Military Review

Newest US Navy Destroyer Managed by Linux

Previously, they only joked about it - the Linux rocket. Here is no joke. The destroyer information system of the new generation Zumwalt (DDG 1000), which is scheduled to launch on 2015, will be based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux. USS Zumwalt will be a floating data center, supported by missiles and robotic guns.

Figure 1. USS Zumwalt is covered with a coat of paint at the Bath Iron factory. The ship is exotic in many ways, but it works on the computer technology available on the market.

When the USS Zumwalt (DDG 1000) goes to sea at the end of this year, it will be different from any other Navy ship in many ways. The ship for $ 3,5 billion is designed for stealth, survivability and firepower, and it is packed with advanced technology. And at the core of his work is a virtual data center that runs on commercially available server hardware, various Linux components that use more than 6 millions of lines of software code.

October 10 Sean Gallagher flew to Rhode Island to visit Raytheon's Seapower Capability Center in Portsmouth, where engineers assemble and pretest systems in the heart of Zumwalt and prepare to do the same for the next ship in the series, USS Michael Monsoor, already in construction . There, Raytheon's DDG-1000 team invited him on an excursion to the main place of the ship's systems — the layout of the Zumwalt operations center, where the ship's commander and crew will monitor the ship's sensors, rocket launchers, artillery and other systems.

More than 20 years ago, Sean served a few miles from the Raytheon facility at a naval officer school. But the Zumwalt operational center will have more in common with the bridge of the fictional starship USS Enterprise than with the combat information centers of the ship that Sean went to. Each Zumwalt console will be equipped with touch screens and software capable of responding to the needs of any operator on duty, and large screens on the front wall will show tactical areas of the sea, land and air.

Therefore, it is logical that Captain James Kirk ** became the first commander of Zumwalt (yes, this is actually his name). But, considering how much the ship relies on its computer networks, it may be necessary to consider the candidacy of the chief engineer named Vint Cerf *.

From the store shelf to the ship

In the past, you couldn’t just choose ready-made computer systems on board a ship for mission-critical tasks: when Sean was aboard the USS Iowa, the sailors had to turn off tactless systems while firing guns, in order to avoid vibration shock, causing severe system crashes. Usually, individually developed computer systems of increased strength were used. This entailed a large increase in the cost of the systems and made it more difficult to maintain them.

Figure 2. Data Center Box: Electronic modular enclosures manufactured by Raytheon in Portsmouth, Rhode Island.

The Zumwalt design solves this problem by using IBM's “IBM blade servers” that are freely available and running Red Hat Linux, and placing them in robust server rooms. These secure server rooms are called Electronic Modular Enclosures (Electronic Modular Enclosures, EMEs) - sixteen autonomous mini data centers manufactured by Raytheon.

10,67X2,44X3,66 meters in size (35 feet long, 8 feet high and 12 feet wide), these 16 modular enclosures (EME) contain a total of more than 235 cabinets (racks) of equipment. The modular hulls were configured and pre-tested before being sent to Bath, Maine, for installation on the Zumwalt. The use of modular housings reduces the overall cost of the equipment itself, and also allows Raytheon to pre-integrate systems before installation. “It’s expensive to do this job at the shipyard,” says Ray Motion DDG-1000’s Deputy Program Manager Tom Moore, “and so we’ve done well with limited access time.”

Each of the modules (EME) has its own shock and vibration dampers, power protection, water cooling systems, electromagnetic shielding to prevent interference from shipborne radars and other strong sources of radio frequencies.

EME modules are combined into a general ship computing environment, Zumwalt's own “Internet”. The connection is realized by combining fiber-optic and copper over-switched network system TSCE, connecting all systems: ship's internal and external communications, weapons, technology, sensors, etc. - on top of Internet protocols, including TCP and UDP. Almost all of the ship’s internal communications are based on Voice Over IP (with the exception of a few, for use in emergency situations, time-tested old school phones).

Figure 3. Diagram of Zumwalt control systems and their means of connection to an all-computing computing environment

On board the Zumwalt, there are also some wireless networking capabilities, but Raytheon officials, while touring, did not give out a specific type of system to Sean. However, their capabilities are designed to provide personnel with network connectivity while performing various tasks, such as maintenance.

Products that were not created by plugging into an IP network — various ship systems that are installed on several classes of Navy ships — are connected using adapters based on single-board computers and Lynx OS (real-time Linux operating system). The so-called distributed adaptation processors, or DAPs (Distributed Adaptation Processors), are ways of connecting things like ship engineering systems, fire extinguishing systems, rocket launchers, and radio and satellite communications to the network. All this should be controlled by network clients.

Looks like you want to launch a rocket

Some of these network clients Sean watched while admiring the layout of the Zumwalt Operations Center. The operations center is not just the place where people look at the screens and give commands: you can operate the whole ship almost from space, from cannons and rockets to engines. There is no “radio room” on the Zumwalt; All communications are controlled from the operations center. Shipborne guns are fully automated and controlled by the duty center of the operations center, instead of the assistant gunner. Theoretically, the ship can even be controlled from a piloting computer, and not the helmsman. And all these tasks are performed through a single type of console.

Figure 4. The mockup of the Zumwalt operations center on the Raytheon Portsmouth facility, covered in smoky gray paint, has the exact dimensions of the room on the ship itself. Zumwalt will also have a second floor, providing operations deployed with the ship units

Figure 5. The Mark 57 vertical launch system, developed by Raytheon, can carry a mixture of anti-ship missiles, anti-aircraft missiles, and to destroy a ground target. The system communicates with the control center via the ship network.

The common display system (Common Display System, “common display systems”, or CDS, pronounced “Keds”), three screens of the workstation in the operations center, operates on a collection of Intel 4-core processors on protected boards, which gives a new meaning marine phrase "toe buster". Even on the places of the commander and executive officer are built these workstations.

Each CDS system can run multiple Linux virtual machines in kernel split mode on top of LynuxWorx LynxSecure, implemented in CDS as a hypervisor. This allows the workstation to distinguish between security levels and available targets when connecting to different networks. "Each station is taken from the same box," said Raytheon DDG-1000 lead developer Robert Froncillo to Sean. “So you can sit at any display, exercising your level of control from any station.”

For most people, this may not seem like a big deal. But on the ships of the past, as a rule, workstations specially built for each particular weapon system or sensor were used. This meant that each system had its own different interface configurations, and you could not cope with several tasks without having to switch places. CDS workstations use common USB interfaces for peripherals (for example, trackballs and dedicated keypads) and are equipped with a touch screen, and also give the operator on duty a choice of "classic" and touch interfaces.

This does not mean difficulties in the development of system operators. The Raytheon team, before writing the code, investigated the requests of the seamen, showing them screenshots of the interface and receiving feedback from users. “The chief said: the wizard is not needed,” explains Froncillo.

Figure 6. Digital illustration of how the Zumwalt Operations Center, complete with apartments on the second floor, will look like for operations of air units and other deployed units

Putting all the pieces together allows middleware running on IBM blade servers. Many ship systems use commercial middleware platforms to communicate with carrier consoles. But for systems that need to be more closely related (for example, missile launch teams), the Navy chose to use the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (the common architecture of the object request broker, CORBA) —a military-favorite solution to the critical intermediate model. (Software for Joint Tactical Radio System's software — a joint tactical radio system — also uses CORBA.)

Next release

Figure 7. Zumwalt at the metallurgical plant in Bath. DDG-1001, USS Michael Monsoor, who follows him, is ready for more than 60 percent.

Although Zumwalt has not yet sailed, its software has been updated six times already. When the 5 version was completed, Raytheon attracted even more sailors to test the system, using the entire ship simulator to go through a certain number of combat scenarios. "We conducted anti-submarine, air, and ground missions," Froncillo said. Lessons learned were reflected in the 6 release, and 7 will be installed on the ship before the test cruise. The next update will be installed upon delivery, and then continuous improvements will be made as the software is deployed on two other ships of the series.

But the life of the technology deployed on Zumwalt does not end there. The CDS control console will be used as part of the Aegis guided missile system upgrade program for cruisers and destroyers. "There are many things we develop that will be reused," said Tom Moore.

Given the costs over the past ten years to build Zumwalt, as well as the various technologies developed in the process, it is safe to say that many of these will receive a number of additional applications.

Additional links:
by Sean Gallagher - Oct 18, 2013
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  1. mirag2
    mirag2 23 October 2013 09: 13 New
    What can I say?
    1) You can say, all this sucks, and feces, Americans are cutting the budget, they are perverted with screens, buttons, networks, and other IT garbage, and if you shake this nuclear weapons ship, everything in it burns up in FIG.
    2) And we can say this: great. It is precisely the advanced electronics of the Americans that do not burn in space, it is with its help that the missile’s flight is calculated to the extent of hitting the target and defeating it with a kinetic blow (rather than an explosion in the region of tens of meters), which allows you to not rocket explosives and other perspectives.
    It is because of the electronics that their air-to-air missiles are better than ours.
    It is because of her that their electronic warfare system is stronger than ours.
    We must not rave about their robots and other things, but try to create something similar, taking into account the best of what is in the West, thank God that we can skip the waste of resources for experiments, and immediately pay attention to the best from abroad.
    1. Civil
      Civil 23 October 2013 09: 37 New
      I read that our Linux identity is not disdain, and only combat use will give an assessment of this project. It may well be that this is more a demonstrator ...
      1. Turik
        Turik 23 October 2013 11: 21 New
        As a person involved in programming, I declare responsibly: American specialists are tormented by copulating with Linux software.

        He himself raped as a student at the institute, but more often - he me. In addition to the mat and a wild desire to break the monitor with my elbow, I don’t remember anything more positive from the experience with him.
        1. Geisenberg
          Geisenberg 23 October 2013 12: 52 New
          Quote: Turik
          As a person involved in programming, I declare responsibly: American specialists are tormented by copulating with Linux software.

          He himself raped as a student at the institute, but more often - he me. In addition to the mat and a wild desire to break the monitor with my elbow, I don’t remember anything more positive from the experience with him.

          "A tie interferes with a bad dancer" As a student, I did things with Linux that I’m even ashamed to talk about. The system is as open as it gets.

          Unfortunately, we are unlikely to be told how this technological monster will actually turn out worth the annual budget of all the Baltic republics combined.

          Judging by the description of the data center, the system is certainly serious.

          PS: now anti-ship missiles will fly in pairs so that it is guaranteed to hit such ships ...
          1. mixxlll
            mixxlll 23 October 2013 23: 23 New
            It turns out 3 systems in one:
            a mixture of anti-ship missiles, anti-aircraft, and to hit a ground target.
            How it will work after six months of swimming, and if suddenly a failure, love will eat a lot of energy.
        2. Walker1975
          Walker1975 23 October 2013 13: 02 New
          It was not necessary to force him - it is necessary to love :))
        3. Wedmak
          Wedmak 23 October 2013 14: 01 New
          In addition to the mat and a wild desire to break the monitor with my elbow, I don’t remember anything more positive from the experience with him.

          In vain ... linukh systems can work for years without hanging and without errors. Itself made a mini-server: mail, vpn, distribution of the Internet. On ordinary pieces of iron from the store. They put it ... and remembered it only when it was mate. the board burned out. In 6 years ...
          Configured by Linux direct, it can work for decades.
        4. JonnyT
          JonnyT 23 October 2013 21: 08 New
          Linux is a very reliable and flexible system - program as you like.
      2. Albert1988
        Albert1988 23 October 2013 20: 00 New
        Quote: Civil
        It may well be that this is more a demonstrator ...

        Initially, the Zamvolts were planned as purely experimental ships - in fact, floating laboratories for the development of promising ship systems and design solutions.
        1. patsantre
          patsantre 24 October 2013 01: 19 New
          Initially, they were supposed to be 32 pieces and they were supposed to serve to strike at ground targets.
          1. Albert1988
            Albert1988 24 October 2013 17: 11 New
            Quote: patsantre
            Initially, they were supposed to be 32 pieces and they were supposed to serve to strike at ground targets.

            Well, as far as I know, such a vision of this project was only in the early stages, when there were no ships in the iron or they were just starting to be built. Americans often have similar changes in the course of new projects.
      3. Andrey Skokovsky
        Andrey Skokovsky 1 November 2013 13: 28 New
        guys, you missed an interesting parallel
        Americans have built their American "Aurora" !!!
        such boats are very fond of being museums and historical monuments, and most of all they like to shoot at the "palaces" of their native country
        I hope the sign will work and the boat will really show on whose jo .. have it piled
        1. Andriuha077
          1 November 2013 13: 35 New
          "and the boat will really show"
          Plus, and in satellite mode, controlled by Russian hackers from the "doneunas (ru)" community.
          At the hour of He, minute Play, a brief moment,
          fire systems activated
          and while the staff floated out of the foam,
          each of the three boats
          covered at point-blank range on 3-4 carrier groups.
    2. Albert1988
      Albert1988 23 October 2013 20: 06 New
      Quote: mirag2
      We must not rave about their robots and other things, but try to create something similar, taking into account the best of what is in the West, thank God that we can skip the waste of resources for experiments, and immediately pay attention to the best from abroad.

      Most likely it will be so, here is the same T-50 PAK FA - according to a good friend, a graduate of the Moscow Aviation Institute, this machine was developed taking into account many design solutions used on the F-22 Raptor, this primarily relates to stealth technologies and some features fillings, so that in other areas of the defense industry this principle can also be implemented.
      PS By the way, if you pay attention to smartphones from Apple and, for example, from Samsung, you will see a good pattern - they are cheaper, more powerful and for the most part better in functionality from Samsung than iPhones, but why? "Yabloko" is forced to spend a huge amount of resources on innovations, and "Samsung" repeat the already known principles and have the means to optimize and add something else) We can implement the same principle with respect to Americans))
      1. vanaheym
        vanaheym 28 October 2013 12: 59 New
        Quote: Albert1988
        "Yabloko" is forced to spend a huge amount of resources on innovation, and "Samsung" repeat already known principles and have the means to optimize and add something else)

        What kind of innovation did Apple come up with that Samsung repeated? Samsung memory and processors? Sony cameras? LG / Sharp Displays?
        Big round button? iOS which is used only in Apple products? Or maybe GSM / 3G / LTE / WiFi in the phone - an invention of Apple?
  2. Su-9
    Su-9 23 October 2013 09: 35 New
    The article is certainly interesting, but the translation is so difficult ... If anyone does not know, Vint Cerf is such an old guy, allegedly one of the "creators" of TSPAIP and, accordingly, the Internet.
    Well, now on the topic. The fact that this is probably the first ship along which a normal network was stretched is of course very interesting, and should maximize its effectiveness.
    If the Americans duplicated everything in mechanics, then you will not really dig into such an architecture. Of course, problems with freezing will arise during debugging of network software.
    But with Linux, Ryeton is not so simple. I'm a little in the subject. This is not at all the Linux that is freely available. And the question is not even in the preconditioned protection against hackers, but in the degree of certification of the system that is put on military equipment. Rayeton must certify all systems up to the so-called "Level 7 IEL". And in general it is very difficult to do this, and has not yet been done, and a lot of modules must be rewritten. Considering that it is also necessary to certify and test the hypervisor and all the so advertised virtualization, it will work there for another five years, if everything goes smoothly. And only after that it will be possible to do all the real tests of the equipment. Therefore, even if the Americans cheerfully report that Zumwalt swims and guards freedom and democracy, then in the next 6-7 years it will not be a full-fledged and proven combat unit.
    1. silver_roman
      silver_roman 23 October 2013 12: 51 New
      I don’t know about the network and linux accounts, but the fact that they are trying to make everything unified is a fact. The case will also be modular, i.e. you need to change something, you won’t need to distort the whole ship. Our shipbuilders also go to this.
      Of course the appearance is exotic.
      ps I hope he will sink faster than swim!
  3. Blinov_I
    Blinov_I 23 October 2013 09: 45 New
    I am a little versed in server hardware and, without disputing the qualifications of Raytheon engineers, I am simply amazed - why 16 modules for one ship! I suspect that the basis is standard data centers in 20 foot containers + power supplies, anti-vibration devices and other naval gadgets. This standard module provides cellular communication of one operator in a city such as Vladivostok. (I’m exaggerating it a bit, because I’m 100% not sure). What tasks can be for such a computing cluster?
    1. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 23 October 2013 10: 53 New
      Probably in order to serve neighboring ships, aircraft, etc. plus reservation.
      I, too, don’t really imagine what such computing power is for.
    2. Geisenberg
      Geisenberg 23 October 2013 12: 58 New
      Quote: Blinov_I
      What tasks can be for such a computing cluster?

      Real time simulation. That is, all data is digitized and in real time supplement the current model of the world surrounding the geometric center of the object. The second task is an expert system offering behavioral options. More than sure that they are already trying to create an independent combat expert system.

      Even if they can simply reduce the crew to 100 people, it will be unrealistically cool.
      1. abrakadabre
        abrakadabre 24 October 2013 10: 04 New
        Yes, I am aware of what modeling is. Just such a powerful cluster ...
  4. ivshubarin
    ivshubarin 23 October 2013 10: 01 New
    Americans love expensive toys
    1. Versed
      Versed 23 October 2013 13: 20 New
      This is not a toy, this is a warship that can sink any Russian ship.

      The new destroyer Zamvolt is the ships of the future already in the present.
      1. e3tozy
        e3tozy 23 October 2013 16: 46 New
        Do not say gop until you jump. In a massacre between Russia and the United States, such electronic toys, together with space ones, will very quickly turn into rubbish for trillions (without the massive use of nuclear weapons.)
  5. scientist
    scientist 23 October 2013 10: 32 New
    Judging by the equipment, it will be a command post for remote control of combat operations. The theory and experience suggests that hacking any system costs an order of magnitude cheaper than protecting it. Therefore, as soon as the DDG 1000 tests begin, our and Chinese military hackers will begin the competition, who will quickly penetrate the network of this floating computer. I think they can cope in six months.
  6. Evgeny_Lev
    Evgeny_Lev 23 October 2013 10: 51 New
    And if LochKid releases Zumwalt 2.0 with a new case design next year, will pandos rush to buy it?

    I mean, a child of the next generation, at the age of 6-7 years old, will be able to ascertain that this old UG can be broken while sitting on a pot.
  7. Alexey
    Alexey 23 October 2013 12: 00 New
    Until now, the Anglo-Saxon "Destroyer" is traditionally translated as a destroyer. In relation to this product, such a term is clearly inadequate. Much closer to "cruiser", or even "imperial cruiser" smile
    1. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 24 October 2013 10: 06 New
      Especially since the nose is already pointed to the classic Star Destroyer laughing
  8. Nitup
    Nitup 23 October 2013 12: 44 New
    Who will say what is the point of making a stem with a reverse tilt, like in Zumwalt?
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 23 October 2013 13: 05 New
      Quote: Nitup
      Who will say what is the point of making a stem with a reverse tilt, like in Zumwalt?

      so on the deck there no one is running around, fill it up ... and it’s better to cut the waves ...
      1. spravochnik
        spravochnik 25 October 2013 22: 34 New
        It can cut better, but what about using weapons? At the time of the opening of the launching mines (and he doesn’t have a DP, but on the side) does the ship just cut through the wave? And if this happens in the northern latitudes, where does freezing of structures take place?
    2. gena
      gena 24 October 2013 00: 57 New
      Yes, it’s also not clear. It’s bursting its nose into the wave and no damper compensators will help.
  9. Kowalsky
    Kowalsky 23 October 2013 13: 49 New
    The captain of the next in the series, as I understand it, will be Darth Vader or Luke Skywalker? :)
  10. cormorant
    cormorant 23 October 2013 14: 04 New
    "The $ 3,5 billion ship is designed for stealth, survivability and firepower, and it's packed with cutting edge technology."

    They will now hide this iron in skerries as well as its invisible F-22. laughing "Granite" will not think the target is packed with advanced technology or not.
  11. sys-1985
    sys-1985 23 October 2013 14: 23 New
    We also seem to be the last of the Linux kernel development. More flexible - more convenient. Sculpt whatever you want. The code is open, and this is important !!!
  12. USNik
    USNik 23 October 2013 14: 27 New
    An expensive and powerful enemy crammed with electronic warfare and intelligence. But here about this:
    Although Zumwalt has not yet sailed, its software has been updated six times.
    I want to joke that if he is hacked and the lousy version of the firmware is downloaded, he won’t go far. winked And yet, where is the pair of vaunted EMFs on the nose?
  13. Silkway0026
    Silkway0026 23 October 2013 15: 39 New
    Zadornov is still right. this one.

    and the second - sometimes it’s not bad to fall behind in something - it’s easier to sort the mistakes ahead of those running than their own.
    Here’s the West, see how it has progressed in the matter of democracy and progress: men marry men, women - women, the church (!!!) blesses their marriages, one parent, two parents .... and see such progress.

    and regarding this particular piece of iron - yes, our Indians, Chinese hack it for a sweet soul ... and wash Indians, how many times they washed their beautiful toys - all kinds of super-stealths in the rain not flying, and visible to those who don’t knew about their invisibility)))
  14. Kibalchish
    Kibalchish 23 October 2013 16: 16 New
    Linux is a DIY kit. This is what he is good at. Unlike buggy Windows. On the basis of it, the Americans can have their own quite suitable OS. And ours could.
    1. Wedmak
      Wedmak 23 October 2013 16: 44 New
      And where is the "Start ICBM" button? request
      1. Ducksar
        Ducksar 24 October 2013 17: 58 New
        choose a country, press enter
    2. Andriuha077
      23 October 2013 18: 59 New
      "And ours could."
      Mobile Armed Forces System (MSWS): Special distribution developed on the basis of RedHat for the needs of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation distribution_list +OS+Habra
      Operating System - Clustrx T-Platforms Edition
      "At the moment, Clustrx® has no analogues not only in the CIS, but also in the world. Most of it is developed by us from scratch, and we have done a great job to create a flexible and efficient system platform suitable for large installations of teraflop, pet-flop and exaflop performance levels. Our goal is to ensure efficient operation of systems with both heterogeneous and hybrid architectures. "
      The new software package will be delivered both as part of the high-performance solutions of the T-Platforms company, and as a separate product. In addition, in the near future the developers are planning to create a version of Clustrx® for personal supercomputers. The MCST company for VK with the SPARC and Elbrus architecture created, maintains and constantly develops the Elbrus OS operating system. It is based on the Linux kernel.
      To use the Elbrus VK series in a number of critical systems, fundamental work has been done to transform the Linux OS into an operating system that supports hard real-time operation.
      At the core of the Elbrus operating system, a set of information protection tools (ISIS) from unauthorized access (NSD) is built-in. KSZI from NSD Elbrus OS provides the opportunity to use the Elbrus series of computer technology (SVT) as part of the VK for the construction of automated systems with protection classes from NSD 3А, 2А, 1Б, 1А and below, according to the guidance documents of the State Technical Commission.
      Based on the Elbrus-S processor, four processor modules MV3S / C were built, which they plan to use in modern military equipment.
      Low power output allows passive cooling.
      Whether we will see it in civil engineering is not known. Xnumx
  15. xomaNN
    xomaNN 23 October 2013 16: 44 New
    "Better to be rich ..." The foe has money for such expensive toys, but we, unfortunately, do not sad It remains to look for an asymmetric answer!
    1. Witold
      Witold 24 October 2013 00: 12 New
      You also had money, but they sailed to the Americans and continue to float. And they build their ships on them.
  16. viktor_ui
    viktor_ui 23 October 2013 19: 22 New
    An extremely interesting article for me personally in terms of information on a product with technologies from a country of the 6th level of development ... I just can’t get it right, how can a country, which is located at the edge of financial and other abysses, produce such products? It has first-class science and technology, and even an army, and how a sponge absorbs both good and bad from all over the ball and, apparently, there is more good, since the output is similar ??? Wonders... wassat Well, okay, this sarcasm ... But interestingly, France has completed its underwater telescope ??? Again sarcasm.
    xomaNN - it's not only about the "foe's" money, because their presence is half of the solution to any issue ... the second half is the presence of the required number of developed brains in all priority areas, coupled with a full-fledged production culture and no ugly like ala Stouretkin Popovkin and others like them. Asymmetric responses in the style of a nuclear club and EMP are already starting to set the teeth on edge (this is not about you) + reanimation of vigorous locomotives from shaggy years.
    My respect to the author drinks
  17. e3tozy
    e3tozy 23 October 2013 19: 25 New
    Cheops pyramid with a server (first association).
  18. Crang
    Crang 23 October 2013 22: 57 New
    Good armadillo. We need to build the same. Only with powerful armor and dynamic protection.
    1. Andriuha077
      23 October 2013 23: 57 New
      PVLS (Eng. Peripheral Vertical Launching System, peripheral vertical launch launcher) - a promising launcher developed by Raytheon for destroyers such as "Zamvolt" US Navy. In contrast to the vertical launch launchers (UVP) of the Mk 41, Mk 48 type and the like, the PVLS UVP modules are located along the side and are separated from the main volume by an armored partition, which increases the survivability of the ship in case of combat damage, explosion or abnormal operation of the rocket engine inside the UVP .
      Since 2003, PVLS has received the official name Mk 57.
  19. Governor
    Governor 23 October 2013 23: 09 New
    - The ship cannot launch the rocket, update the software ...
    - No connection to the Internet, try restarting the ship ...
    - Do not unplug the power cable while you are sinking ...
    Oh, that electronics!
  20. mirror
    mirror 24 October 2013 00: 28 New
    Is it better like this? Project 956 destroyer KPS. Teachings. The year, in my opinion, is 1989. According to the scenario of the exercises, the ship must establish contact with the submarine of the Polish Navy and the ship of the GDR NVMF. Communication is not established. Above the loud speaker from the bridge rushes the admiral's mat, demands for communication. But there is no connection, in KPS no one wants to pick up a microphone and answer. The sailor-messenger runs around the ship and carries telegrams to the command received through the BPCh channels in a bag on his side. The ship shines on the air like a New Year tree, holding classified telephone channels and BPCh channels from the shore. By the way, on the BOD 1155 of the project, the ship's data transmission network was also replaced by a sailor with a bag on his side :-) On a German-built IPC, I remember, then I saw a pneumatic mail, which seemed to be the height of technical thought compared to our ships. Yes, and in other exercises from the headquarters to the KPU, for 40 minutes, a combat order was transmitted on the BPCh (and this is without any electronic warfare countermeasures by the enemy). And now the question: the EM 956 of the project is still in service, the BOD 1155 of the project too. And did data transmission networks appear on them? So why gossip about this Zumwolt? When will we get rid of the approach that has set the teeth on edge, when the ships will be judged by the sum of the weapons iron stuffed in them? To obtain high combat effectiveness, all hardware must be integrated, have brains that transmit the entire situation into a single control center. This is the only correct path today.
  21. ramin_serg
    ramin_serg 25 October 2013 12: 04 New
    Lunix comfortable and most importantly easy to use for personnel
  22. Andriuha077
    28 January 2014 00: 36 New
    IBM Blade Center ...

    By the way:

    Lenovo takes over IBM's x86 server business

    IBM and Lenovo have agreed on a Chinese company acquiring x86 server business. As part of the agreement, the System x, BladeCenter and Flex System series (servers and switches), Flex embedded systems, NeXtScale and iDataPlex servers, etc.

    Lenovo - a Chinese company, a former division of IBM

    Recall, this is not the first transaction of two companies. In 2005, the IBM personal computer and laptop business was also bought by the Chinese.
  23. Andriuha077
    19 August 2014 14: 59 New

    * Vinton Gray Surf (Eng. Vinton Gray “Vint” Cerf, 23 June 1943, New Haven (Connecticut), USA) - American scientist in the field of computer theory, one of the developers of the TCP / IP protocol stack. Awarded the Turing Prize in 2004. Often in the media he is called the "father of the Internet."
    In the photo: 2007 year, Surf plays in Spacewar! in the museum of computer history.

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux - Linux distribution "Little Red Riding Hood." Positioned for corporate use. The main feature is the availability of support for 10 years. Linux is the common name for Unix-like operating systems. The Linux kernel is created and distributed in accordance with the free and open source software development model. At the initial stage, Linux was developed free of charge only by volunteer enthusiasts, but with the success of Linux and its massive commercial use, the OS was developed and companies and companies began to contribute. The vast majority of software in modern distributions is still available under free licenses. Linus Benedict Torvalds, or Turvalds (Swedish. Linus Benedict Torvalds; December 28 1969, Helsinki, Finland) - Finnish programmer, hacker

    Linus Benedict Torvalds, or Turvalds (Swede. Linus Benedict Torvalds [ˈliːnɵs ˈtuːrvalds]; December 28 1969, Helsinki, Finland) - Finnish programmer, hacker. He created the kernel of the GNU / Linux operating system, which is currently the most common of the free operating systems. Torvalds's parents, Finnish Swedes Nils and Anna Torvalds, were radical students in the 1960's, his father was a communist, and spent the year in Moscow in the middle of the 1970.
    In his book “Just for Fun,” Torvalds writes that he chose the penguin as an emblem because one day a penguin pecked him at the zoo.
    One of the "Laws of Linus" reads: "With enough eyes, all errors lie on the surface."

    ** James Tiberius Kirk (English James Tiberius Kirk, in other translations - Kirk) ** James Tiberius Kirk (English James Tiberius Kirk, in other translations - Kirk) - the character of the science fiction television series Star Trek, the animated series and feature films.

    Sean Gallagher (Sean Gallagher) editor of Ars Technica. A former Navy officer, system administrator, and network systems integrator with 20 years of IT journalism experience, he lives and works in Baltimore, Maryland. Author: Sean Gallagher editor of Ars Technica. A former Navy officer, system administrator and network system integrator with 20 years of IT journalism experience, he lives and works in Baltimore, Maryland.
  24. Andriuha077
    21 January 2019 13: 40 New
    12 years of the Linux Foundation
    The Linux Foundation was founded on this day in 2007.
    Therefore, today we want to offer you to watch a video podcast from the TED conference with Linus Torvalds, the person who changed technologies twice - first with the Linux kernel, and then with Git:
    In an interview, Linus absolutely openly talks about his character traits, which shaped his philosophy regarding work and life.
    “I am completely satisfied with all the people who walk around and just look at the clouds. But I look at the ground and I want to fix the pothole that is right in front of me before I fall. ”