Lobby (from the English lobby - the lobby where members of parliament could communicate with outsiders), a specific institution of the political system, which is a mechanism of influence of private and public organizations - political parties, trade unions, corporations, business unions, etc. pressure) on parliamentary decision making. First of all, lobbyism refers to budget allocations, financial subsidies, leading posts in parliamentary committees, etc. Lobbyism first appeared in the United States, where lobbying with 1946 is regulated by federal law.
Now laid out on the shelves. There is a “Customer”, and it can be anyone — an individual, a group of individuals, a company, a corporation, or even a state. The main measure is solvency. The next link in the chain is a lobbying company. Let's call it "Artist".
The top ten largest lobbying firms in the United States now include (according to the results of 2001): Cassidy & Associates (revenue for the first half of 2002 amounted to $ 16 million 680 thousand), Patton Boggs ($ 10 million 260 thousand), Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld ($ 9 million 480 thousand), Verner, Liipfelt, Bernhard, McPherson and Hand ($ 8 million 840 thousand), Van Scoyoc Associates ($ 6 million 240 thousand), Greenberg Traurig ($ 8 million 675 thousand .), Williams & Jensen ($ 5 million 680 thousand), Barbour Griffith & Rogers ($ 5 million 480 thousand), Washington Council Ernst & Young ($ 5 million 500 thousand), Hogan & Hartson ($ 3 million 380 thousand).
And finally, the last link in the chain itself “Client” is a senator, a congressman. The customer can directly conclude “purchase and sale” contracts (this is called an innocent “donation to the electoral company”) with legal terms and directly before the client is elected to the post. Further, the "Contractor" undertakes the matter. And here it is not necessary, naturally to indiscriminately moss the lobbyist firm, that it is simply a courier for delivering a bribe to a congressman. Not. The lobbyist also undertakes the obligation to form a positive image of the “Client” through the media.
And as for me, even in the very definition of “Lobbyism” there is already a concept, as the pressure on the legislator to make a profitable decision. So, consider the forces that influence the decision making of the US legislative and executive authorities.
Let's go to the numbers:
Health and Pharmacy - $ 478,5 million
Finance, insurance, real estate - 453,5 million
Energy - $ 156,7 million
Insurance sector - 153,2 million
Oil and gas sector - $ 133,2 million
MIC Over - 87mln
Finance, insurance, real estate - 453,5 million
Energy - $ 156,7 million
Insurance sector - 153,2 million
Oil and gas sector - $ 133,2 million
MIC Over - 87mln
Naturally, this is not a complete list, but the main violins of the “orchestra”. There is also an agro-industrial complex and Koch Industries with its “Tea Party” and many others directly influencing domestic and indirect foreign policy. We must not forget about external "customers". As Zbigniew Brzezinski noted, the influence exerted by ethnic lobbies is rooted in the absence of a single body in the US government that plans and coordinates American foreign policy. Theoretically, this role should be played by the National Security Council, but in real life the National Security Council is so busy with workflow, ensuring the exchange of information between the presidential administration, the State Department, the CIA, etc., that there is not enough time or energy for strategic planning. As a result, the process of foreign policy decision-making becomes decentralized, fragmented and, therefore, subject to external influences. One of the old and effective lobbies is the Japanese, which has recently been losing ground, yielding to the rapidly gaining Chinese. But the real monsters lobbying their interests is the Israeli “AIPAC”.
US-Israel Public Relations Committee AIKOS (Eng. American Israel Public Affairs Committee, AIPAC) —American public organization whose goal is to influence the conduct of the pro-Israel policy in US foreign policy.
This relatively small group with a small lobby budget has achieved impressive results due to organization, reasonableness of actions, support at various levels. None of the lobbies could turn it away from their own American national interests, while at the same time convincing Americans that the interests of the United States and Israel are, in fact, indistinguishable. Having controlled media giants, such as leading television channels NBC and CBS, influential newspapers New York Times and Washington Post, other publications, they form public opinion. Israeli lobbyists also skillfully use pressure from below - from the voter to the congressman. Sympathetic voters, who are skillfully coordinated on the ground by AIPAC activists, literally flood their congressman or senator with letters, demanding that they take an advantageous decision for AIPAC. The politician, sitting in Washington, makes for himself the conclusion that for his electoral rating one needs to make a decision that his voters so strongly demand. Another source of power for AIPAC is the pro-Israel staff of the Congress apparatus. As Morris Emitay, the former head of AIPAC, once admitted, “there, a higher level (on Capitol Hill), there are a lot of guys who were destined to be born Jews and who willingly ... consider some issues through the prism of their Jewry ... All these guys are able to make decisions for those senators on these issues ... A lot can be done already at the level of the apparatus. ” Everywhere there is a blocking of information that is detrimental to US-Israeli relations, politicians who take a disadvantageous decision for AIPAC are subjected to the most severe pressure. Skillfully concluding tactical agreements with other lobbyists, they confidently promote their financial, legislative and military interests for over forty years. The power of this quantitative small and low-cost lobby is compared in effectiveness with lobbying titans, like the National Owners Association weapons (National Rifle Association) and the American Association of Retired Persons (American Association of Retired Persons). I suggest you evaluate the results of their work:
• The amount of US aid (in 2003 figures of the year) is 140 billions of dollars. Three billion a year!
• Strong diplomatic support. Since 1982, more than 30 resolutions of the UN Security Council have been imposed.
• Sanctions to individual countries. Iran. Iraq. Jackson-Weinik amendment.
• Ignoring Israel’s nuclear and chemical weapons
• Unlimited access to intelligence (no one in NATO!)
• The Iraq war was unleashed under pressure from the AIPAC. The oil lobby and the military industrial complex, of course, also “had a hand in this,” but from an economic point of view.
The United States in the form of access to oil is difficult to find an adequate rationale:
The Guardian of London in 2008 published excerpts from a new book about the Iraq war, Nobel Prize winner in economics, chief economist of the World Bank, Joseph Stiglitz. According to his calculations, only the first 10 days of hostilities in 2003 have cost the US $ 5,5 billions. He suggested that direct and indirect losses from this war would cost 6 trillions of humanity. Half of this amount will come from the United States. This list can be continued for a very long time. And one has only to wonder how the Israelis, without having budgets in lobbying comparable to Arab or retirement, achieve such results.
Of the “internal pressure groups” in the second (since 2010), the financial sector ranks first in terms of the number of bribes - kickbacks of funds spent on promoting their interests. The size of their “injections” and, as a result, their claims for changes in legislation are not comparable with all other lobbies. The Democratic Party has grown together (taken for dependency) fininternom, which only for 2008 year spent on promoting their interests 457 million dollars. The growth of the power of the financial lobby began with the presidency of Ronald Reagan. The production of goods and services began in the modern American economic model as a byproduct of making money. It seems that the United States is not a state that has a financial industry, but a financial industry that has its own state. How it works? Thanks to the financial lobby in Congress. "It is impossible to believe that a year after the global financial crisis, not only its main culprits did not suffer punishment, but the whole system remained intact," said political writer Ron Saskind, author of the book "Too Big to Fall." Quite indicative turned out история with the law of the Voice - Stigall. He did not allow the use of the savings of Americans in investment activities. And it was she who brought the main profits to investment banks. The Gramm-Lich-Blily law in 1999 canceled this ban, unleashing financial monsters with their hands in big-and-high-risk games. This game ended in 2008 with a global financial crisis and a partial loss of retirement savings by a significant part of the population, and not only in the United States. In order to save its financial sector, the government is implementing the “Paulsen Plan”. In November 2008, the US Federal Reserve announced a “quantitative easing” (QE) program. The program provides for the purchase by the US Federal Reserve of "toxic" bonds (illiquid assets) due to the issue of US dollars. From November 2008 to June 2010, the Fed bought up mortgage debts and other bonds on 2,1 trillion dollars. Well, big spending on lobbying - but the result is not small. So far, I deliberately miss the “pressure groups”, whose interests are confined only to the “cutting” of the budget and do not directly affect foreign policy. A very serious "pressure group" is the military-industrial complex. Interests are close to the military-industrial complex. The sacred cow, which until recently no one could not only encroach. Private lobbying of private interests goes to direct lobbying of their interests. Of particular note are companies such as Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, Boeing, General Dynamics. And, it is understandable that it is this sector that has consistently “FOR” wars in any part of the world. Our “favorite” congressman McCain is with you sitting on the contentment of this sector of the American economy. However, not only them. Affectionate baby of two queens sucks.
Any attempt to sequester their part of the budget creates a "Boston terrorist attack." Yes, this is not proven, as their involvement in the 11.09.2001 events of the year has not been proven, but the official version doesn’t seem to be true.
And two more aggressive lobbies, which can not be said. Arab and oil national. During the years of high oil prices, the Arabs began to invest free money outside their own country. They invested in the US military-industrial complex, the Finintern received in trust more than a trillion dollars. Yes, and having the opportunity (than they have repeatedly used) to put pressure on the US administration with the help of the “oil lever”.
Obama will not envy! The loaf is very large: almost 3,8 trillion dollars, revenues to the treasury - mainly due to taxes and other fees - 2,9 trillion dollars, the deficit - 901 billion. Mouths, I must say, is also not small. Obama is once again faced with a difficult task - to push the budget through the congress. And this is where the dances with tambourines begin. It seems like everything is in the same boat, the bottom is leaking, but everyone is rowing to his side. And now, at this moment, the flower that blooms only in darkness blooms in full glory. Double bets for accelerated decision making, a reminder of the duty to their voters, mutual accusations of populism and non-competence. Everyone wants to bite off a little more, but better twice.
And since everyone understands that it’s impossible to endlessly live with a budget deficit, all “pressure groups” want only one thing: that the sequestration does not touch them personally. In 2013, for the first time, the sacred cow-military industrial complex was significantly deprived. 46 billion dollars was not received by the Pentagon, (the amount of lost funds is equal to the German military budget!). Due to budget cuts, the Pentagon will be forced to abandon the maintenance of 11 ships, which are based at the naval base in Norfolk, Virginia. In the future, four aircraft carriers, the Eisenhower, Ronald Reagan, Roosevelt and John Stennis, which will be mothballed, will be withdrawn from the US Navy. And that's bad luck: they seem to understand that without an effective and modern army, too many people have ruined life for the last forty years, but who else can sequester? Fortunately, the Pentagon has a lot to do, its budget is comparable to the total military budget of the rest of the world. Not left without a transparent hint and Israel. Henry Kissinger, the most experienced politician, said: “In 10 years, Israel will cease to exist as a state.” Politicians of this level are very careful in choosing words! HAS SPREADED! Cracks began to expand in the so far from monolithic stone. Another serious disagreement - the Finintern (Wall Street, supranational elite), has already been given the “Zero Plan”. The essence of the plan is to create a huge belt of instability throughout the Muslim world, raising the price of oil along the way in order to stagnate China. And everything went according to their plan. Afghanistan, Iraq, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt. To close the blazing belt of chaos, there is not much left - Iran and Syria. For us, too, prepared a big bitter pill - the Caucasus. Then they planned to transfer the main forces to China. By the way, we see the aggravation of relations between China and Japan; on the other hand, the Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region would have flared up. As a result, all the attention of the countries of the Eurasian continent would be switched to military events, the prevention of terrorist acts. At this point, it was planned to reset the dollar, with its possible replacement with a new unit. Obama, with the support of the Democrats, pursued a policy of sponsors, but opposing forces appeared. The national elite (not to be confused with the Nadnational – finintern), represented by the Republicans, that is to say, the real sector. They advocate gradual inflation, which is not so disastrous for the economy, as hyperinflation, or, especially, zeroing. I am sure that the titans of lobbying in the face of "social" - pensioners and physicians, also had a hand in this. Both options are unlikely to please China - it is the main holder of US debt. Do not forget that the "price tag" of the upcoming attack on Syria has already been announced - from a billion dollars a month, and if it had reached the creation of a "no-fly" zone, the cost would have doubled. This moment could be compared with the Krylov fable "Swan, cancer and pike." And the “red line” is passed, Obama is silent. Kerry speaks out, McCain squeals, Hollande yelps. Five-day silence about the decision. David Cameron, who has so far been resignedly supporting all the decisions of Washington, announces that he will wait for the decision of the Security Council. The upheaval of the military in Egypt showed the seriousness of the split of the elites. Supported the military coup Saudi King Abdullah! Mutiny on the ship! No, well, no one argues, of course the Russian fleet, a diplomatic victory. But not first. The United States is on the verge of another fiscal cliff. And Obama got up! For the first time in twenty years, the military industrial complex opened its insatiable mouth to swallow another unscheduled billion dollars, and then the "red" is turned on. And these days, we have noticed that Putin did not sit in the Kremlin, but flew to Khabarovsk. He knew! He knew about the split. UK - when would we even see this? Anatoly El Murid in his interview to the Neuro World channel talks about a change in the US course. And about the rollback from the policy, which conducted finintern. For the past five years, Wall Street has been pushing the US national elite.
So, the situation is changing: look at the changing vector of American politics. The Saudis went against the "democrats", that is, outwardly it looks like - the Wahhabis support the change of Islamic Mursi! Nonsense. And this visit to Moscow of Bandar bin Sultan, the head of Saudi intelligence, seems to me in a different light. Nor is the desire of UAE investors to invest 5 billions of dollars in our infrastructure. Against this background, it was not unexpected for me that Hassan Rouhani’s speech about recognition and! Condemnation! the Holocaust, and the readiness to begin negotiations on the Iranian nuclear program. German Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle noted the “constructive nature” of Hassan Rouhani’s speech. What does all this mean to us?
• A pullback in American policy from fomenting the global Islamic belt of instability is planned.
• Saudi Arabia is ready to move closer.
• Israel is rapidly losing influence on US policy.
• The world media is beginning to prepare the ground for “warming” of relations with Iran.
I am far from the idea that everything returned to normal. Even more, I am far from the thought that an “exceptional” nation will become better and kinder. I just think that it is urgent to “drive in a wooden wedge” and pour water over it in order to become wider. In other words, I hope that our president has extracted the maximum dividends for Russia from this split.