of the camps and prisons of the USSR were not “political”, but ordinary criminals. A big war always leads to a surge in crime. After the war, the USSR quite successfully “cleared” of bandits, marauders, profiteers, thieves, rapists, hooligans, prostitutes. And very quickly and effectively - putting an end to the myth that the "mafia is immortal." Soviet citizens could now walk through the streets of cities at any time of the day, without fear of being killed, robbed, raped.

In the 1948 year, in order to single out the most dangerous element, they created special regime camps, "hard labor". But in the same year, the conditions of detention in all the camps were dramatically softened — they began to feed better, and occupational safety measures were introduced to save labor. The labor of prisoners, plus the labor of contingents of captured Germans and Japanese contributed to the rapid recovery of the country.

Further actions of the West

Western intelligence agencies worked in all possible directions, shaking the Red Empire - they supported open anti-communism, neo-Trotskyism, nationalism, and historical myths were launched that were directed against Russia-USSR. In 1948, the UN adopted the Declaration of Human Rights, the game began on “human rights”.

They tried to influence through Western standards of consumption - its visible abundance, material wealth, convenience. In the end it is weapon It became practically the most effective - the Soviet people were put into “sausage”, which is not surprising, the ideology of Marxism-Leninism, replaced by expediency under Stalin, could not protect the consciousness of Soviet people from this viral program. It was during this period that the famous 20 / 1 US NSC memorandum from 18 August 1948 was adopted, which was an analytical document prepared at the request of Secretary of Defense James Forrestal on the long-term goals of US policy towards the Soviet Union (it is also called the Allen Dulles plan).

Allen Welch Dulles.

Sources of:
Vert N. History Soviet state. M., 1994.
Nts. Thought and business. M., 1999.
Pykholov I.V. Special services of the USA. SPb., 2002.
Semanov S.N. Stalin. Lessons of life and activity. M., 2002.
Shambarov V. Anti-Soviet. M., 2011.
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