Military Review

The history of military helmets in Western Europe: from the early Middle Ages to the early Modern Age. Part II

21



Fig. 24. Borginot open with a strap. Northern Italy. Probably Milan. 1571


Burguignot, Burgundy helmet or sturmhube, from it. Sturmhaube - "assault helmet", first appeared in Burgundy in the first half of the XVI century. A helmet in the shape of a bowl with a plate collar neck and, as a rule, with a comb. It has a large number of varieties. There are open and closed. In any case, they have a movable top shield in the form of a visor, rising upwards, and the pull-outs that open to the sides, which are hinged to the helmet. If naushi with each other are not connected or are connected only by the chinstrap, then this is an open-type burginotte.



Fig. 25. Burginot closed. Weight 2,4 kg. Around 1620-1630




Fig. 26. Burginot closed. France. Weight 2,24 kg. 1610


In the closed type, the nasi form a rigid structure and are joined together by a hook in front, forming a chin. They have a rounded shape and almost all have a thin comb of different heights. In the most protected version it can be supplemented with a folding downward head-piece instead of earpieces - falling buffe, forming a semblance of visor.



Fig. 27. Burginot with a folding head-collar of the Hungarian type. Germany. Around 1550




Fig. 28. Burginot with a raised visor and a lowered chin hung Hungarian type. Germany. Around 1550


Very comfortable wearing helmets that provide good protection. It was a combat helmet and was very actively used by cavalry, and less often by infantry. It has a unique Italian variety - a heavy assault helmet of Savoyard, the distinctive external feature of which is a grotesquely simplified likeness of a cheerful face with a grinning mouth (in detail here: http://topwar.ru/45672-savoyyar.html).



Fig. 29. Burguinot Savoyar. Northern Italy. Weight 4,5 kg. Around 1600




Fig. 30. Burguignot Savoyar with a raised visor and reclined headphones. Northern Italy. Weight 4,5 kg. Around 1600


The history of military helmets in Western Europe: from the early Middle Ages to the early Modern Age. Part II


Fig. 31. Composite battle armor with burginotte. Nuremberg. Last quarter of the XVI century.




Fig. 32. Morion Trabantleibgvardii Elector Christian II of Saxony. Around 1600


Morion is a well-known all-metal open helmet with a very large comb and strongly curved front and rear fields. Appeared at the beginning of the XVI century and was in use at the beginning of the XVII century. Received widespread throughout Western Europe, especially in Spain and England. In popular culture is inextricably linked with the image of the conquistadors. Used by both cavalry and infantry.



Fig. 33. Arme. Milan. Weight 2,9 kg. Around 1490


Arme appeared at the end of the 15th century (although in Italy as early as the first half of the 15th century), almost the entire 16th century existed. Along with closed helmets are the most advanced and simultaneously protected helmets in stories. A distinctive feature of the arm is the presence of two moving drop-down parts - headphones, hinged and connected to the chin with a pin and protecting the lateral parts of the head, cheeks and chin. Always have a rising back and up visor. Arme could have built-in protection for the neck and collarbone.



Fig. 34. Arme with visor removed. Northern Italy. Weight 3,6 kg. Around 1470-1510


Arme and closed helmets have a special variety taken in the form of a grotesque face mask with a big hooked nose.



Fig. 35. Arme with visor mask. Innsbruck or Nuremberg. Weight 3,23 kg. Around 1520-1525




Fig. 36. Closed helmet with visor mask. Around 1520-1530


Used by knights in tournaments and in battle. Arme and closed helmets were expensive and therefore not available to all knights.





Fig. 37 and 38. Closed helmet with segmental visor. Milan. Weight 2,78 kg. 1590-1595


The closed helmet was a combat helmet worn by cavalry in the late medieval and Renaissance era - the 16th century and the first half of the 17th century. As a type of helmet, it appeared closer to the end of the 15th century, although there are earlier instances. Closed helmet is very similar to the earlier arm, but has a different method of opening and design. While the arm has two moving pull-downs, the closed helmet instead has a kind of built-in bevor or lower visor that is attached in the same way to the helmet as its upper visor, often on the same fixings. The lower and upper visor of closed helmets are mobile.





Fig. 39 and 40. Closed helmet. Augsburg or Nuremberg. Weight 2,8 kg. Around 1580




Fig. 41. Closed helmet. Northern Italy. Weight 3,86 kg. Around 1600-1620


Closed helmet fully protects the head, has a characteristic rounded shape and, as a rule, a massive corrugated comb. Often, it has built-in protection for the neck, throat, and collarbone.



Fig. 42. Closed helmet of the statesman of the Spanish Netherlands, Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba. Milan. Around 1570




Fig. 43. Composite armor with a closed helmet. Perhaps a knight of the Order of Malta. Milan. Around 1590 (details here: http://topwar.ru/44718-milanskiy-dospeh-mastera-pompeo-della-chieza-konca-xvi-v.html)


During the 17th century, helmets, along with the rest of the armor, gradually fell into disuse in military affairs: they were simply useless against an increasingly sophisticated firearm. weaponsremaining only in heavy cavalry in Europe - cuirassiers.



Fig. 44. Early cuirassier helmet. Nuremberg. Around 1610-1620




Fig. 45. Arkebusersky helmet. England. Weight 2 kg. Around 1630-1640




Fig. 46. Siege helmet for escalade (assault on the walls with the use of ladders). France. Weight 10,17 kg. Around 1650-1670




Fig. 47. Armor with cuirassier helmet of King Pedro II of Portugal. Weight (total) 19,6 kg. 1683


The approach to the formation of armies has changed significantly: if in the previous era, knights needed years of training and a lot of equipment to master cold weapons, the appearance of firearms turned everything upside down. The cost of training and equipping a combat unit for effective combat has declined dramatically. No more need for expensive armor. For several centuries, helmets are practically out of use. However, at the beginning of the 20th century, they reappear in the military - already in the form of well-known helmets.



German helmets M-17 and M-18 since the Second World War. Photo of the end of 30's.


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  1. Papakiko
    Papakiko 23 September 2014 10: 02
    +5
    Well done !!!!
    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
    What is missing is only an analysis of the application and what caused the "invention" of each and the next type of helmets.
  2. bazilio
    bazilio 23 September 2014 11: 28
    +5
    Thanks to the author, good article, great photos.
    I recalled the joke-the knight in Butovo cleaned the visor))
  3. abrakadabre
    abrakadabre 23 September 2014 11: 35
    +2
    If in the first part of the article the author still tried to reveal exactly the evolution of the development of helmets, then in the second part there is only an enumeration of the main types of European helmets.
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 23 September 2014 19: 59
      +2
      Quote: abrakadabre
      If in the first part of the article the author still tried to reveal exactly the evolution of the development of helmets, then in the second part there is only an enumeration of the main types of European helmets.


      I agree, but all the same to the author - thanks and "+".

      Since the author has not signed the last photo, I will insert five of my cents. wassat

      In the last photo we see the MICH / ACH helmet.
      The ACH helmet (Advanced Combat Helmet) replaced the standard army helmet PASGT, it is less weight, more comfortable, better adapted to other elements of equipment, the new helmet is a platform for installing night vision devices, aiming, communications, navigation, displays for self-monitoring and for information output.
      This helmet differs from PASGT in shape. It is 8% smaller in area, while its anti-shatter resistance is increased by 6%, impact resistance - by 40%. The reliability of fixing the new helmet on the head is increased 7 times, which is achieved by installing a new sub-neck system, so you can even jump in it with a parachute.
      So far, it has been possible to reduce the mass of the helmet on the 220.
      The weight of size L is 1,25 kg. *
      The ballistic protection of the helmet has also always been subject to increased requirements.
      However, the actual level of anti-fragmentation protection, having reached a value of 650 m / s (according to the standard FSP fragment with a mass of 1,1 g), has remained unchanged for many years.
      All helmets, including PASGT, MICH, ACH, LWH, TBN as standard do not exceed this level of anti-splinter protection.
      Recently, the helmet began to make demands on bulletproof durability.
      But even these requirements are limited to a bullet of the caliber 9mm (with a lead core) with an impact speed of 420 m / s.
      It should be noted that in the United States and other countries there are helmet designs with a higher level of protection.
      So the Gentex company, as well as its competitor SPA (USA), has long had helmets of the PASGT type with a protection level of 680m / s and higher.
      However, they weigh more than 1,6 kg (average size M) and were not accepted as a combined arms helmet. *

      * - In order not to go into details, I note that the M6 MICH / ACH Helmets from Zebra Armor (manufactured in Durban, South Africa) have the following characteristics -

      Protection class ------------------ V50 STANAG 2920 (17 Grains) ------ Type of weapon, caliber
      IIIA (NIJ Level Equivalent) ---- 610 m / s (2000 ft / s) --------------- 9mm FMJ RN
      -------------------------------------------------- ---------------. 44 Magnum SJHP

      The weight of the M6 MICH ranges from 1,4 kg (average size) to 1.63 kg (Very
      big size). This model uses a new, more advanced
      Kevlar type and provides increased protection against pistol
      cartridges. hi
      1. Kir
        Kir 23 September 2014 20: 48
        0
        By the way, somehow on television there was a series of programs on personal protection, including helmets of the new era, since the authors themselves were representatives of the English world (which they will not undertake to state, since I don’t remember so accurately) they themselves pointed to a number of shortcomings of helmets SGA since the Second World War, and perhaps one of the main ones is that if you don’t fasten the mount, then it can slip onto your face if the maneuver is unsuccessful, which is not noticed by the German and oddly Our specimens. But I didn’t understand how much I didn’t meet information on Kevlar, because, as far as I remember, there were only two Kevlars at that time, the third type of Aramid from the same dupont developer had a different patent name, and then there are doubts it’s not whether they put our pendant or thurlon, just taking into account purchases from other countries only what they themselves are not able to make, they don’t take it, and even this is certified with creaking, and they bought Par-Aramids from us. Yes, and the strength of the fabric depends on the type of weaving, and as you know the most durable linen.
        1. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 23 September 2014 23: 15
          0
          Quote: Kir
          , which is not seen behind the German and, oddly enough, by our samples.


          If we look closely at the American helmet (or rather the development line of American helmets), we will see that these are replicas of the Wehrmacht helmet.
          The Soviet helmet developed a whole research institute, they calculated ballistics so that the bullet and the shrapnel ricocheted.



          Quote: Kir
          But I didn’t understand how much I didn’t find information on Kevlar, because, as far as I remember, there were only two Kevlar-90s, and the third type of Aramid from the same dupont developer had another patented name, and then there are doubts it’s not whether they put our pendant or thurlon, just given the purchases from other countries only that they themselves are not able to make


          Kamrad, I'm afraid to disappoint you, the largest producers of this material are -

          - DuPont USA, like the name of the company "Nomex", produces Kevlar;
          - "Teijin Aramid" is a Japanese-Dutch company that produces twaron in the Netherlands;
          - "Karmal" French Sabbath;
          and I heard something about South Korea that I’m not going to lie, I didn’t hold it in my hands.

          Quote: Kir
          and then there are doubts if they put our pendant or thurlon


          In the USSR, in Belarus they did oxalon (they call him in the West - our analogue of their nomex).
          Now near Rostov figachat, and not sucks.

          amersky helmet -


          German helmet - (nothing is new under the Moon wink )
          1. Kir
            Kir 24 September 2014 02: 56
            0
            Well, let's start with the fact that at one time, later in the USSR, in the line of Aramid fiber, we surpassed SHA, and our analogue was CBM fiber, but it is not the most domestic aramid fiber, with regards to Terlon, it is derived from "Tver chemical fiber" , and here is what I mentioned above:
            The largest scatter is caused by fibers of Russian origin. Those fibers that are produced in America and in European countries, as well as in the Japanese state, have a strength expressed in the rate of 310 ± 30 kg / mm. While Russian-made fibers from 310 are Terlon and up to 500 are Armos. Based on this, it is chemists from Russia who own the record for the strength of aramid fiber, which is produced in a series. These figures look especially impressive if we recall the fact that the gap between low-carbon steel is about 50-60 kg / mm2, and the strongest high-alloy grades are about 250 kg / mm2. Based on this, it is obvious that aramid is 5 times stronger than steel. It is easier, and its density does not exceed the lowest rates with respect to steel.

            Thus, soft armored armor can provide protection according to GOST 1 and 2 classes, in addition, protection against fragments and bullets fired from a revolver (this corresponds to II-A and II NIJ classes). But to make armor from the fabrics, which protects against bullets fired from machine guns and rifles, turned out to be unrealistic. This is due to the fact that the bullets have too much kinetic energy and their shape of a pointed property contributes to the spreading of tissue fibers. Such manipulations lead to a sharp decrease in the effectiveness of such armor. In addition, a serious problem facing manufacturers is that soft armor must be protected from cold steel. Aramid fabric fiber is cut with a knife, but with great difficulty. And to pierce this fabric, using, for example, an awl, is not difficult. Thus, when using sharp bullets fired from an automatic rifle or rifle, the awl pushes the fibrous component of the fabric without any problems and nullifies its strength. Relatively reliable protection against bladed cold weapons is provided due to the large number of layers, however, they cannot be protected from devices such as a stylet and sharpening. A soft body armor can be destroyed (pierced) by a bladed type cold steel with a certain force of impact on the strength and shape of the blade. Also, in addition to poor protection against cold weapons, soft armor has two drawbacks: fear of water and premature wear. Aramid tissues for the most part lose up to 35% of their strength (if the fabric dries, it must be restored). The time factor also affects the strength of the fibers, but this time in an irreversible manner. In practice, the warranty period for soft armor is five years from the date of manufacture.

            I hope this convinces you ?, but with regards to Coulomb and Oxalon, all the more so as it appears from the text on the one hand, they call it Arselon, and it has been mass-produced since 1975! could forget the name of the best Aramid fiber I don’t understand.
            With regards to helmets, they talked about the army, and judging by the color, you brought either the FBI or the police, then the American who was brought in what year ?, while the time interval was indicated starting from the times of World War II.
            1. Karlsonn
              Karlsonn 24 September 2014 06: 18
              0
              Quote: Kir
              The largest scatter is caused by fibers of Russian origin. Those fibers that are produced in America and in European countries, as well as in the Japanese state, have a strength expressed in terms of 310 ± 30 kg / mm. While Russian-made fibers from 310 are Terlon fiber and before 500 it is Armos. Based on this, it is chemists from Russia who own the record for the strength of aramid fiber, which is produced in a series.

              The scatter is caused by what the material is actually made for tennis rackets, for the manufacture of hulls of marine yachts or for ballistic protection.
              I won’t say anything for the record, because all the advanced models of both domestic and foreign production are not personally available to me. crying
              And I don’t see any reason to discuss who was cooler than 20 years ago.
              Quote: Kir
              Thus, soft armored armor can provide protection according to 1 and 2 class GOST, in addition, protection against fragments and bullets fired from a revolver (this corresponds to II-A and II NIJ classes). But to make armor from the fabrics, which protects against bullets fired from machine guns and rifles, turned out to be unrealistic.

              Soft armor works great against soft bullets. A bullet with a steel core made of TT OR PSM is already "working".
              Quote: Kir
              . This is due to the fact that the bullets have too much kinetic energy and their shape of a pointed property contributes to the spreading of tissue fibers. Such manipulations lead to a sharp decrease in the effectiveness of such armor.

              I agree, but I think that we should not forget about such a problem as cross-injury, with which soft armor fights not very buzzing.
              Quote: Kir
              In addition, a serious problem facing manufacturers is that soft armor must be protected from cold steel. Aramid fabric fiber is cut with a knife, but with great difficulty. And to pierce this fabric, using, for example, an awl, is not difficult.

              I will disappoint you - Dupont makes excellent Kevlar vests against cold steel weapons such as awl or sharpening, commissioned by the US penitentiary system.
              Quote: Kir
              Also, in addition to poor protection against cold weapons, soft armor has two drawbacks: fear of water

              Dupont made the Dyneim polymer (if I don’t confuse repeat ), which is not afraid of water, but it is sensitive to temperature changes. laughing
              1. Karlsonn
                Karlsonn 24 September 2014 06: 21
                0
                Quote: Kir
                and premature wear.

                Well, dynamic protection on tanks is finally one-time - you have to compromise.
                Quote: Kir
                I hope this convinces you?

                Personally, I did not argue with you drinks , but expressed his opinion and corrected a little. It became interesting for me to exchange glances - that's all.
                Quote: Kir
                Yes, and mass-produced already with 1975 year!

                I am aware - I was born in the city where they started releasing it a year later, though I found out about this much later. wink
                Quote: Kir
                With regards to helmets, they talked about the army, and you brought judging by the color of either the FBI or the police

                the color of the helmet doesn’t affect the speed, the helmet is dressed in a cover in the current season and terrain, the FBI began to use the helmet and the police do not cancel the fact that the PASGT system (helmet in particular) was designed and manufactured for the army, policemen and federals only then fell on the tail.
                Quote: Kir
                then what American cited year ?, while the time interval was indicated starting from the time of the 2-th World.

                I commented on the last photo of the author, he didn’t explain what kind of helmet it was, then as a proof of my thesis (that the Americans pioneered the concept of a helmet among Germans) I hung up a photo of a helmet of the previous generation, what’s wrong?
                How do the last photos in the article fit into the interval from the beginning of time to the 2-th World?
                Photo of the PASGT army helmet in the Woodland cover, under it the helmet can be of any color. wink
          2. Kir
            Kir 24 September 2014 03: 09
            +1
            I apologize that in two passes, But the main result.

            High Strength High Modulus Yarn Armos

            The Armos thread has unique strength and high modulus properties and belongs to the so-called third-generation fibers.

            Specifications:

            Density, g / cm3 ............................................. .............................. 1,42-
            1,45

            The tensile strength of the thread SN ............................................ 230 -270

            Elongation of the thread at break,% ............................................ ..... 2,5-3,5

            Dynamic modulus of elasticity of threads, GPa .............................. 150-160

            According to its physical and mechanical properties, the Armos thread has advantages over foreign analogues.

            Temperature characteristics of the Armos thread

            Preservation of strength in the temperature range




            up to 100 ° C


            88-90%

            up to 200 ° C


            70-75%

            The temperature of continuous operation is


            250-270 ° С

            Operating temperature limit


            300-325 ° С

            Preservation of strength for 10 hours is:




            - at 250 ° C


            95-96%

            at 275 ° C


            88-90%

            at 300 ° C


            60-70%

            Preservation of dimensional stability at temperature


            300-350 ° С

            Oxygen Index,%


            39-42

            Flame resistance up to


            5OO-55O ° C

            Moisture absorption under conditioned conditions,%


            3,0-5,5

            Resistance to radiation, light weather and active media.




            Swelling in water,%


            12-17

            The preservation of strength is,%


            85-89


            These indicators are reversible.

            Armos is a biostable material.

            The noted properties allow Armos to be used in high-strength composite materials, for aviation, rocket and space technology, body armor and other means of soft armor protection, in organocomposites, tires, for the manufacture of hoses, high-pressure hoses, cables, ropes, drive belts, etc.

            Here is such a picture
            1. Karlsonn
              Karlsonn 24 September 2014 06: 26
              0
              Quote: Kir
              Here is such a picture


              I am personally interested in the purely practical side of the issue, such as how it keeps shrapnel bullets, how much it costs and where to buy repeat , but for clarification - thanks and "+".

              I hope not further communication. drinks
              1. terrible
                terrible 24 September 2014 07: 34
                0
                ) who was going to fight with) kuevlyanin)))
                1. Karlsonn
                  Karlsonn 24 September 2014 08: 29
                  0
                  Quote: formidable
                  ) who was going to fight with


                  weird question.

                  Quote: formidable
                  kuevlyanin)))


                  I am a resident of Kiev, I think that irony is not appropriate here.
                  Do not like Kiev or what?
              2. Kir
                Kir 24 September 2014 09: 56
                +1
                The latter is taken from the manufacturer's website and how much I understood (I just did not read it) and it is quite possible that the developer of this fiber, given the localization, in other words, buy "yarn", well, and then yourself hi
                With regards to the first one from the site of Fusion, it’s just a trading office with finished products, well, actually their site is kevlara.net
                According to Dupont, I’ll say that once she has developed it, she will beat off the grandmother to the last, using it wherever possible, just look at his other offspring - Teflon, typical of the West and especially for the SGA picture.
  4. Arzamas
    Arzamas 23 September 2014 14: 56
    -1
    Ukram should put into service such helmets as in "Fig.36"
    1. terrible
      terrible 24 September 2014 07: 37
      -1
      ))) in kuev fashionable in pans and colanders to jump)))))
    2. terrible
      terrible 24 September 2014 07: 37
      0
      ))) in kuev fashionable in pans and colanders to jump)))))
      1. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 24 September 2014 08: 30
        0
        Quote: formidable
        ))) in kuev fashionable in pans and colanders to jump)))))


        What did you personally annoy with Kiev?
  5. terrible
    terrible 24 September 2014 07: 39
    0
    In February on the Maidan drove fools in similar helmets, as in the article)))
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 24 September 2014 08: 31
      0
      Quote: formidable
      In February on the Maidan drove fools in similar helmets, as in the article)))


      About 80-t back in Rome, Madrid and Berlin, the Nazis also drove what?
  6. abrakadabre
    abrakadabre 24 September 2014 11: 29
    +3
    To make a sane analysis of the development of military helmets of the Middle Ages, which, as I understand it, the author thought about the article, it is necessary not only to show a number of helmets over the centuries, but it is necessary to take into account and highlight such moments as:
    - in what complex of armor did these helmets exist,
    - why did these helmets serve?
    - against which weapons were defended,
    - What was the tactic of using in battle those people who wore these helmets.

    For example:
    Let's take topfhelm - a pot helmet or the famous "bucket" and analyze it in detail.
    Evolved from an alternative to the standard Norman helmet helmet tablet (pothelm), which was much easier to manufacture with adequate strength. This happened in the era of the first crusades. It is difficult to judge what is associated with the growing popularity of pothelm among knights, people who are mostly not poor. Perhaps with the fact that large military contingents were constantly moving across Europe towards Palestine, and they required quick staffing with armor. Pothelm is an order of magnitude less time-consuming to manufacture.
    Gradually, they tried to strengthen the pothelm more and more in the direction - nasal -> half mask -> mask -> mask + butt -> closing of the mask and butt -> lowering the lower edge to transfer the support to the shoulders. The last two stages of evolution are already a pot helmet.
  7. abrakadabre
    abrakadabre 24 September 2014 11: 32
    +3
    Now for all the above points.
    “A pot helmet is a helmet of a knight, that is, a heavy cavalryman.”
    - The main tactic in battle is a ram strike with a spear in a closed formation (against the enemy infantry, in a sparse formation against the same knights, so that you can leave without being killed in a head-on collision), which overturns and disperses the battle formations of the enemy. After a spear strike, fragments of the spear were thrown out (or used as a club in hand-to-hand combat) and the further battle was fought with a blade weapon.
    A knight’s spear, unlike an infantry spear, is specially made brittle, so that when colliding with an obstacle (an enemy knight or his horse, several infantry mounted on the spearhead, ricochets into the ground) at high speed (up to 80 km / h in oncoming courses for two attacking each other knights) it broke and allowed the knight to painlessly jump past the hit target, but did not take it out of the saddle or together with the saddle.
    - The armor complex of the middle knight of that time (11-13th century) consisted of: dense quilted clothes and the same hat, softening the blow, long-chain mail with sleeves and a hood (hauberk, or hauberk and coif), chain mail stockings, chain mittens woven to a hauberk or separately dressed, a helmet, a large almond-shaped or elongated triangular shield. Chain mail is very flexible and gives excellent mobility, perfectly saves from cutting impacts, but gives very poor protection against piercing impacts and does not protect against crushing at all.
    Therefore, in the attack, the knight covered himself with a shield, which took upon himself the bulk of enemy attacks, from spears to swords and arrows.
    - Only the head remained unprotected by the shield. Therefore, the enemy tried to throw a spear in the head and the helmet had to withstand and deflect this blow. Hence the enormous massiveness of the topfhelm, with a minimum of holes on the faceplate and its wedge-shaped shape (in later helmets). Visibility and breathing comfort have been sacrificed for maximum durability. For the same, support on the shoulders - in order to survive the blow to the head with a spear and not break the neck. To improve the ricochet in later helmets, the tops became increasingly rounded or tapered until the helmet became a sugarloaf variety. When the fight changed from spear to melee weapons, Topfhelm threw himself off and hung on a chain. For this, the helmet does not have a chin strap. The knight remained in a chain mail hood (early stage), a chain mail hood and cerveler (a little later), or in a bascinet (later stage). This greatly reduced protection, but radically improved visibility and allowed breathing normally in prolonged combat.
    In a potted helmet, intense fighting for more than 5-10 minutes leads to fainting from suffocation or complete temporary disability in any training. Believe me, it was checked personally - 5 minutes of intense physical training in armor and such a helmet and you will already deeply spit on any, the most deadly enemy, all the remnants of thoughts will only be about a breath of air. Topfhelm delightfully holds any blow with a blade, an ax or a mace from any direction (from above, oblique from above, from the side, in the face or back of the head), because it is extremely durable and rests on the shoulders.

    Here is a brief summary. wink
    The author should have stated the material in a similar vein. Then everything in the evolution of helmets falls into place.
  8. Kazanok
    Kazanok 1 October 2014 10: 50
    -1
    very interesting article .... read with pleasure ....