Javelin (Spear, Javelin) - medium anti-tank system designed for infantry, reconnaissance and combat engineering units. These forces should be able to hit enemy armored forces during the day, at night, and in conditions of limited visibility. Javelin can be used by one soldier or by a calculation of two or three soldiers. Javelin can be transported by a separate parachutist, railway and road transport, by water or by air.
This system has a high level of destruction of all known armored vehicles in a wide range of ranges, day / night and under adverse weather conditions. The soft launch of the system allows you to fire from closed combat positions or from the premises.
The modular structure used in Javelina allows the system to be improved to meet changing threats and demands through software and hardware updates. The system consists of a reusable command-and-start unit (CPB) with an integrated self-monitoring system and a modular missile in a transport-launch container. The system also includes tactical training, classroom training and handling exercises.
The Javelin "shot-forgot" system allows the operator to fire a shot and immediately take cover in order to change the combat position or reload the complex. Compared with Dragon ATGM (M47 Dragon), the Javelin has a high lethality due to the use of a tandem warhead that is effective against all the armored vehicles known to date. The system is equally effective for both stationary and moving targets. The Javelina range is 2.5 times the Dragon ATGM, has a day and night vision system, and is capable of detecting targets in adverse weather conditions and through obstacles inherent in the battlefield.
An additional objective of the system is to destroy bunkers and provide defense against attacking / hovering helicopters. In recent conflicts, the CPB was also used as a stand-alone device for monitoring the battlefield and selecting targets.
ATGM Javelin is a direct replacement for Dragon M47 ATGM.
Command start block (CPB) M98A1
KBP M98A1 is a reusable part of the Javelin complex. The CPB contains a day sight, night sight, controls and indicators. The main components of the CPB are: the body, shock absorbers, handles, battery compartment, day sight, night sight, eyepiece, test plug and round interface plug. The command and launch unit is attached transport transport launch container.
Housing. The CPB housing contains the system electronics, display, day and night sights.
Shock absorbers. Shock absorbers around the enclosure of the CPB are designed to protect equipment during its use. Dampers are replaceable items. One shock absorber is also a protective shield protecting the face of the operator during a rocket launch.
Handles. To hold the PCB, the operator uses the handles located on the sides of the PCB case. For all operations with Javeline operator uses the controls located on the handles.
Battery compartment. The disposable battery BA-5590 / U or the rechargeable BB390A battery (for training use only) is located in the battery compartment located in the lower part of the main body of the battery compartment. The same batteries are used in single-channel ground and airborne radio systems (SINCGARS) and are interchangeable with PBC. The battery compartment connector is attached to the corresponding battery connector. The handle holds the removable battery cover in place.
Day Sight. It works like a telescope and consists of a lens, status indicators and a monocular.
- provides the operator with the image in the visible spectrum with 4-fold increase for target recognition and observation of the battlefield;
- can be used with the power off only for observation (in order to save battery power);
- does not depend on infrared interference.
Night Vision Scope (NVD). The NVD is the main viewfinder used by the operator. NVD is an infrared system (I²R) that can be used both during the day and at night. This allows the operator to observe in conditions of limited visibility, including total darkness, smoke, fog, inclement weather and infrared interference. The NVD converts the infrared image of the target into an image in the visible spectrum necessary for the operator. The NVD consists of a lens, a Dewar cooler for the detector, a PBC display and a monocular that provides the gunner with 4 multiple and 9 multiple magnification for detecting and identifying targets.
- Dewar cooler for the detector. It cools the night vision scope to the required operating temperature and converts the infrared energy into electrical signals. These signals are transmitted to the CPB display by means of a signal processing device in order to provide the operator with an image of the target area.
—The PBC display resembles a miniature television by means of which the operator has the ability to use a wide and narrow field of view, as well as use it as an infrared surveillance device.
—The Electron Beam Tube (CRT) converts the electrical signals of a signal processing device into images visible to the operator.
—The PBC status indicators are fourteen icons located along the perimeter of the PBC display. The icons identify operating modes, conditions and faults presented in green, yellow and red colors. The icons provide the operator with continuous information on the current readiness of the rocket or on possible system malfunctions, visible day and night.
—The monocular allows the operator to see the PBC display. Through the monocular, the operator sees daytime vision, wide and narrow night vision fields, the field of vision of the homing head and system status indicators. A monpcular consists of a lens, an eyecup and an adjustment ring for diopters. The operator uses the diopter adjustment ring to adjust the sharpness of the image.
—The control plug is used to perform immediate maintenance work or to maintain a higher level and interaction with training equipment.
- The round interface connector provides the electrical connection between the PBC and the rocket.
—The humidity indicator displays the state of air inside the CPB (white or blue is an acceptable level; pink indicates maintenance is required).
The rocket in the transport and launch container consists of the cylindrical transport and launch container, the power supply and cooling unit, and the rocket itself. The rocket has a 10-year storage life. The only requirement for maintenance is inventory control.
The transport and launch container serves as a launching platform and a rocket transfer container. It is a solid structure made of carbon fiber with epoxy resin (carbon). The transport and launch container protects the rocket from environmental influences prior to launch. All other components are mounted on the outside of the container. After the launch of the rocket, the transport and launch container is discarded.
The power and cooling unit contains the battery compartment and the refrigerant section (compressed gas). Before launching the rocket, the coolant cools the homing head of the rocket to the required temperature. The power and cooling unit is a one-time item, valid for about 4 minutes. Immediately after the launch of the rocket, the spent power supply and cooling unit is discarded along with the transport and launch container.
The rocket consists of sections of guidance, the main part, the warhead, the propulsion system and the drive control section.
Guidance system provides target tracking and flight control signals. This system is located in the front of the rocket and includes a homing head and an electronic guidance unit.
-Section homing heads includes an infrared missile detector and a warhead fuse. This system allows the operator to operate in the "shot-forgotten" mode. During the flight of the missile to the target, this system tracks the target and sends information about the location of the target to the electronic control unit.
—Electronic block guidance performs two functions: it controls the GOS so that it always stays on the target and sends signals to the drive section so that the missile is aimed at the target.
Main part A missile includes a missile shell, an electronic protection system, the deployment of a warhead on a combat platoon and firing, wings and the main charge of the warhead.
—Rocket shell It is a structural part and provides protection for internal components in flight. When the rocket is located in the transport and launch container, the wings are in the folded state in the slots of the rocket shell and unfold after the rocket leaves the transport and launch container.
—Electronic protection system, putting a warhead on a platoon and firing (ESAF) is the primary safety measure to prevent accidental starting of engines and accidental detonation of a warhead. The system consists of an electrical circuit and two detonators (one for the leader, the other for the main charge). The ESAF system controls the rocket launch sequence and warhead detonation. It allows you to launch rocket engines in the correct sequence when the operator presses the trigger and all other firing conditions are met. When a rocket hits the target, the system consistently triggers every warhead.
-Wings provide climb and stabilize the rocket during the flight.
Rocket Javelin equipped with a tandem warhead consisting of leading and main charges.
—Lead charge is cumulative and is designed to neutralize the dynamic protection of armored vehicles located on the main armor before it reaches the main charge. After neutralizing the dynamic protection, the main body of the target remains open to the main warhead. In the absence of a dynamic defense target, the leading charge provides additional armor penetration of the rocket.
—Main charge is the second in the tandem warhead and also represents a shaped charge. His main task is to break through the main armor and the destruction of technology.
Propulsion system consists of starting and marching engines.
—Starting engine removes the rocket from the transport and launch container. It attaches to the rocket the initial acceleration and removes it at a safe distance for the operator before the main engine turns on. The starting engine is completely burned out before the rocket leaves the transport and launch container, which also ensures that the launch is inconspicuous.
—Marching engine works throughout the flight of the rocket to the target. It is launched when the rocket is at a safe distance from the operator, thereby protecting him from the jet of hot exhaust gases.
Drive control section allows the rocket to maneuver during flight and provides internal electrical energy. The drive control section consists of four flaps, four engines with thrust vector control and a thermal battery.
—Flaps maneuver the rocket during the flight. Under the action of the springs, the flaps automatically open and fixed in the flight position after the rocket leaves the transport and launch container. During the flight, they automatically adjust to guide the missile at the target.
—Thrust vectoring helps the flaps of the rocket to maneuver during flight by deflecting the main engine nozzle. They change the angle of the thrust of the main engine, which leads to a change in the flight path of the rocket.
—Thermal battery provides a flying rocket with internal electrical energy. The battery is located in the rocket body.
POSITION OF SHOOTING
From the knee
Lying down (on the front cap)
Correct shooting position
The operator can select one of the other attack modes of the target: from the top or in a straight line. Each mode has its own profile and flight path.
Top Attack Mode is the default mode when activating the homing system. In this attack mode, a rocket hits a target at the top of its part. This feature allows the operator to attack armored vehicles from the front, rear, or sides, and significantly increases the probability of destroying the target. The upper part of the armored vehicles are usually weaker protected. Attacking a target from above also makes it impossible for the enemy’s equipment to hide behind the front cover. The minimum firing range is 150 meters.
The exact profile of the rocket’s flight path depends on the distance to the target and is automatically determined by the onboard software of the rocket. When firing at a target located at a distance of 2000 meters, the rocket reaches a height of about 160 meters above the battlefield. If the target is under a protective canopy, then shooting in the attack mode from above will lead to the detonation of the rocket at the shelter, and not at the target. In such cases, the operator can choose the mode of direct attack.
Direct attack mode can only be selected after cooling the homing and before capturing the target. To change the attack mode, the operator needs to switch the ATTK SEL toggle switch located on the right-hand grip (to a position away from itself). In direct attack mode, a rocket follows a more direct trajectory. The rocket hits and detonates on the side projection of the target (in front, behind or from the side). The shortest firing range is 65 meters.
The exact profile of the rocket’s flight path depends on the distance to the target and is automatically determined by the onboard software of the rocket. When firing at a target located at a distance of 2000 meters, the rocket reaches a height of about 60 meters above the battlefield. This trajectory allows the rocket to reach the target under a protective canopy.
The cause of the behind-the-scenes flame Javelina is the starting and sustainer engines. Javelin has almost no recoil since gases escape through the back weapons. This, in turn, may cause damage to the backfire flame of the equipment or seriously injure the personnel being too close to the rear of the transport and launch canister during firing.
Javelina’s area of backfire flame is within 100 meters to the rear and up to 25 meters away from the launcher and forms a dangerous zone in 60 °. It is divided into the primary most dangerous zone and two less dangerous zones.
—The main danger zone is a sector of 60 ° whose top is at the rear end of the rocket's starting engine. The radius of the main danger zone is about 25 meters. In this zone, people can get seriously injured or even die. Part of the main danger zone is also distributed before the launcher, it ranges from 1 to 5 meters to the left and right of the center of the launcher.
—The less dangerous zone 1 is radially (25 meters) spread on each side of the main danger zone. Being in this zone during shooting may cause serious hearing damage to the fighters or other damage. In this zone, fighters should always wear noise protection headphones and goggles.
—Lessous 2 danger zone covers 100 meter radius to the rear of the launcher and 60 ° sector. A less dangerous 2 zone is a continuation of the rear of the main danger zone. Fighters who are shooting at 10 meters behind the main danger zone may suffer hearing impairment and eye damage. In this area, they should always wear noise protection headphones and goggles.
OPPORTUNITIES OF THE COMPLEX
—The Javelin's greatest firing range is 2000 meters.
—Javelin has a shot-and-forget system. The infrared missile guidance system (I²R) allows it, after launching, to aim independently at the target.
—Javelin has two attack modes:
—The top-down attack mode allows you to affect the least protected upper part of the target.
—The direct attack mode is designed to affect a side projection (front, rear, side) of the target.
“Operator Javelina is capable of launching up to three missiles within 2 minutes.
—The tandem cumulative warhead is capable of hitting any armored vehicles known to date.
—The night-vision glimpse (NVD) does not degrade the image of the target much.
- Countermeasures used by the enemy are compensated by the NVD filter.
—Javalin is a portable complex.
—Javel maneuverable at short distances.
—The shot-and-forget system allows the operator to shoot and take cover even before the rocket reaches the target.
—Javelina’s soft start allows its use from inside buildings and bunkers.
—The passive infrared guidance system used to capture a target cannot be detected by the enemy.
—The starting engine has low visibility. Blessed with Javelin’s relatively weak behind-the-scenes flame, it can be applied with a smaller, more difficult to detect, better protected position that gives the operator more chance to go unnoticed or, if found, to survive any return fire.
—The shot-and-forget system allows the operator to take cover immediately after the launch of the rocket.
—CBP does not allow target identification at distances over 2000 meters.
—The time of cooling the NVD is from 2.5 to 3.5 minutes.
- The cooling time of the GOS is about 10 seconds.
—The duration of operation of the power supply and cooling unit after activation is about 4-s minutes.
—In a time of limited visibility (natural or artificial), rain, snow, sleet, fog, smoke, smoke, dust, and night together are referred to as the conditions of limited visibility. The day sight may be useless under these conditions.
—The day sight uses daylight to provide an operator with a target image.
—The PNV uses the natural infrared radiation of objects. The infrared crossover at dawn and dusk is very close to the temperature allowing the target to merge with the terrain. In the case when the difference in the amount of infrared energy of the target and the background is low enough, neither Javelina’s PBC, nor its GOS are able to distinguish the target. This greatly reduces the performance of Javelina. This situation can last up to an hour, until either the background temperature or the temperature of the target changes so much that it is possible to detect the target.
—Natural interference, for example, the sun can heat objects to a target that is close enough to the temperature that merges with the terrain.
—An artificial noise appears in the presence of artificial objects emitting a large amount of infrared energy (for example, burning vehicles).
- Heavy fog reduces the ability of the operator to detect targets and fire.
—The rocket’s flight trajectory limits its use in wooded, mountainous and urban areas.
—The operator must have a direct visibility of the target by the homing head to capture the target.
—Weather Javelina slows down marches with him over long distances. When using Javelina in foot orders, the load on the soldier greatly increases. With a total system weight slightly less than 22-kg, Javelin is quite heavy. Despite the fact that Javelin is a portable complex, one soldier is not able to carry it easily on rough terrain for a long period.
The transport-launch container Javelina is bulky and restricts its movement with it in densely overgrown thickets.
“The operator must remain partially open by exposing himself to enemy fire.”
—The CFP requires direct visibility to capture targets.
—Javelin is primarily used to defeat tanks and other armored fighting vehicles. It has limited ability to hit bunkers, buildings, and other fortified targets commonly encountered during hostilities in populated areas.
—The minimum firing distance limits the use of the complex in densely built areas. Javelin can not be the main choice in combat operations in an urban environment where additional considerations have to be taken into account, including: fires can lead to the loss of a target to problems with its capture; interference on the battlefield can also cause problems with target acquisition and the aiming line can be limited to buildings.
—The unique flight trajectory of Javelina forces the operator to think in three dimensions. Urban development contains obstacles, such as road signs, lampposts and wires, which may be in the path of a rocket flight. When the top attack mode rocket Javelina takes about 160 with more than a meter of height reserve. In the direct attack mode, Javelin needs up to more than 60 extra height headroom.
—The minimum firing range of Javelina (150 meters in attack mode from above and 65 meters in direct attack mode) imposes a restriction on its use in populated areas. Only not many cases in urban combat allow the operator to fire outside the minimum range of fire. An operator is usually limited to firing along streets, railway lines, parks or squares. Javelin allows you to effectively fire from the upper floors of buildings or roofs of buildings on other buildings.
—When the operator gets the opportunity to hit the target, he may simply not have time to take advantage of this opportunity. The cooling time of the NVD is from 2.5 to 3.5 minutes. The cooling time of the GOS is about 10 seconds. From the moment the power and cooling unit is activated, the operator has a maximum of 4 minutes to hit the target. After this, the unit must be replaced. Shooting at vehicles crossing the street or moving between buildings is possible only for 10-15 seconds, that is, the operator may not have enough time to secure the target and launch a rocket.
—The soft start allows the operator to fire from inside buildings due to the fact that a slight overpressure or little flying debris is created.
—The tandem warhead is capable of penetrating typical urban targets. Breaking through does not mean simultaneous destruction of the structure. For attacking buildings, direct attack mode is selected. Enemy positions or bunkers located at a distance of no more than 150 meters are affected using the direct attack mode. Located at a distance of more than 150 meters are affected using either the direct attack mode or the top attack, depending on the situation.
—Javel is not effective for breaking load-bearing walls. Anti-tank guided missiles (ATGM) are not designed for the effective destruction of load-bearing walls. All ATGMs including Javelins are designed to create a small hole and penetrate armor. The destruction of the walls involves the creation of a large hole. The use of ATGM is the least effective means of destruction of load-bearing walls. ATGM is better to use against armored vehicles or for the destruction of enemy fortified combat positions.
—For firing at helicopters, Javevelin should be used in direct attack mode. Helicopter rotors can adversely affect rocket sensors in the top attack mode and lead to an unpredictable rocket flight and loss of a target.
Alternative designation - Medium modern anti-tank complex (AAWS-M)
Country of origin - USA
Date of adoption - 1996,
Calculation - 1-3 rights
Command start block (CPB) M98A1
Weight— 6.42 kg, including battery, carrying bag and cleaning kit
Dimensions (LxWxH) —348.2x499.1x338.8 mm
The multiplicity of day sight - 4X
Field of view day sight - 4.80 ° x6.40 °
The multiplicity of night sight with a wide field of view - 4.2X
Wide Range Night Sight - 4,58 ° x 6,11 °
The multiplicity of night sight with a narrow field of view - 9.2X
Field of view night sight - 2.00 ° x 3.00 ° (approximately)
Battery type - Lithium Sulfur Dioxide (LiSO2) BA-5590 / U, disposable
Battery life - 4 hours at temperatures below 49 ° C; 3 hours ranging from 10 ° C to 49 ° C; 1 hour at a temperature of from –49 ° С to 10 ° С; 0.5 hours at temperatures above 49 ° C
Battery weight - 1.0 kg
Price - $ 126000 (2002 g.)
Rocket in the transport and launch container and power supply and cooling unit
Length - 1209 mm
Diameter with a plug - 298.5 mm
Internal diameter - 140.2 mm
The smallest firing range: when attacking on a hinged trajectory -150 m; when attacking in a straight path -65 m
Maximum range of effective fire - 2000 m
Flight time - about 4.6 seconds to a distance of 1000 meters; 14.5 seconds to 2000 meters
The guidance system is infrared, "shot-forget"
Price - $ 78000 (2002 g.)
Power and Cooling Unit (BCU)
Weight - 1.32 kg
Dimensions (L x W) - 207.3 x 117.6 mm
Type - lithium disposable
Lifetime - 4 minutes