Military Review

Chinese special forces

26


Professional and organizational development dates back to the middle of the 80 of the 20 century. The starting point for the development of special forces was the conclusion made in June 1985 by the Military Council of the CPC Central Committee headed by Deng Xiaoping that in the foreseeable future there was no possibility of large-scale armed conflicts using conventional armed forces. The next powerful impetus to the revaluation and reform of military concepts was the Gulf War.

The most likely was an intense, short-lived and high-tech conflict in the periphery of China.
The first most functionally completed unit was formed in the 1988 year in the Guangzhou Military District.



Organizational Structure
Each military district of China (there are seven of them) has its own special regiment subordinated to the district command (3 battalion with a total of about 1000 people), and each level has its own special forces unit: corps - battalion (total 18 battalions, by 300-400 people each), brigade - company (about 120 people), at the level of the regiment - platoon (30-40 people) Level of preparation, as well as equipment from the regiment to the brigade, from brigade to body, and from body to district rises significantly.
The regiments of special forces in military districts (VO) are painted as follows:
1) Shenyang IN - 'Dongbei Tiger' ('Dongbei' in Chinese, Northeast, Manchuria, which has become the nominal name of the three northeastern provinces of China);
2) Beijing VO - 'Magic Sword of the East';
3) Nanking VO - 'Flying Dragon', formed on 1992;
4) Guangzhou IN - 'Sharp Sword of South China', formed in 1988;
5) Lanzhou IN - 'Night Tiger';
6) Jinan VO - 'Hawk';
7) Chengdu IN - 'Falcon', formed in 1992.
In addition, the special forces units include the Marine assault landing force, the “Marine assault landing force” and the air assault force, the Sharp Blue Sky sword.
Do not belong to the special forces, but undergo training in a lightweight special forces program, which is nevertheless much more complicated than the training program for ordinary PLA soldiers 162 (as part of the 54 army), 63 (as part of the 21 army) and 149- I (as part of the 13 army) divisions high alert. The next in terms of training are 1 (Hangzhou, Nanjing VO), 38 (86 thousand, Baoding, Beijing VO), 39 (75 thousand, Yingkou, Shenyang IN) and 54 army (89 thou. people, Xinxiang, Jinan VO) of the rapid reaction army (readiness time from 2-7 days). And the last groupings are the three most equipped and combat-ready armies of China.
In addition to army special forces, there are also Special Forces of the Armed Police (hereinafter referred to as VM, one of the components of the Chinese armed forces) and subunits of the Ministry of Public Security (hereinafter referred to as MOB) units of the Special Forces of Public Security Forces.
There are also special units that only fragmentary information is publicly available, and that has only recently appeared - the Panther anti-terror units (according to some sources, possibly attributed to the Chengdu IN, may have been a predecessor or in some way belonged to Falcon ), 'Snow Wolf' (subordinated to VM, currently, together with the Beijing Special Forces, the ISB is involved in preparing security for holding the Beijing Olympiad at 2008, by the way, the total number of security forces at the Olympiad will be more than XNU MX thousand people.) And others ...
China's “elite” special forces unit in which, from 1982, only the best of the best gather from all over the country, the anti-terrorist unit Vostok stationed near the Beijing airport, the full name is the anti-terrorism unit of the special purpose police 722 of the Special Forces Training Institute . The Institute itself was founded in 1983. During the 23 year of its existence, he released more than a thousand people, most of whom became special forces instructors. The rigor of preparation can be indirectly indicated by the fact that in all this time, almost half a century, the 'complete difference' has received 3 (three) graduates.

Chinese special forces


appointment
The special forces of China is one of the main components of the Chinese Rapid Reaction Force, which must wage war in conditions of limited regional conflict and the use of the latest military technologies, including point shots outside the zone of vulnerability for the enemy.
The functions of the special forces include: intelligence, short-term and / or small-scale military operations and anti-terrorism activities, including and the destruction of separatist formations.
So in October 2002, units of special forces participated in joint anti-terrorism exercises with Tajikistan.



Equipping special forces units
Military transport helicopters MI-17, unmanned aerial vehicles, assault rifles KBU-88, sniper rifles of the model 95 plus secret types of small weapons. Silencers. Machine guns, grenade launchers. Flamethrowers. Guns, incl. ATGM HJ-37 / PF-89. GPS / GLONASS positioning systems with position accuracy up to 1-3 m in China, including Taiwan, body armor, Kevlar helmets, tactical radios, night vision devices, laser range finders, special tele-imaging systems, for operations in reduced visibility and illumination, etc. .



Prepare
The training of army and police special forces is carried out according to the methods developed by the PLA General Staff, taking into account the peculiarities of using each individual unit, with the complexity of training to the level of the psychological and physical limit of human survival.
The leadership of the Chinese special forces believes that the physical, psychological and professional training of their fighters has no equal in the world.
Training fighters is divided into two parts: basic and professional.
The basic includes: the whole complex of normal physical exercises for strength, agility and endurance plus hand-to-hand combat and self-defense without weapons, survival skills in field and extreme conditions, mountaineering training, crossing water area in full equipment, all types of small arms, and tents , digging shelters in the snow and earth, providing medical assistance and rescue in the field, taking away weapons, ambushes and surprise attacks, actions in the mountains, in the forest, in the water, in the snow. Plus landing training. Ski training is carried out in the northeastern provinces of China in all weather conditions, including at air temperature below 40C. Guided terrain with or without a compass, reading a map.
It is hard to believe, but survival training is also provided (rhythm of breathing and body movement) in water with hands and legs tied! (how much it is necessary to be in the water and why it is not indicated; as far as I understand, this should apply to the Night Tiger, Sharp Sword of Southern China and Sokol units, at least considering their area of ​​responsibility).



Survival skills training (using the example of the Falcon division)
A group of 6 people. Equipment: army boots, a knife, a lightweight machine gun and a helmet. With a fighter can take 1 kg of rice, 5 pieces of pressed biscuits, salt and matches. Before leaving, the group is thoroughly searched, literally shaking out the pockets - no unnecessary unwanted items, including and money and water should not be (though in some sources they write that they give out a flask of water, 2 a piece of biscuit, but without rice) ..
March-March conditions: for 7 days, the group must pass through the virgin forest more than 200 km (according to other sources - 300 km), and part of the route (about 3 days of travel) runs through mountainous areas with altitude above sea level in 2700 m. The area is that most water sources are unsuitable for drinking or simply life-threatening, the fighters must determine from the traces of birds and animals those reservoirs that are suitable for use, or use trees and plants to produce water. An additional difficulty is created by the fact that, despite the heat, clothing must be tightly buttoned, as the area is full of poisonous snakes and insects. The mountain section of the route (about 3 days of travel) is so poor in terms of plant and animal life, that the group will have to be content with ants, mice and snakes. In addition, along the way, the group must complete training tasks around 20 (assaults, captures of 'tongues', bypassing outposts and ambushes of a conditional opponent, etc.).
Such training can take place from 3 to 6 months per year.



Physical training:
This part of the preparation is affectionately called ... 'descent into hell'.
Lifting in 4: 30. Common 'hard' qigong. Dantian Qigong - 30 min. In 6: 00 climbing a mountain or running long distances. When running, each fighter collects 10 bricks into his backpack. The distance in 5 km must be covered in no more than 25 minutes. The same cross - in the evening. What happens in this case with the back, or rather, the skin on the back, is not difficult to guess. After the run, the exercise 'iron palm' begins. The fighter must strike the bag with 300, and in just the initial preparation cycle, 15000 strikes, first with beans, and then with iron filings. Gradually, the 2 / 3 palm length will become covered with stone-hard calluses, and the palm thickness will increase by almost 100%. Bleeding and wounds are healed by soaking hands in a special treatment solution. Fists, elbows, knees and feet are worked out in exactly the same way and with the same standards.
After breakfast, working out the breaking of the head of the wooden bars begins. Begin with soft and finish with hard rocks. When a corn with a thickness of 2 mm is formed on the head, it is possible to proceed to breaking up the bottles and bricks. Having undergone proper training, a fighter can strike a tree or a wall (this is hard to believe, or an error in the sources, but the standard is 500 once a day). Headstand - 30 minutes a day ..
Then lunch, a short rest and hell continues ...



Several standards ...
Climbing the brick wall of a building to the 5 floor without any available means in 30 seconds.
With full equipment, incl. with 4-mi grenades and a machine gun, with a total weight of 10 kg, swim 5 km in 1 an hour 20 minutes.
With tied legs, with 4-mi hand grenades on the belt and other equipment, with a total weight of 4.5 kg, jump in the bag 10 km.
With full equipment in the rain on a broken mountain road (or rather, on clay), for 12 minutes to overcome the distance 3300 m (score - 'satisfactory'), 3400 m (score - 'good'), 3500 m (score 'excellent')
Lifting on the crossbar and pushing up on parallel bars - each 200 exercise once a day.
Passing an 400-meter obstacle course with 14 targets in a group of 4-s people twice. The first - to warm up, the second - for a while - no more than 1 minutes 45 seconds.
Stop lying in front - 100 times, no more than 60 seconds.
Lifting dumbbells weighing 35 kg - 60 times, no more than 60 seconds.
Throwing grenades - 100 times at a distance of at least 50 m.
The defeat of a human target from a distance in 200 m from a car moving at speed 50 km.
Throw a grenade into the car window from a distance of 30 m.



Professional training:
Sabotage and subversive training, training in working with explosives substances (understanding the types and characteristics of explosives, methods of installation and neutralization, assessment of the optimal installation site). Wiring, signals. Penetration into a given place in masking gear, as well as in water - using inflatable boats or logs, empty barrels as masking means. Diving skills.
Depending on the role of a subdivision, emphasis is placed on actions in urban environments, subversive and subversive work, foreign languages, computers and communications, operations in the (sub) aquatic environment.



Participation in combat operations and competitions:
Starting in 1998, the Chinese special forces have received invitations to the ERNA international special forces competitions held in Estonia. By participating in competitions for the first time, the Chinese special forces received 20 in the first place in the 8 program, one second, and the third 4. Having taken place in the overall standings 3.
Later, the Chinese team received the prize 'The Best Foreign Team' - the Karev Prize (for the accuracy of the transcription of the names of this Estonian 'hero', according to Chinese sources, I can not vouch).
According to indirect data, the Sokol units in the number of 32 people were sent to help the security forces of the Afghan government to release the Chinese workers taken hostage. fight against terrorist formations. The Islamabad Times newspaper claimed (according to the Internet) that Chinese special forces released the hostages at night without a single shot and detained the terrorists who held them to 21, which was given the highest rating by US intelligence in Afghanistan.
26 comments
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  1. dred
    dred 27 November 2011 16: 48
    -1
    straight people are spiders.
  2. Artemka
    Artemka 27 November 2011 16: 50
    0
    In the eighth photo, the Chinese are striving up to their heaven.
  3. KASKAD
    KASKAD 27 November 2011 16: 55
    +1
    But at what cost is it given
  4. smershspy
    smershspy April 30 2013 10: 28
    +5
    Well done! But ours will do anything, and if someone does not agree - does not know much!
    1. albanech
      albanech 6 June 2013 16: 52
      +3
      I agree! I don’t know much! I have a father, Colonel of the GRU!
      1. yehat
        yehat April 5 2017 11: 40
        0
        and you are not the daughter of a Russian officer? laughing
  5. proshivalo
    proshivalo 25 May 2013 00: 58
    +3
    1980 year service to Father Bolshoi Ussuriysky and Father Tarabarov. They showed a film about the preparation of S.P. China. 1 the standard is fulfilled with the help of a bamboo pole: one runs onto the wall, holding on to the pole, two push, and in 30 seconds the defeat of the targets also enters.
  6. Berkut24
    Berkut24 25 December 2016 11: 15
    0
    If you still put corns on the body with bricks and bags with metal chips, then a bulletproof vest will not be required. However, not every feng shui fight will help ...
    1. yehat
      yehat April 5 2017 11: 43
      0
      this is not Feng Shui, but a hard time. Most likely they took the technique in southern Shao-Lin.
      A trained fighter in hand-to-hand combat becomes practically invulnerable against civilians.
      1. Berkut24
        Berkut24 April 5 2017 11: 52
        0
        A trained fighter in hand-to-hand combat becomes practically invulnerable against civilians.

        Almost any fighter with a Kalashnikov assault rifle is immune from civilians. Special forces are needed not against civilians, but against trained military personnel.
        1. yehat
          yehat April 5 2017 11: 57
          0
          special forces should not be distracted by trifles
  7. Russian1972
    Russian1972 29 December 2016 14: 27
    +2
    Think about it - 35kg 60 times in 60 seconds - DO NOT BELIEVE !!!!! Only those who do weight lifting will understand.
    1. yehat
      yehat April 5 2017 11: 44
      0
      on the boxing section of the school - 60 times a weight (first 16, then 32) strikes forward. 60 times per minute, there was such a standard ... For an adult trained man, 35 kg is not a problem.
      1. dog
        dog April 5 2017 14: 53
        0
        this is a race - the difficulties of translating from the Chinese book. Every second, lifting 35 kg from the floor to the ceiling is a Chinese joke. If you take a 5 cm weight off the floor, which is what the Chinese special forces do, then yes, good
        1. yehat
          yehat April 5 2017 14: 55
          0
          I'm afraid you did not do much. See how old people in Beijing deal with the ax.
          Her average weight is 44-55 kg.
          1. dog
            dog April 5 2017 15: 08
            0
            this poleax?


            or that one?
            1. yehat
              yehat April 5 2017 15: 14
              0
              no, for example, a democratizer

              It looks very simple, and you can’t say that it is heavy.
              I personally held 2 of these in my hands. 1 weighed 70 kg, the other 85.
              I still don’t understand how a grandfather weighing 55 kg can handle such a fool
              1. dog
                dog April 5 2017 15: 36
                0
                such crap (70 kilos) you can’t stop immediately in flight to cut it back — you don’t have katana, so the old man could grab him off the back of his head, because he would carry it by inertia - an old man weighing 50 kilos, brandishing the same old man ... sorry, ax with weight in 70 pounds. Apparently the Chinese old people were already waving it off wassat
          2. dog
            dog April 5 2017 15: 16
            0
            You can swing the ax even if it weighs a hundred kilos - the main thing is to start as you grilled one frame - if you set acceleration for it, and not lift it 60 times from the ground and put it back. Previously, heavy swords were designed to swing due to inertia, but heavy ones were.
      2. dog
        dog April 5 2017 15: 04
        0
        TABLE OF DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR MEN:

        Impact of DC (the number of lifting weights in 10 minutes)
        32 kg - MS - 50 times
  8. SIT
    SIT 6 January 2017 01: 32
    +1
    The corn on the forehead from breaking boards is a gift to the counterintelligence of the enemy. Likewise stuffed fists and ribs of palms. Calculated in the crowd instantly.
    1. yehat
      yehat April 5 2017 11: 45
      0
      so they are not scouts))) not for covert operations, but for power
      intelligence in China separately.
  9. andrewkor
    andrewkor 25 March 2017 16: 57
    0
    So in Dubai they are multiple world champions among special forces until last year the Chechen special forces ahead of them !!
  10. Andes123
    Andes123 13 May 2017 12: 40
    +2
    Better an old TT than kungfu and karate))) But seriously, the standards are certainly prohibitive. To fulfill them, you need to train from early childhood. And the guys have interest. Why should the authorities not take care of creating summer military camps on the basis of a huge number of empty ones? The vast territories of the Military Hunting Society are empty. Firstly, this would serve as an impetus for their development, and secondly, and most importantly, in the patriotic education of youth. I think most parents will support this idea. Let Warriors grow, not Internet addicts. And finally ... This is our Future !!!
  11. sw61
    sw61 10 November 2017 10: 24
    0
    the described standards are complete nonsense, in the style of Chinese films with flying kungfu supermen.
    Example: a world record in swimming 1,5 km for almost 15 minutes, in a super-sliding special suit, in warm water, and pushing every 50 m from the wall. The article indicates the norm of 5 km in full calculation 1 hour 20 minutes, i.e. 80 minutes simple calculations show that 1,5 km these people should swim no more than 16 minutes.
    Who goes to swim in the pool, let him try to swim 100 m for a while in swimming trunks, and then track the time at least in a T-shirt. I'm not talking about the difference if you wear trousers, a tunic, a backpack and a gun. The real standard for marching. 200 km in 5 days, the task is serious, but completely real. Food is very uncomfortable, but 5 days is not critical.
    1. The comment was deleted.
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  13. Eirik Krause
    Eirik Krause 18 December 2018 17: 16
    0
    at the beginning of the winter of 1988, a company of RTV was destroyed in Mongolia (point)
    25 people were cut with edged weapons, then three attackers in a seized UAZ car left for the border with China