James Rothschild officially managed the money of the Belgian king Leopold I, and on 1876, with the financial support of well-known bankers, his son, Leopold II, established an organization that will change its name to become the International Congo Association, which appreciates the resources of the Congo River basin. In 1885, the Berlin “African” conference, assembled according to its official act “caring ... about ways to raise the moral and material well-being of the indigenous population”, established the “Free State of Congo” with a flag made in the Rothschild yellow-blue dynastic colors and its sovereign represented by Leopold II. His association will sign 450 contracts with leaders who do not understand a word in their texts, the meaning of which came down to the fact that they transfer all their territory and resources to the International Association and are obliged to provide them with labor.
The main resource of the Congo then was rubber, which grew in half of the country's territory. As the invention of rubberized coats, shoes, and tires was consistently increased, the price of it grew steadily, which ensured the emergence of the Anglo-Belgian India Rubber and Exporation Company (ABIR). The French word "caoutchouk" comes from the Indian "tree that sheds tears," which is prophetic to Congo.
Companies in the Congo also took over administrative and coercive functions. It looked like this: mercenaries of firms and Force Publique entered the village, took women and children hostage and set exorbitant rates for collecting rubber, for non-fulfillment followed by mass executions with hand chopping. As the Equatorial District Commissioner Charles Lemaire wrote in his memoirs: “If you want to collect rubber in the district, then you have to chop hands, noses and ears”.
For refusal to provide the company with labor, porters or food, there was a total extermination of the village, the “target” consumption of ammunition was confirmed by severed brushes, which were preserved for reporting. Thus, the cost of rubber production was almost zero, delivery to Antwerp costing 1.35 Belgian francs, where it was already sold on 10.
The profits of all rubber companies in Congo between 1890 and 1904 grew 96 times, making for ABIR 700 percent in 1897, for 6 years 1892-1898 the value of its shares increased 30. Rich up to 1908 on 95,5 million gold Belgian francs Leopold, whose father-in-law, the Austro-Hungarian emperor Franz Joseph called "broker in the crown", in the "population control" participated twice: earning on supplies to Europe of rubber, going to the production of funds contraception and freeing the population of the territory of the Congo.
An English traveler who visited 1899 in the Congo recalled: “When I explored the area, I saw skeletons, skeletons everywhere,” the missionary didn’t find children in the Mai-Ndombe district who would give birth to a flourishing rubber boom; , to be able to quickly run from the soldiers.
The official commission of Belgium has determined that in two generations, the population has decreased by half. In 1924, statistics counted in Congo 10 million inhabitants, a committee of the colonial legislature Congres nacional colonial stated: “The danger is that our native population can collapse and disappear one day, we face a kind of desert.”
The concern was caused by the lack of manpower required for the exploitation of the open natural resources of Katanga province. Its copper, gold and silver went to Comite Special du Katanga. In 1907, Societe Internacional diamonds were discovered by Forestiere et Miniere du Congo (Forminiere), which in 1945, produced three-quarters of industrial diamonds, secretly supplying them with the Third Reich. In 1922, the uranium of Union Miniere de Haut Katanga was discovered. In 1928, companies merged into the conglomerate Societe Generale de Belgique, which controlled 70% of the Congo economy. In the 1940 year, apparently without waiting for the application of racial laws, the head of the company Edgar Senjier left Belgium in the US, and his company supplied uranium during the Second World and German Projekt U and the American Project Y.
At 1937, Mission d'Immigration des Banyarwanda (MIB) began to force Hutu families from Rwanda to work in Union Miniere de Haut Katanga in depopulated areas of the Congo. In parallel, the company created pockets of future ethnic conflicts.
Each Congolese wore a personal identification document that marked his “ethnicity”. Identification cards gave rise to tribal groups - people were grouped according to the principle of identical identifiers in the documents from which the first ethnic clashes began.
For a long time, independent movement on the roads of the Congo was prohibited, and a curfew was in effect. Until the middle of the last century, Union Miniere was a world monopolist of uranium ore - 80% and cobalt production - 80%, even the Russian Norilsk Nickel trades cobalt through its structures.
The company engaged in world-class development of copper, tin, cobalt, zinc, cadmium, tungsten, and radium was born in 1906 from the development of the Congo copper mines, where in 1922 were residents who were not entitled to leave the territory fenced with barbed wire. The contract with them was concluded for long periods, but not more than nine years, after which the worker became disabled.
The American Civil War spawned a whole generation of cosmopolitan new factors: Du Pont and DuPont specialized in one commodity throughout the 1863th century - gunpowder. John Rockefeller made a fortune by supplying food to both warring parties in the Civil War, acquiring the first Excelcior Works kerosene plant in 1862 with M. Clark and S. Andrews. Rockefeller's Standard Oil, US Steel by Andrew Carnegie and Edward Harriman Railways were funded by Kuhn, Loeb & Co. In 300, young John Morgan, for a bribe of $ XNUMX, decided personally not to participate in the war, but still not to abstract from it completely: he and his father Julius, co-owner of the English bank Peabody, Morgan & Co, supplied the northerners weapon.
Earlier, the Rothschild cousins Lambert created Drexel & Company in Philadelphia, in 1871, representing the interests of the company, Anthony J. Drexel and John Pierpont Morgan founded the commercial bank Drexel, Morgan & Co. London and Morgan et Ce in Paris.
At one time, control over communications ensured the rise of “factors” on historical Olympus, therefore, and now the Rothschilds were the main developers of railways in the world.
It was a very profitable business, having collected in France 60 million francs from depositors, they annually received 2,4 million profits, of which the depositors themselves managed only 4000 thousand francs in the form of dividends.
The leading US developer New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Company was jointly owned by the Morgan and Rothschilds, who owned 81% of the shares. In 1902, John Pierpont Morgan's companies controlled 70% of the US steel industry and 60% of the railroad companies. Morgan-funded New York Central Railroad, together with Kuhn, Loeb & Co, later provided Rockefeller Standard Oil with preferential shipping rates, allowing it to pursue a monopoly.
In France, J.P. Morgan’s partners are the Lazard Freres Bank, owned by the Lazard and David-Weil families, descendants of the old Genoese banking classes. Lazard Freres was a bank serving Royal Dutch Shell and directly involved in the creation of Banque Worms et Cie, whose owners were also associated with the Rothschilds, Charlotte Jeanette Rothschild married, apparently, from the mentioned Hessian city of Worms, Benedict Worms, at the end of the eighteenth century
Backed by JP Morgan & Co, investments from European banks have helped launch companies such as DuPont, AT&T, General Motors and General Electric.
Apparently, the unification of “general” in the names of companies belonging to the Rothschilds, launched by Societe Generale, is associated with the desire for monopolization. .
Following the Brodelian phrase “capitalism is the enemy of the market”, the “court factors” formed into the new class of hyperbourgeoisie undertook to build a “free market”, transferring it under the control of their own monopolies.
A remarkable bankruptcy story is how in the 1832 year, Pope Gregory XVI awarded Karl Mayer Baron von Rothschild with the Order of the Savior for a sixteen millionth loan issued in 1831, which provided himself with the opportunity to extend the credit line with the next tranche in 1837. The Papal court requested another 2,16 million francs in 1845, in 1850: Pope Pius IX already needed 50 million Swiss francs, and in 1882 the Rothschild group deliberately ruined the Catholic Union General, apparently so that the Vatican no longer had a financial alternative.
In endless international contests, sovereignty flowed into the pockets of lenders, along with interest on loan obligations. In this situation, the armies could lose, but not the creditors, regardless of the outcome of the battles, the winners remained debtors, since the army was borrowed for the equipment, and the losers, as borrowed to pay indemnities.
An example would be the history of Greece, which in 1889 received another loan of 135 million francs, the purpose of which was to pay off interest on previous loans. The loan was placed by Antony Gibbs & Sons of London and S. Bleichröder Bank, the official partner of the Rothschilds since the turn of the century. A year later, Greece received another loan in the amount of 89 thousand francs for the construction of the railway from Reichsbank and CJ Hambro & Son, the future London Hambros Bank, founded by a Jewish-born Karl Hambro.
In the end, total debt reached 570 million francs and in Greece 1893 went bankrupt. A chance to recoup failed four years later, when the war with the Ottoman Empire ended, the modern weapons of which were supplied by the Krupp factories ended, and now the Greeks also had to pay a contribution, the issue of which was decided by six and found uranium deposits. Until the middle of the last century, uranium was mined by local European powers, for which international financial control was established in the country since 1898.
In the Ottoman Empire, the victorious country, international financial control was introduced by issuing the Muharrem Decree even earlier, in 1881, and Deutsche Bank credited it for the purchase of weapons in the amount of 30 million marks. In addition to him, the Nordenfeldt company and its famous representative Basile Zakharov won this war, selling submarines according to the principle he boasted of in a French newspaper: “I deliberately incite wars in order to be able to sell weapons to both warring parties.” This “arms baron” with a completely closed past, when the Viennese military ministry asked, his personal business was empty, managed to get 300 orders from the governments of various countries.
In 1881, the Disconto-Gesellschaft Bank, with the participation of S. Bleichröder Bank and the British NM Rothschild & Sons, founded a banking consortium that allocates Romanian loans to arm the Romanian army, build fortresses and develop communications. At the same time, Romania assumed the obligation to purchase various materials from Germany, which contributed to the subordination of the country's economy to German capital. The country's finances turned out to be dependent on the German money market, on which 1895/3 of all foreign loans to Romania were placed in 5, in connection with which the Russian envoy Fonton noted that the German bankers had already taken possession of most of the Romanian securities, and Disconto-Gesellschaft “ for several decades ”refers to Romania“ like a cash cow ”.
Another source says that Deutsche Bank is controlled by Warburg, formally the bank was founded by G. Siemens, whose relative founded a well-known brand in the field of radio electronics, Ludwig Bamberger, who came from the Jewish community of the city of Mainz and his compatriot German Markuze in 1870.
Gradually, in the 21st century, Deutsche Bank swallowed up Disconto-Gesellschaft and Oppenheimer's Salon, founded by David Hansemann. Oppenheim. Evidence of the level and affiliation of the bank is that it participates in the daily determination of the price of gold together with the banks Scotia Mocatta, Barclays Capital and Societe Generale.
In 1880 – s Deutsche Bank has established close relations with the Austrian Land Bank, which, in association with Berliner Handels-Gesellschaft and a Paris partner, issued in 1884 a state guaranteed loan of Serbia in the amount of 40 270 thousand francs in gold and another railway mortgage loan of 25 million francs.
Next, Berliner Handels-Gesellschaft participated in all loans for Serbia, most of which went to service and pay off previous loans. In June, 1895 was joined to the next tranche issued in Carlsbad by the Turkish Banque Imperiale Ottomane, while financial control was already established over the Turkish finances. The guarantees of the new loan were the income of the state railway Belgrade - Vranje, the revenues from stamp duties, tobacco, oil, salt monopolies, and so on, in general, almost what Joseph Oppenheimer was hanged for at the time.
The sovereignty of Serbia, which was proclaimed in 1878, did not start, ended with the creation of the “General Directorate of Monopolies” whose administrative council included German and French representatives, through the “Austrian Land Bank”, concentrated all the loans of Serbia in their hands.
With the participation of Deutsche Bank in 1889, the Austrian Land Bank issued a loan for the construction of the Bulgarian railway, the loan was guaranteed by both railways under construction with all stations, buildings, real estate and rolling stock. Further, Dresdner Bank founded by Evgeny Gutman together with Nationalbank für Deutschland AG and Deutsche Bank participated in all Bulgarian loans of the end of the XIX century. The latter owned a controlling stake in the Eastern Railway Operation Society, which behaved in Bulgaria as a state within a state and even had its own currency.
The vain attempt of the Bulgarian government in 1893 to buy the railway lines was not successful, and the attempt to independently build a line from Chirpan to Nova Zagora was confronted with the fact that Siemens, head of Deutsche Bank, blocked the issue of securities on the Berlin Stock Exchange and inclined the government to sign an agreement for which Bulgaria pledged not to build railways competing with Eastern Railways for 25 years.
Thus, taking part in wars, "court factors" always fought on their side, and if they were sympathetic to any ideology, it was only as a tool to play on the "nerves of war" when both warring parties were deprived of sovereignty, which as a result remained so little that the German writer Ludwig Burne wrote: “It would be a blessing from God if all kings were overthrown and their thrones were occupied by representatives of the Rothschild family. Just think of the benefits. The new dynasty will never get involved with loans ... Ministerial corruption will disappear ... Such vices will become historical past and morality will prevail. "
Regarding the "triumphant morality", the following should be noted: when you lend to the state, the greatest risk will be the risk of no return, for some reason what the head of state will ask you to wait for payment, or worse, it will offer to reconsider the terms of the deal in its favor. when the conditional ruler of the state has a strong power controlling its security forces.
In order to replace an intractable head of state with a tractable one, the power must be necessarily replaced, which is a sign of a developed democratic country. A sign of special democracy is the frequent turnover of the head of state, so that he does not have time to understand the situation, but only has time to sign an agreement on a new loan. For turnover, various political parties with different political views are needed, whose debates skillfully camouflage the confusion, as it were, generated by turnover.
So, there is nothing unexpected in that, realizing itself as holders of all types of communications: financial, informational, supplying, “court factors”, they set about to guide world politics. There is nothing surprising in the fact that they directed it so that their power only increased and did not leave a chance to competitors whether it was a social group, class, nation or even just a competing enterprise that could become a source of profit concentration whose owner was a potential threat. and therefore it is desirable that the markets be monopolized and controlled.
Australia, Africa, both Americas, Europe, in the east, the Rothschilds partner was David Sassoon and Company, about which they wrote: “Silver and gold, silk, rubber, opium and cotton, wool and grain - any commodity moving by sea or dry - is in any way associated with the trademark Sassoon & Company. " This company accounted for a quarter of the imported drug during the opium enslavement of China, its main competitor was the American trading house Russel & Company, whose representative in Canton was Warren Delano Jr., grandfather of the 32nd US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Edward Sassoon married Aline Caroline de Rothschild, daughter of Baron Gustav de Rothschild. At a certain point, the global looping of the Rothschild family and business ties ran into Russia, a non-European country.