The characteristic of the pre-war era was as follows: the world remained Eurocentric, its geopolitical structure was unstable, new historical players in the person of the USA, the USSR, the global financial and industrial backstage were included in the world processes. However, by the beginning of the war, the Soviet Union did not have a global status and influence on the formation of world processes and could have little influence on European politics. Here the main subject was the West. Fortunately for the peoples of the USSR, the West was divided, because it was based on two opposing cultural and civilizational matrices: the Roman-Germanic and Anglo-Saxon. In addition, there was a hidden struggle between the United States and Britain for leadership in the global ocean zone and the sharpest struggle between Germany and France in Europe. The “World Backstage” (a constituent element of the western range), in anticipation of the huge profits, encouraged the military preparations of the leading countries of the West. And although the West has shaped the world processes, however, neither America nor Europe has been able to offer humanity new constructive ideas for its development, the meaning of life, the philosophy of international relations.
The West only offered war. For the redistribution of colonies, the conquest of new territories and resources, for new superprofits. The talented German philosopher W. Schubart in the 1938 year in his work “Europe and the Soul of the East” described the state of the western range in such a way: “... in Europe there are symptoms of cultural fatigue, satiety, spiritual decline ... The European continent is embracing growing concern. The West has presented humanity with the most advanced types of technology, statehood, but has deprived it of its soul. ” And further: “The grandiose event that is being prepared is the rise of the Slavs as a leading cultural force. Perhaps this hurts someone, but this is the fate of history that no one can stop: the centuries to come belong to the Slavs. ” (Shubart V. Europe and the soul of the East. M., 2003, p. 29). Schubart drew his conclusions on the basis of the incomprehensible successes of Soviet Russia, the growth of international sympathy for the country of socialism. Therefore, the West had another reason for the war: to stop the "ascent of the Slavs", both in Europe (the Balkans, Czechoslovakia, Poland) and in the East (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine). It is not by chance that the plan “Ost”, approved by Himmler 12 June 1942, provided for the destruction of 30 million. Russians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, evictions from captured territories to 71 million person, including 85 percent. Poles, 65 percent. Ukrainians, 75 percent. Belarusians, 50 percent. Czechs. (N. Kikeshov Slavs against fascism. M., 2005, p. 453). With the Balkan Slavs, the Nazis to 1942 already figured out, however, as it turned out, not to the end. The Soviet leadership actually realized the threat of war with the West, the danger of fascism, which was clearly stated by 16 December 1933 of the year in Pravda: "... the fascists are striving for a new redivision of the world, they are pursuing a course of aggression around the world." The main task for the USSR in the pre-war years was to stop the war through the creation of a collective security system in Europe, through bilateral and multilateral agreements. That same December 1933 Central Committee VKPb adopts a resolution on the deployment of the struggle for collective security in Europe, in 1934. The USSR proposes to conclude the Eastern Pact on mutual assistance with the participation of Czechoslovakia, Finland, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, the USSR and separately with France. But the main European countries are doing everything they can to ensure that no agreement takes place (French Foreign Minister L. Bartou supported the Soviet initiatives and was immediately massacred). France and Britain tried with all their might to send Hitler to the East, intending, in this way, to solve the problems of both Germany and Russia. Those who in the West are trying to put the USSR and Germany on one level, Stalin and Hitler, I recommend to pick up Time magazine from January 2 from 1939. On the front cover of the Führer's portrait and pretentious message: Hitler is recognized as “Man of the Year-1938” (after Munich), in an article devoted to this “event”, besides laudatory phrases, the hope is expressed that 1939 is for the Fuhrer will be even more successful. Once again I turn to the German I respected Walter Schubart, in the 1938 year: “The question is not so: The Third Reich or the Third International, Fascism or Bolshevism. No, we are talking about the global historical conflict between part of the world Europe and part of the world Russia, between the Western European and Eurasian continents ”(ibid., P. 453). And this is a big geopolitics, and the British-American version (X. Mackinder and A. Mahan), affirming the eternal focus of the naval powers on the inevitable conquest or destruction of the "heartland", that is to say Russia. The same authors persistently trumpeted to prevent the union of continental Russia and Germany, as deadly for the United States and Britain. And Lloyd George, when he was prime minister of England, appealed to his king and parliament: "The traditions and vital interests of England require the destruction of the Russian empire in order to secure British rule in India and realize British interests in Transcaucasia and Western Asia" (Martirosyan A. Behind the scenes of the Munich Agreement. M., 2008, p. 15). So not the confrontation of Stalin and Hitler, or their collusion led to World War II, but the geopolitics of the countries of the West.
Britain, with all its interest in European problems, considered the security of mandated territories, primarily India, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, etc., to be the main concern. In Europe, it sought to prevent the creation of a single anti-British alliance, which was mainly solved by maintaining tensions in relations Germany and France.
British geopolitics was developed precisely as a response to the growing power of Germany and its demands to revise the colonial world in its favor. The actual encouragement of German aggression was most likely associated with hopes for a war with the USSR.
Another characteristic feature of the prewar Western world was the intensive formation of fascist regimes (Italy, Germany, Spain, Portugal) and the spread of the ideology of fascism, caused by the outcome of the First World War and the global crisis of capitalism. And let me remind you that the financial oligarch of the West was behind the preparation of a new world war. And Hitler is a product of Western geopolitical constructions, and not a reaction to Soviet politics, to Bolshevism. Most of all, financial movers of the West and the British political elite were interested in Hitler.
And one more shadow factor was present on the threshold of the Second World War - the religious one. In Hitler, the hierarchs of the western branch of Christianity saw an instrument for the conquest of the Orthodox space weakened by the revolution and the Soviet power. As in 90-s. XX century, in 30-s. The Vatican actively "worked" in the Balkans to undermine the Orthodox faith and implant Catholicism. Hitler was fostered by virtually all branches of the Western Christian area, aiming him at the East, realizing that, despite atheistic rhetoric, the updated geopolitical concept of the Third Rome was being implemented in Soviet Russia. JVStalin, beginning with 1934, gradually unfolds a political ideology from internationalism to Russian tradition, to national values and interests. Military ranks are introduced into the army, the transfer from the territorial-militia system of recruitment and training of the armed forces to the principles of a mass army cadre is approved, unity of command is approved, with the abolition of the institute of commissars. The same is read in the civil sphere. In the country's leadership, there is a growing understanding of the inevitability of a clash with the West, for reasons not at all ideological, but geopolitical. But the West also clearly understands that the Russian state, more powerful than the Russian Empire, is being reborn in the USSR, destroying the dreams of the capitalist world, above all the Anglo-Saxons, of world domination. The great Englishman A. Toynbee testifies: “Aggression for centuries is the only form of communication between the West and the outside world ... chronicles of the centuries-old struggle between the two branches of Christianity, perhaps, really reflect that the Russians were the victims of aggression, and the people of the West were the aggressors” (Toynbey A. Civilizations before the trial of history. M., 1996, p. 106).
The Soviet Union, realizing that it is facing a mortal threat of a strike against the united Europe from the western strategic direction and Japan - from the east, is taking a series of measures of a military, economic and political-diplomatic nature, with the sole aim: to survive. There can be no talk of any world revolution, or of a preventive strike. What exactly is JV Stalin doing? First, it is boosting the buildup of military-industrial potential and the preparation of the armed forces for war.
Secondly, it again insistently proposes the creation of a collective security system in Europe. Third: after the refusal of London and Paris to conclude an anti-Hitler pact concludes a pact with Hitler (August 23 1939), returns a part of the territories that were part of the Russian Empire, thereby pushing the border of security by several hundred kilometers; concludes a neutrality pact with Japan.
So, on the fields of the upcoming battles three political and ideological systems came together: liberalism, fascism and socialism. Behind them, respectively, were religious systems, as well as financial, fascist and communist internationals. Each system had corresponding geopolitical concepts. Moreover, as early as 1925, the future Führer at Mein Kampf, contrary to the conclusions of German geopolitics (F. Ratzel, K. Haushofer), military strategists and Bismarck’s testament, clearly outlined: Italy and England are allies of Germany, France is a deadly offender, and Russia is the main object of aggression: “When we talk about the conquest of new lands in Europe, we, of course, mean only Russia” (Hitler A. My struggle. Ashkhabat, 1992, p. 566).
Objectives of the parties: Anglo-Saxon geopolitical doctrine aimed at absolute world domination; German - on the fascist world order, with the absolute dominance of the Aryan race, the fascist form of power on the entire planet and the hierarchical status pyramid of all the other peoples of the earth, depending on the color of skin, blood, and the level of “civilization”. The Soviet geopolitical doctrine provided for a radical change in the existing world order in favor of social justice, a different meaning of human life (priority of community and spiritual values), equality of all peoples, a world without wars and annexations. But the Soviet elite (after the expulsion of Trotsky) did not set goals to control humanity, especially to dominate him. I invite you to confirm my thesis of the prominent British historian A. Taylor: “The Russians did not seek to rule, did not want to spread communism. They wanted security, and only the Communists and their fellow travelers could provide it ”(Taylor A. The Second World War. M., 1955, p. 539).
22 June 1941 The geopolitical situation has changed radically: the USSR, socialism, the Russian people became the last human hope for salvation from the brown plague. For the first time in human history, all nations of the world prayed for a Russian soldier. Realizing that there was a bobble with Hitler, W. Churchill already 22 June 1941, addressing the nation, said: “No one was more stubborn opponent of communism than I ... But now all this recedes into the background in the face of unfolding events. The danger threatening Russia is a danger threatening us and the United States. ” 24 Jun says similar to the Americans. US President F. Roosevelt. And even the London Times in an 22 editorial on December 1941 writes: “The battle on the eastern front is the core of the whole war. Ultimately, it all depends on her. " In response to the panic moods of the Western world, Moscow sounded firm: “Our cause is just. The enemy will be defeated. Victory will be ours". I dare to assert that the geopolitical status of the Soviet Union 22 June 1941 gained the first step in the world hierarchy.
The war sucked into its bloody orbit the 61 state, 80 percent. population of the planet, put under the gun almost 110 million people, hostilities swept almost all continents. All the peoples of the world to some extent fought for their interests. But only the Soviet people fought for the interests of all mankind. The messianic essence of the Russian man (according to Dostoevsky, universal, universal) became necessary in the summer of 1941. The results of the Russian Victory became the main event of the twentieth century.
During the war I.V. Stalin, in order to strengthen the international and internal position of the USSR:
- abolished the headquarters of the international communist movement - the Comintern;
- changed the anthem of the Soviet Union, in which the refrain sounded the words: "... the great Russia has forever rallied";
- established business relations with US President F. D. Roosevelt;
- The delegation of the USSR actively worked on the UN project.
The support of the world communist movement in the postwar years was purely political.
The emphasis was on real support for the national liberation movement.
Qualitative changes occurred in the Soviet Union:
- The USSR “put on” the jersey of the leader of most of humanity and headed the construction of another type of society;
- basically, the struggle of two lines to build socialism in the USSR ended;
- the Soviet leadership was faced with the question of the theory of socialist construction on a global scale;
- During the war years, Stalin proved himself to be the greatest and generally recognized geopolitics of the world. He returned the country to the Russian geopolitical doctrine.
The toast of I.V. Stalin 24 in May 1945 for the health of the Russian people asserted the priority of national over cosmopolitan internationalism, returned to the Russian people the state-forming role, declared the USSR as a Russian state.
Victory changed the world, gave it a new quality:
- The western division of peoples into wild, barbaric and civilized has gone down in history (namely, the so-called barbarian ethnic groups made a decisive contribution to the defeat of fascism). Today's China, India, the Arab world (the same Libya) became independent, thanks to the Russian Victory;
- the unstable Eurocentric model of the world order has gone down in history, it was replaced by a bipolar model;
- peoples have the opportunity to choose their own path of development;
- an effective system of international security was created, the basis of which was the universal international organization - the UN; the world was built on a balance of power;
- The USSR was recognized as the leader of most of humanity, socialism the most effective model for the development of countries and peoples.
All this made a simple Russian soldier. Earthly bow to him on behalf of humanity. And finally, for young people: the war did not stop the spiritual, cultural, intellectual development of the Soviet people. Created great music, literature, improved weaponscientific discoveries were made, geological parties discovered new deposits. In 1944, metro lines were built in 1,5 more times than today. And this is another piece of Victory.