For nearly a hundred years, the Russo-Japanese War is considered to be a national disgrace

May 27, 1905 Russian 2nd Pacific Squadron fleet under the command of Vice Admiral Rozhdestvensky suffered a crushing defeat in the Tsushima Strait from the Imperial Navy of Japan. It was this battle and the defeat of the Russian flotilla that set the last point in the inglorious, according to many, the Russo-Japanese war, a harbinger of impending troubles.




Myth

For well-known and obvious reasons, the description of the Russian-Japanese war in domestic historiography is extremely ideological in nature, and the inertia of the Soviet attitudes is still felt. Every schoolchild knows that the defeats on the front of the Russo-Japanese War have undermined the already “rotten tsarism”, respectively, accelerating the process of “popular indignation” that was gaining momentum. However, the revolution began in January 1905, that is, four months before Tsushima and seven months before the signing of the peace treaty.

Foreign countries will help us

Until the end of the war is still very far away, its outcome is unclear, there is no talk of any defeat yet, but nevertheless strikes start throughout the country, then a real terrorist war unfolds. Militants pursue mayors, officers, large manufacturers, even policemen. Under the blow are people known throughout Russia. So, 4 February 1905, the son of Alexander II - Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich was killed by a terrorist, and a prominent statesman Earl Shuvalov was shot on June 28. Shortly before this, the sailors of the battleship Potemkin rebelled, a rebellion broke out a little earlier in the Polish city of Lodz. In this regard, it is interesting to see where the revolutionaries came from. weapon.

So, I'll start with the famous stories about the steamer "John Grafton". In London, a steamship was bought to deliver weapons to the revolutionaries (see the scale). Several thousand small arms (in particular, Swiss Vetterli rifles), ammunition and explosives were loaded onto it. The ship arrived first in Copenhagen, then in Stockholm (the Japanese embassy moved there from Russia at the beginning of the war), and then sailed to the shores of Finland, where it ran aground. The team unloaded weapons on the neighboring islands, but most of them did not reach the addressee. Nevertheless, during one of the key episodes of the 1905 revolution of the year - the December uprising in Moscow, the police recorded that some of its participants were armed with Vetterli rifles.

Who was the organizer and direct participant of this operation? The headquarters was in London. And here is a list of people involved in the case.

Wilson is chairman of the British Mariners' Union, member of the British Parliament. Akashi is a Japanese military attache in Stockholm. Strautman (captain of the steamer, a member of the London-based SDLP group in London), Wagner (worked at the glass factory in Wulwich), Mink (lived for many years among immigrants in London on Commercial Road), Strauss (in the spring of 1906-i went to Libau with transport weapons for the Baltic region, was arrested and hanged), Kristaps (later served in the intelligence service of the Red Army). Zilliakus (one of the leaders of the Finnish Party of Active Resistance), Lehtinen (later a member of the CPSU (b). Social Revolutionaries Tchaikovsky, Teplov, Volkhovsky, Cherkezishvili, Rutenberg, Bolsheviks Litvinov and Burenin. As you can see, the struggle against Russian statehood was joined by completely heterogeneous forces.

Here is the second, no less famous story about the supply of weapons to revolutionaries. Another ship, the Sirius, is bought, it is also loaded with weapons - 8,5, thousands of Vetterly rifles and a large quantity of cartridges (data spread from 1,2 to 2 million units). The ship sailed from Amsterdam to the shores near the city of Poti. "Sirius" arrived at the place where its contents were loaded onto four longboats, and they spread like cockroaches. Something that our border guards intercepted, but a significant part of the weapons to the revolutionaries still came.

It is clear that war is first and foremost a struggle between systems, economies, industry and resources in general. So, the entire war to Japan went coal supplies from Britain, there were purchased warships, arms exports from the United States, which began even before the war, increased dramatically in the 1905 year. The question arises, with what money did the Japanese make a militarizing dash? Basically, on American and British, it was the United States and Britain that provided Japan with appropriate loans. In general, Japan covered 40% of its military spending with foreign loans.

This is only a tiny fraction of the vast array of facts that clearly indicate that Russia was fighting, in fact, not with Japan, but with a coalition that included the largest, richest and most powerful countries in the world - the British Empire and the United States. Japan by and large only provided manpower for the war, but weapons, money, energy resources, that is, everything that plays a decisive role in the wars of the industrial era, provided a truly developed and strong powers.

It is noteworthy that 30 January 1902 was signed the Anglo-Japanese agreement, according to which England could come to the aid of Japan only if Japan wages war with two (and more) countries at the same time. But the war seems to be Russian-Japanese. That is, Japan fought only with Russia. So? Not this way. Montenegro declared war on the Japanese. Perhaps this decision lobbied London through its diplomatic channels. After all, Russia received no more or less serious support from the Balkan country.

Backward empire

When it comes to the Russian-Japanese War, a cliché about “technical backwardness of Russia” always pops up. True, it usually does not indicate from whom Russia lagged behind. Since Japan is constantly mentioned and the war itself is called the Russian-Japanese, it is logical to conclude that it means lagging behind the real rival. When there is a belief that Russia lagged behind the Land of the Rising Sun, more global conclusions about the “rottenness of the Russian Empire” are already automatically made.

What is the objective side of the question? The fact is that Japan was largely armed with Western weapons, and, as mentioned above, it received money for militarization in the same place in the West. So if you can talk about the backwardness of Russia, it’s not from Japan, but from the most developed countries of the West. On the contrary, Russia was much more powerful than Japan, including in the industrial and — more broadly — economically, overtaking the enemy and in terms of the development of the military-industrial complex. By the way, Russia also bought weapons in the West, which makes the thesis about lagging behind Japan even more ridiculous. Both countries acquired weapons from the most developed countries of the world. Nevertheless, for more than a hundred years, our country has been in the grip of black PR, according to which “backward and rotten Russia” could not even cope with Japan. The Russian-Japanese war is considered to be the beginning of all the troubles that befell Russia in the 20th century.

Why is this strange myth so tenacious?

The answer is simple. It was adopted by anti-state journalism even before the 1917 revolution of the year. After this, the stamps of Bolshevik and revolutionary propaganda became part of the official state ideology, and people have been brainwashed for decades. Relevant textbooks, books, articles, “historical” works, and so on were written. Over the years, stamps have become perceived as a self-evident truth.

Japan needs peace

But the mythology of the Russo-Japanese War is by no means limited to inventions about Russia's technical backwardness. During negotiations with Russia, a meeting of representatives of the highest authorities of Japan was held. Present were the emperor, genro, cabinet representatives and senior military officials. War Minister Terauti then declared that the war could not continue any longer, since there were not enough officers. Finance Minister Sone said that it was impossible to continue the war because there was no money for that, he was supported by other participants in the meeting. The head of the army headquarters, Yamagata, said that the only way out was to make peace. The general conclusion of the meeting: Japan needs peace.

A prominent historian, professor Syumpei Okamoto, appreciated the martial law of Japan as follows: “It is obvious that the military prospects of Japan were dismal. At that time, the Russian army was three times stronger than the Japanese. While the Japanese army was controlled mainly by reserve officers, since most of the regular officers were killed or wounded, the Russian army was mainly composed of first-class military personnel who had recently arrived from Europe. ”

By the way, for those who believe in screaming about the “shamefully and foolishly” lost Mukden battle, I will again quote Syumpei Okamoto: “The battle was fierce, it ended on March 10 with the victory of Japan. But it was a very uncertain victory, since the losses of Japan reached the 72 008 people. Russian troops retreated to the north, "maintaining order," and began to prepare for the offensive, while reinforcements were all arriving. At the imperial headquarters, it became clear that Russia's military might was greatly underestimated and that up to a million Russian soldiers could be in northern Manchuria. Russia's financial capabilities also far exceeded those of Japan ... After the “calculated retreat,” Russian forces replenished their military might on the Manchurian border. ”

We should not forget that the population of Japan was three times less than the Russian one; accordingly, its mobilization potential was significantly lower than the capabilities of our country. Japan had no illusions about its forces. Pre-war calculations showed that resources would be enough for a year of hostilities, which, in fact, was confirmed, since in reality Japan barely lasted a year and a half, and this was largely due to the revolution that had developed in Russia. Thus, from the very beginning, all of Japan’s hope was for a blitzkrieg, for a quick victory, until Russia pulled the main forces towards Manchuria. But to break the Russian army with poltychka failed. On the battlefields, the Japanese were losing much more Russians in manpower, while Russia increased the capacity of its railroad and quickly built up a group of troops well-secured and armed, seeking numerical superiority. In Vladivostok even managed to transfer submarines.

That is, as a result of “endless shameful defeats”, Tsushima, Mukden, the surrender of Port Arthur, our army was much stronger than the Japanese by the time of the peace negotiations, and the Japanese did not have enough funds or soldiers to continue the war. The first offer to make peace was followed by the Japanese back in 1904. And only the revolutionary events unfolding in the country forced Emperor Nicholas II to go to the world war, which in no way was the result of a military defeat. Our victory was thwarted by people who launched a terrorist war in Russia called the “1905 revolution of the year”, those who had already dreamed of changing the state system in Russia and made all possible efforts to that end.
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  1. Vega
    Vega 17 June 2011 09: 40 New
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    +1
    Thank you, good article.
  2. marsupial
    marsupial 17 June 2011 11: 24 New
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    The history of Japan is almost 150 years old.
    In 1860, the Entente (England, France, Turkey) tortured victory in the Crimea. After that, the defeated Russian Empire annexed Central Asia, the Far East and threatened to smoke small-shavens from India. The exhausted insolents could not oppose anything to this except how to train and arm the samurai. Until 1860, there weren’t even guns at the iphos, but only imported guns, bows and spears like those of the North American Indians. However, the British began to fill the holds of ships with Japanese boys and send to England for training - for free. Then the equipment was imported - for free.
    Just recently, Americans handed atomic reactors to the Ibizan Abyzans ... Just the other day, two Ipadian robots opened the Pandora's box - they opened the door to the station, took pictures of each other, and they were petrified by the radiation from the view of the Gargona
    Now we have FORTY Chernobyl in Japan, with the only difference being that FOUR nuclear volcanoes have turned into FOUR nuclear outstanding volcanoes that heat water that is drained into the ocean with radiation.
    WELCOME JOPANIA
  3. rtgf45
    rtgf45 17 June 2011 11: 44 New
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    And what did the author prove? The question is: how could a more powerful Russia lose to Japan? Judging from the article, the samurai themselves were on the point. How did we manage to lose? The answer is simple. In a caricature of that war, the Japanese depicted the Russian army as follows: soldiers with the heads of lions, officers with the heads of rams, and generals with no heads at all. Right, damn it, were slanting! We, that is not a general, are a masson of some degree there. These bastards with their mediocrity, and even outright betrayal more than compensated for the courage and heroism of ordinary soldiers.
    1. Superduck
      Superduck 17 June 2011 14: 11 New
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      Yes, I read about the system of awarding orders in the Russian army at that time. In short, there was a line of orders that was issued for a bloody battle. There, if 30 people died from the company, then one order and so on up to 100% of the payroll. So, the officers were motivated to ensure that their unit was destroyed as much as possible, in addition, it is worth remembering what age it was and only a few of them considered these peasants as people.
      By the way, my great-grandfather fought in Russian-Japanese, was awarded the St. George Cross, was held captive, apparently in Port Arthur, then went through all the wars that were and, being already of unapproachable age, could not stand it and left as a volunteer with retreating parts of the SA in the 41st and in the 43rd he died during the Battle of Kursk 20km from his native village, but learned about it only in the 82nd year, a human being.
      1. marsupial
        marsupial 17 June 2011 15: 12 New
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        love your grandfather ?, then do not write
        CA
        , and the Red Army in 1941 and the spacecraft in 1943 after entering the epaulette.
        1. Superduck
          Superduck 17 June 2011 15: 19 New
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          A fair remark, though not changing the meaning of the above.
    2. LESHA pancake
      LESHA pancake 17 June 2011 17: 48 New
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      yeah, the current example awarded Gorbachev the first-hand order for services to the West
  4. rumpeljschtizhe
    rumpeljschtizhe 17 June 2011 13: 26 New
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    agree the officer corps was weak
    lack of even a semblance of discipline in it (in the bulk)
    and history history does not tolerate the subjunctive mood
    "if you prolonged the war, then you played .... a little more"
    everything in history is natural
  5. nnz226 17 June 2011 14: 21 New
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    Nonsense! The result of the war: they gave Port_Arthur, half of Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands - Nikolashka 2-th - -Removed-! Having a calm developing country, bring it to revolution - you need to have "talent." Therefore - yes, rotten Russia, since its "personification was the" tsar-father ", who rotted. And the Russian soldiers and sailors, led by officers, demonstrated such courage that even the "cool" descendants of the samurai recognized this. It is enough to recall that the Varyag cruiser, raised by the Japanese, was not renamed (more precisely, the Russian name was not destroyed), it served as a training ship, and Japanese cadets, using the example of the Russian crew, were taught courage and fidelity to duty in moments of mortal combat. Already in the 1941 year, on the ships of the Japanese squadron going to smash Pearl Harbor, officers before the battle performed the ballad "On a warrior who sacrifices himself", created in memory of those killed in Russian bayonet counterattacks near Port Arthur. These are what attacks were, that so influenced the "fragile souls" of the samurai that even after a quarter of a century songs about this were performed by their descendants, who boasted the samurai spirit! But the bestial leadership of Russia is the heroism of Russian warriors. In the history of St. Andrew’s flag, in spite of the Charter given by Peter 1, there were 2 cases of the descent of this flag: in 1828, the frigate "Raphael" (literally a week before the feat of the brig "Mercury" and to Tsushima (maybe there was - not I know), so the commander of "Raphael" was deprived of the nobility by the decree of Nikolai 1, they drove him to the White Sea, they forbade him to marry so that he "didn’t produce cowards," but what did Nikolai 2 do for the delivery of the ships in Tsushima? and here went the decomposition of the army and navy ... which reached 1917 of the year ...
  6. rumpeljschtizhe
    rumpeljschtizhe 18 June 2011 12: 07 New
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    +1
    I agree. After the fight, do not wave their fists
    a fact on the face of a pure defeat and nothing to come up with
  7. DAGESTAN333 18 June 2011 13: 17 New
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    Pure defeat from their traitors within the country.
  8. basal 2 January 2012 19: 25 New
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    Yes, I’ve been half a year late with the discussion, but nonetheless ...
    I myself was brought up on the Soviet history of the Russo-Japanese War - the heroism of soldiers and sailors and the debilizm of generals. Now there are other versions, that's just the question I have.
    He showed interest in the development of battleships, began to study the issue, and became interested in the Russo-Japanese War. The result was amazing! In the imperial fleet of Japan there was not a single ship larger than the destroyer built in Japan (!!!). Moreover, the Russian Pacific Fleet was superior to the Japanese in all respects, both in the quantity and quality of the ships! Even the 2nd squadron, which died under Tsushima, was also more powerful and modern than the entire (!!!) Japanese fleet.
    So I perfectly understand the Japanese, who deservedly consider Admiral Togo a national hero, but for our fleet - an indelible and shameful page of history, anyway. Well, let historians understand the reasons ...
  9. Molot1979 28 June 2017 06: 43 New
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    And what, the defeat was not shameful? Or was it not a defeat at all, but an alternative victory? Yes, and Soviet inertia has nothing to do with it. It is enough to read the studies of the pre-revolutionary era and the memoirs of those who went through the war. Picture of a complete zvizdets.