Military Review

Achilles heel of aviation. How to create a modern flight safety system

22
Achilles heel of aviation. How to create a modern flight safety systemOne of the most acute problems aviation from its inception to today, there has been and, unfortunately, remains the problem of ensuring flight safety. This problem is common to all types of aviation: civil, state (military and special), experimental. For each of these types of aviation, the need to solve the problem of ensuring flight safety is actualized by various factors. In civilian cases - first of all, the deaths of several tens or even hundreds of people in one accident; in the state - the loss of expensive equipment and no less expensive (in terms of training) flight personnel; in experimental aviation - sometimes with the closure of promising projects and always with the loss of unique models of equipment and no less unique test pilots.


This problem has not reduced its severity even today, with the current level of knowledge and technology, since it does not have a final solution. This is due to the fact that it is impossible to create an absolutely reliable aircraft (then it should not fly) and there is no unmistakable person, and aviation is composed mainly of these two components - aircraft, that is, aircraft, and the people who serve them. and exploit. Therefore, the flight on any aircraft is always associated with the risk of an accident, with the threat of loss of the aircraft and the death of people on board.

It is this circumstance - the constant existence of a threat to the life of the crew and passengers of the aircraft, as well as the safety of the aircraft itself and creates primarily the problem of ensuring flight safety.

The second component of the problem is the search for the necessary measures to reduce the threat (risk) of an accident to an “acceptable level”, as interpreted by the documents of ICAO - the International Civil Aviation Organization. Solving a problem is reduced to identifying possible risk factors and taking measures to eliminate, localize or significantly reduce the influence of such factors on the aviation system.

Catch and overdrive

The current system of ensuring the safety of flights in the State Aviation was created in the 60-s of the last century. During its existence, it has undergone a number of significant changes aimed at improving its effectiveness and efficiency. These steps have allowed in recent years to achieve a reduction in the level of accidents with state aircraft and bring safety indicators in aviation to the world level closer. However, in general, the effectiveness of the existing system of ensuring the safety of flights in the state aviation remains unacceptably low. In terms of rates of decline in accident rates, we are significantly behind the developed aviation powers. Currently, the accident rate (representing the number of accidents per 100 thousand hours of flight time) in aviation of the advanced countries of the world is about one. Over the past 50 years, it has dropped more than five times. In fact, the value of this indicator decreased by one for each decade.

In domestic aviation (civil and state), the value of this indicator (on 100 thousand hours of flight time) for the same period decreased slightly more than twice. The best achievement in the state aviation will be the indicators of this year, when the value of the accident rate does not exceed two units. Every year we continue to lose expensive aviation equipment, and sometimes flight personnel. This situation can not be tolerated.

The lack of effectiveness of the existing flight safety system is due to many factors: this is the low level of material and technical equipment, the imperfection of the regulatory framework, the lack of constant scientific support, and the limited functions of the flight safety authorities, and often the lack of competence of aviation personnel, including the management team. composition. The main drawback of the State Aviation Aviation Safety System is its fundamental inability to switch to modern, active methods of managing risk factors.

FROM PREVENTION TO PROTECTION

The existing system is built and operates according to the principle of prevention of hazardous factors (risk factors), revealed mainly as a result of investigating accidents or incidents, that is, according to the principle of parrying what has already taken place in practice. Parry is carried out simultaneously everywhere, which leads to the expenditure of all available forces and means without a noticeable effect. This is because the intuition of the aircraft commander remains the main predictive tool for identifying hazards.

At the same time, world experience shows that a modern safety management system should be based on the principles of hazard prevention — the principles of proactive flight safety management. The basis of its operation should be based on a reliable forecast of hazardous factors and the adoption of preventive, proactive measures to counter them.

Today, the prediction of dangerous factors, even such as aircraft failures, violations or erroneous actions of flight personnel, has become quite possible with the use of modern scientific approaches and information technologies. The point was only for their implementation in practice. Moreover, the introduction of new approaches and technologies should be systemic in nature, with a clear distribution of funds and tasks at various levels of instances. All this testifies to the need to create a new flight safety system in the state aviation of the Russian Federation. Its main functional elements should be:

as a subject of impact, flight safety authorities are built according to a hierarchical structure with a clear distribution of functions, rights and duties at each level;

as an object of impact - all components of the aviation system, namely, the enterprise of the developers, manufacturers and repair of aircraft; all air formations (from individual units to associations); all training institutions (including initial training) or retraining of aviation personnel; the system of air traffic management in the totality of their components (personnel, facilities, technology, etc.).

The most important element of a modern safety management system that plays the role of a rigid control wiring should be a subsystem of information and analytical support, including means of collecting, transmitting, receiving (receiving), processing and distributing (replicating) information on flight safety issues; personnel involved in the collection, reception, processing and transmission of information; the means and technologies that it uses for these purposes, as well as the information itself, that is, the totality of information about the state of safety of flights in the aviation system and factors affecting its operation.

Instruments (tools) of the subject's impact on the objects of the system should be the authority of the management and flight safety authorities, as well as the methods and means that they will use in their work.

SECURITY BASICS

The basis for building an aviation safety management system in a state aviation system should be the corrected regulatory and legal framework, as well as modern scientific and material and technical bases. Proceeding from this, the priority tasks of building a safety management system in aviation should be considered:

- development, creation and implementation of a unified information-analytical system of state aviation and automated flight data control systems;

- development of technical means and technologies for monitoring elements of the aviation system;

- development of methods and creation of software-modeling systems for decision-making support by the authorities of the state aviation authorities;

- development of new technologies and systems for objective monitoring of the functioning parameters of the aviation system;

- Adjustment of the regulatory framework for the safety of state aircraft.

The first step towards building such a system should be the creation in the structure of flight safety agencies, including the Aviation Safety Service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, information and analytical centers equipped with modern software-modeling complexes and staffed by highly qualified specialists. To do this, it is already necessary to decide what tasks, what scale they will solve and, accordingly, what software-modeling complexes should be equipped with.

It is obvious that the creation of such centers, determining the appearance of software products, information and analytical procedures in various instances, updating the regulatory framework for flight safety will require additional proactive scientific study of these issues, making appropriate decisions and, of course, certain material costs. But, as practice and world experience shows, it is impossible to change the situation on flight safety issues without substantial material costs. At the same time, the costs of creating a new, promising flight safety system in state aviation should be viewed not as losses, but as investments in the matter of a significant reduction in accident rates. And these are billions of rubles annually saved by the state and, most importantly, tens and hundreds of saved lives.

The construction of such a system should fully comply with the “Concept of Aviation Safety of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation” approved by the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation in 2012, which implies the adoption of radical measures to improve flight safety in military aviation. The creation and active functioning of such a system in the State Aviation will allow in the shortest possible time to raise the level of flight safety to the accident rates achieved today in advanced aviation powers, and most importantly, to reduce in the coming years aviation incidents with the aircraft of the State Aviation of the Russian Federation to the rarest events in practice.
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22 comments
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  1. andrei332809
    andrei332809 26 January 2014 07: 14
    +5
    the human factor cannot be removed anywhere. even drones are controlled by man
    1. Blackmokona
      Blackmokona 26 January 2014 08: 25
      -5
      There are autonomous systems.
      1. andrei332809
        andrei332809 26 January 2014 08: 29
        +1
        Quote: BlackMokona
        There are autonomous systems.

        and if the Windows will fail? wassat so any system requires human involvement
        1. Blackmokona
          Blackmokona 26 January 2014 13: 59
          +1
          And if a person gets drunk? Go crazy? Will Allah be a Babah? Will a trunk be put to his head? wassat

          And air crashes happen for the following reasons.

          Pilot mistakes - 50%
          Failures of aircraft - 22%.
          Weather conditions - 12%.
          Terrorism - 9%.
          Errors of ground personnel (air traffic controllers, aircraft technicians, etc.) - 7%.
          Other causes are 1%.

          As you can see, technology is much more reliable than people.
          1. not main
            not main 26 January 2014 21: 22
            0
            Everything is hidden under the cause of "pilot error"! It's easier to blame the crew, especially if there is no one to object !!!
            1. Blackmokona
              Blackmokona 27 January 2014 07: 37
              0
              If everything is hiding, then why only 50%?
              Secondly, our air carriers are very close to manufacturers, so it’s easier for them to blame them on pilots, but in the West, insurance companies will not miss the chance to reduce everything to the failure of aircraft equipment and bring down money from manufacturers, but what about pilots?
    2. mealnik2005
      mealnik2005 27 January 2014 01: 36
      0
      The main trouble is that there are no state carriers left, and the cheaper the private owner, the better, and they haven’t come up with anything absolutely safe in the world. So it turns out that the safety cost curve does not cross the safety curve in a zero way.
  2. Genry
    Genry 26 January 2014 07: 23
    0
    Why is this article here?
    Safety is a very complex issue. A bunch of emotional comments, and mine in addition, will not change anything.
    And on the roads, the percentage of death is higher. That is, there it is more relevant to do publications.
  3. makarov
    makarov 26 January 2014 07: 37
    +2
    The pepper is clear that you can’t attach a parachute to each passenger, ...... since then it will not be passengers, but paratroopers !! laughing
    1. almost demobil
      almost demobil 26 January 2014 07: 53
      +3
      Quote: makarov
      The pepper is clear that you can’t fasten a parachute to each passenger

      Moreover, everyone will not have time to jump out. But you can make one parachute for all. The idea of ​​a saloon being shot back has long been voiced. "But it's expensive," said the aircraft manufacturers, and therefore people continue to die safely due to profanation of pilots and equipment failures, for the first reason more often.
      1. queen
        queen 26 January 2014 18: 21
        0
        Quote: almost demobilized
        The idea of ​​a saloon being shot back has long been voiced. "But it's expensive," said the aircraft manufacturers and therefore people continue to die safely due to profanation of pilots and equipment failures, for the first reason more often

        More often, accidents occur during take-off and landing. So where will it be fired and what? laughing
        1. almost demobil
          almost demobil 27 January 2014 15: 28
          +1
          Quote: regin
          More often, accidents occur during take-off and landing. So where will it be fired and what?

          You are our cheerful, we are not talking about the accident, but about the disaster. And yes, they often occur during take-off and landing, but not always. In November, the Tatar Boeing fell, these, land they rest in peace, drove the plane to a height of 700 meters and from there a bullet down. A fired cabin would save the lives of 50 people. About 3 years ago, the same unfortunate pilots drove the Tu-154 into the stratosphere, trying to go around the powerful cumulus cloud above, the plane fell like an autumn leaf from a huge height ... It’s ridiculous to you that you attach laughing faces? A catapulted salon would save these people. These are 2 cases that immediately surfaced in the head, and how many more.
    2. bomg.77
      bomg.77 26 January 2014 09: 53
      +3
      Quote: makarov
      The pepper is clear that you can’t attach a parachute to each passenger, ...... since then it will not be passengers, but paratroopers !!
      But isn’t it an option to come up with a parachute, for the whole plane, how is it used to drop heavy equipment? Wings are shot off and a parachute flies the size of Moldova? Not?
      1. andrei332809
        andrei332809 26 January 2014 10: 13
        +2
        Quote: bomg.77
        and a parachute flies the size of Moldova? Not?

        Well then, landing will be possible only here or in Kazakhstan laughing
        1. bomg.77
          bomg.77 26 January 2014 10: 25
          +1
          Quote: andrei332809
          Well then, landing will be possible only here or in Kazakhstan
          Andrei hi Customs and air defense, gives good. The most important thing is not to carry this "democracy"
          1. andrei332809
            andrei332809 26 January 2014 11: 01
            +1
            Quote: bomg.77
            The most important thing is not to carry this "democracy"

            Yes, they will not be up to democracy. pants to wash off wassat
    3. supertiger21
      supertiger21 26 January 2014 13: 42
      +2
      Quote: makarov
      The pepper is clear that you can’t attach a parachute to each passenger, ...... since then it will not be passengers, but paratroopers !! laughing


      It sounds, of course, a little fantastic, but why not ?! At the time of World War I, they didn’t even imagine that fighters would install catapults in decades. This could be done in the future with airliners. By the middle of the 21st century, it would be nice to have similar on passenger airplanes.
      1. samoletil18
        samoletil18 26 January 2014 14: 35
        +2
        You can neighing. But in this direction the state, producers, and operators are obliged to think.
  4. askort154
    askort154 26 January 2014 08: 29
    +5
    An article on a relevant topic, but empty. The next set of declarations. Flight safety should be at the forefront. Currently, profit is at the forefront, and hence all the vices. The issue of training,
    generally bypassed. The issue of work and rest of the crews has always been, and is in last place. The theater begins with a hanger, and aviation with polished shoes (discipline). And, in general, flight safety rules should not be developed and discussed in the offices of research institutes and officials, but in working groups,
    moreover, there is no need to invent anything new. Everything was written long ago with blood.
  5. The comment was deleted.
  6. wolfhunter2035
    wolfhunter2035 26 January 2014 09: 14
    0
    why nobody puts pluses? man tried!
  7. 11111mail.ru
    11111mail.ru 26 January 2014 10: 23
    +2
    The presence of "System ..." is still better than the absence thereof. Only something on the indicated diagram with arrows is not in order, I mean there are no upward arrows from the "Operators", i.e. system without feedback! Fraught!
  8. alone
    alone 26 January 2014 10: 53
    +2
    The problem is urgent. In addition to an effective flight safety system, highly qualified crews are needed where everyone knows their responsibilities, as well as aircraft, preferably new ones, rather than second-hand and resold ten times from one state to another.
  9. stranik72
    stranik72 26 January 2014 11: 04
    +1
    Flight safety is a philosophy of life and it is based on the postulates of B. Brad in the internet they are, read not even for professionals much will become clear.
    Well, these are the postulates of the entire aviation world:
    "Speed, altitude and brains" - two out of three are always required to successfully complete a flight.
    Soft landing, mainly luck; two in a row - only luck, and three in a row - lies.

    The three most used expressions (as well as the famous last words) in aviation:
    “Why does it do that?”
    - Where are we?
    и
    - Blyaaa (Kizdets)!
  10. The comment was deleted.
    1. Apollo
      Apollo 26 January 2014 12: 04
      +3
      Quote: Shannonbox
      Instead of squash caviar, I put out eggplant, bell pepper, tomato, carrot without butter.


      You are by chance, the forum is not mixed up ?!
  11. Know-nothing
    Know-nothing 26 January 2014 12: 30
    +2
    Statistics from the report of the head of the flight safety laboratory of FSUE LII named after M.M. Gromova.
  12. Chicot 1
    Chicot 1 26 January 2014 13: 01
    +5
    How to create a security system in our aviation? ..
    1. Throw out all the "effective managers" (starting with Poghosyan) and other commercial crap from it, and keep them away from the planes at a cannon shot. Even as passengers ...
    2. Return the quality of pilot training commensurate with Soviet standards ... Prohibit the piloting of civilian aircraft by persons without Russian citizenship (or having dual) ...
    3. Do not save on fuel and planned preventive maintenance (however, all this is directly related to point "1" of this commentary) ...
    4. To establish strict rules of conduct for passengers on civilian sides. Tighten penalties for their violations, up to long prison terms ...
    1. supertiger21
      supertiger21 26 January 2014 13: 45
      0
      All of your 4 points are certainly correct, but I think that the security problem depends on the plane itself!
      1. Chicot 1
        Chicot 1 26 January 2014 15: 11
        +2
        Quote: supertiger21
        I think that the security problem depends on the plane itself

        First of all, they depend on the people who serve these planes and those who fly them. For even the most modern and perfect technology in the hands of a savage (read "ignoramus") is a heap of metal. Moreover, it is very dangerous, both for himself and for those around him. And sooner or later it will turn into scrap metal ...
        And therefore, first of all, people. And these same people should (must!) Be professionals. From locksmiths to repairmen to managers. Especially in an industry such as aviation. And then the planes will be in perfect order ...
        However, everything that I wrote is elementary truths that are known to everyone and everything. But for some reason today in our civil aviation they prefer to go against the grain. Why?..
        But because money (profit) is put above the safety of people. And therefore, in order to fix something for the better, it is necessary to start from point "1" - to hell with all the businessmen from aviation. If this is not done, then this office plankton will destroy it completely ...
        Or are there any other suggestions? ..
  13. polkownik1
    polkownik1 26 January 2014 14: 25
    +4
    Regulatory documents, systems, complexes, measures ......... A single concept will successfully replace most of this paper mountain: PROFESSIONALISM! And the least talk about him ...
  14. propolsky
    propolsky 26 January 2014 15: 32
    +3
    Safety should be discussed by professionals, for a wide range of people - this is water in a mortar and unnecessary actions. Today in the post-Soviet space it is all so neglected that we will slurp it for another 20-30 years, if we start to root out now, then that has sprouted on the field of indifference, betrayal and unprofessionalism. There is only one solution to the problem - the restoration of the training system, the aviation industry and the departure from the Western system of organization (although there is also something to learn in it). The pilot should fly, not the flight technician, the pilot should fly the plane, not the autopilot, and the plane should not be operated if he is thirty years or more! (At least he should not carry passengers!) The problem that is currently being solved ...
  15. Kowalsky
    Kowalsky 26 January 2014 16: 50
    +1
    Quote: BlackMokona
    There are autonomous systems

    A plane in full autopilot with autonomous passengers arriving at an autonomous airport. Microsoft fly simulator :)
  16. scientist
    scientist 26 January 2014 16: 59
    +1
    In order to make forecasts, reliable information is needed on the current state of technology, the level of training of specialists, as well as the true causes of flight accidents. In Europe, the level of lobbying for the interests of aviation corporations and corruption in the flight safety authorities is much lower, therefore there is reliable information there, which means that the reasons can be really eliminated and flight safety can be improved.
  17. angarchanin
    angarchanin 26 January 2014 19: 40
    -1
    Everything is closed on the person, and pieces of iron are made to him, and mistakes (methodical, instrumental, etc.) are made by him - by the person. It means to make a selection according to the mind and health, motivation is also mandatory. Among the competition in wages, comfort of work and leisure there should be a certain category of risk assessment: more than the expected risk - more attention to the individual, rather than brainwashing and a heap of regulatory documents.