The establishment of the holiday date for April is not accidental due to the fact that it was this month that the most important government decrees on the organization of air defense were adopted, which became the basis for building the national air defense system, the air defense organizational structure, their formation and further modernization and development. Wherein история Air defense, as a special type of armed support for the troops in the defense of the country, has been around for more than a decade.
In Russia, the first air defense units appeared at the beginning of World War I in December 1914. They were designed to deal with German and Austrian airplanes. It was then that the first anti-aircraft artillery appeared in the Russian army. Then, to cover the largest cities of the country, special aviation detachments, floodlights and barrage balloons began to be used, a special air surveillance and warning service was organized.
The Great Patriotic War became a real test and full baptism of fire for the country's air defense forces. Of particular note are the air battles that unfolded in the sky over Moscow, Leningrad, the Kursk Bulge, in which German aircraft suffered heavy losses, including from the fire of Soviet anti-aircraft artillery. In total, during the war years, the air defense forces of the Soviet Union shot down about 7,5 thousand enemy aircraft, destroyed more than 1 thousand tanks and more than 1,5 thousand enemy guns. At the same time, the air defense forces managed to protect many cities, enterprises, bridges, railway communications and other important infrastructure from destruction.
In the postwar years, the development of air defense forces in our country did not stop. The troops were constantly staffed with new anti-aircraft artillery, new anti-aircraft missile systems, fighter aircraft, and radio-technical troops received new, modern equipment. In the 1950-ies in the air defense forces emerged as a kind of troops, anti-aircraft missile troops (ZRV) and radio engineering troops (RTV). In 1977, the formation of anti-missile and anti-space defense forces was completed in the USSR (from 1992, they were called the Space and Rocket Defense Forces).
Today, air defense troops exist in the structure of the Ground Forces and the Air Force of Russia. Air Defense Forces (SV) is a branch of the SV troops, which is designed to cover objects and troops from the actions of enemy air attacks during combined-arms operations (combat operations), regroupings (marches) and on-site operations. The following main tasks are assigned to the air defense forces: to carry out combat duty on air defense; conducting reconnaissance of the air enemy and timely notification of troops; the defeat of the enemy’s air attack weapons in flight; participation in the implementation of missile defense in theaters. Anti-aircraft missile forces (ZRV) - a branch of the Russian Air Force, which is armed with air defense systems and air defense systems, which constitute the main fire force in the air defense system. They are designed to protect high-level military and government control units, troops (forces) groups, and the most important economic and industrial facilities from attacks by the enemy’s aerospace attack against air attacks.
For the period up to 2020, the main directions of development of military air defense is a consistent increase in the number of units of constant combat readiness and their acquisition of the most modern anti-aircraft missile systems and systems (air defense systems and air defense systems). First of all, we are talking about C-300В4 air defense systems, Tor-М2 and Buk-М3 air defense systems, as well as the latest MANPADS. All of these systems differ from their illustrious predecessors in multi-channel and high degree of noise immunity. The main direction of development of the anti-aircraft missile forces of the Russian Air Force is to improve the ZRV groups and increase their capabilities by adopting modern C-400 medium-range and long-range air defense systems, C-500 long-range, and Pantsir-S short-range ZRPK ( SM) ”and the modernization of already existing medium-range C-300PM aids to the C-300PM2 level.
In Russia, the training of highly professional personnel for the air defense units is carried out by the Military Academy of the East Kazakhstan region Marshal of the Soviet Union G. K. Zhukov (Tver), as well as the Military Space Academy. Mozhaisky (St. Petersburg) and its branch of the Military Space Academy. A.F. Mozhaisky (Yaroslavl), Training Center for Anti-aircraft Missile Forces (Gatchina), Center for Training Specialists of Radio-Technical Forces (Vladimir).
Currently, the Russian air defense system rightfully deserves the title of one of the best in the world. This was announced on the eve of the Day of the Air Defense Forces by Major General Andrei Demin, who is the commander of the Air Defense and Missile Defense Command of the Russian Aerospace Defense Forces. The modern Russian C-300 and C-400 air defense systems, as well as the Pantsir-C1 air-defense missile system (ZRPK), are able to destroy any air target, including the possibility of striking the ballistic missile warheads of the likely enemy.
Commenting on the words of the representatives of the American military command that the Russian air defense system is one of the best in the world, Andrei Demin noted that this is a worthy appreciation from a worthy opponent. Today we fully comply with this assessment and in the future, I hope, we will continue to comply. At present, the airborne alert forces on duty are on duty around the clock, carrying out radar detection and tracking of various air targets to 800, of which continuous radar monitoring is carried out daily to 90 aircraft with the transfer of all information to the air defense command center.
Based on materials from open sources