Military Review

The feat of Stalingrad zenitchits. 23 August 1942, our anti-aircraft gunners did not allow the Germans to go straight into Stalingrad


The battle of Stalingrad began on August 22, 1942: the 6th German army crossed the Don and captured on its eastern shore, in the area of ​​Peskovatka, a bridgehead 45 km wide, on which six divisions concentrated. August 23rd tank the enemy’s corps broke through to the Volga north of Stalingrad, near the village of Rynok, and cut off the 62nd Army from the rest of the forces of the Stalingrad Front. German that day aviation dealt a massive blow to Stalingrad from the air, having made about two thousand sorties. The massive German bombardment on August 23 destroyed the city, killed more than 40 thousand people, destroyed more than half of the housing stock of the pre-war Stalingrad, thereby turning the city into a vast territory, covered with burning ruins.

By 16 watch 23 August 14 th tank corps of General von Wittersheim came to the northern outskirts of Stalingrad in the area of ​​settlements Latoshinka, Akatovka and Rynok.

Dozens of German tanks of the 16 Tank Division of Lieutenant General Hube appeared in the area of ​​the Tractor Plant, a mile and a half from the factory workshops. Following the tanks, the enemy threw two motorized and several infantry divisions into the eight-kilometer corridor formed.

However, the Germans did not break into Stalingrad that day. Three enemy anti-aircraft batteries of the second division of the 1077 anti-aircraft artillery regiment, equipped with female personnel, blocked the way to the enemy. The battalion commander was Captain Luka Ivanovich Dakhovnik.

To help the girls from the tractor factory came two tanks and three tractors, sheathed with armor steel. Behind them moved the battalion of workers, armed with three-lane. There were no other troops in Stalingrad: units and formations of the 62 Army covering the northern outskirts of Stalingrad continued to fight on the left bank of the Don a few dozen kilometers from the city. In difficult combat conditions they had to be transferred to yesterday’s rear and occupy new defensive lines, but this required time, which was no longer there.

Nevertheless, those few anti-aircraft gunners and the hard workers who were covering them stopped the German advance that day.

Each of the 37 guns has become a separate island of defense. After each unsuccessful tank attack, anti-aircraft gunners attacked from the air diving Ju-87 and flying Me-109 flying at low level flight. However, anti-aircraft gunners were ordered not to open fire on the aircraft - all the shells were intended for tanks.

Because Wittersheim, with all his corps, could not cope with a handful of anti-aircraft gunners and a battalion of hard workers, he was removed from command. In his place was appointed Hube. In two days of fighting, the corps lost the 83 tank. In the futile attacks, three battalions of German infantry were drained of blood. But all the 37 of our guns were destroyed. Killed most of the staff.

Instead of regrouping the 62 Army, Colonel-General Eremenko, commander of the Southeastern Front, created a strike group consisting of 35, 27-I Guards and 298-I divisions, 28-I tank corps and 169 I tank brigade. These troops, led by the Deputy Commander of the Stalingrad Front (10 August, the Stalingrad Front is subordinate to the Commander of the Southeast Front), Major General Kovalenko, received the task of launching a counter-attack in the south-western direction and, in cooperation with the troops of the 62 Army, defeat the 14 tank forces enemy corps, breaking through to the outskirts of Stalingrad.

85-mm anti-aircraft gun 52-K. It was such guns that our anti-aircraft gunners destroyed German tanks. The task 52-K, which was unusual for anti-aircraft guns, was more successful than many anti-tank guns of those years. From the 100-meter distance, she punched 120-mm armor, and at the distance in 1000 meters she flashed 100-mm armor plate. With an armor-piercing shell attached to it, she could flash armor of all types of tanks that had been in service with the German army until the middle of 1943.

The group of General Kovalenko, without waiting for the approach of the tank corps, went on the offensive in the 18 hours of August 23. The 298 th rifle, 27 th guards divisions, having met the stubborn fire resistance of the Germans, could not advance, but the 35 th guards division of Major General Glazkov together with the 169 th tank brigade, commanded by Colonel Kodenetz, crushed the opposing team against opposing armies. 2 o'clock in the night 24 August broke into the area of ​​the Big Rossoshki, where she fought surrounded by the 87-I infantry division.

German units that broke through to the Volga were cut off from their troops. The Germans had to supply them with the help of airplanes and truck columns guarded by tanks. Loaded with wounded vehicles under the guise of tanks broke through the battle formations of the Russians in the direction of the Don. The wounded were handed over on the bridgehead and received food there. The vehicles escorted by the tanks returned to the hull. For many days, isolated from the main forces of the 6 Army, he led heavy defensive battles, occupying all-round defense. Only a week after the transfer of new infantry divisions to the bridgehead, it was possible to resume the offensive.
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  1. Lech from ZATULINKI
    Lech from ZATULINKI 26 August 2013 09: 00
    German soldiers (veterans0 recounted in their memoirs how they killed our anti-aircraft gunners.
    I will say - my great respect and honor to our girls for their feat.
    1. an-sar
      an-sar 26 August 2013 10: 17
      Eternal MEMORY and GLORY to our Defenders !!!
    2. Sakhalininsk
      Sakhalininsk 26 August 2013 13: 17
      There is probably nothing more unnatural than a woman in a war. I can’t imagine young girls who are not even 20 years old and they are in an open position, and they have tanks and enemy infantry on them .... in this situation, for many men, the intestines would not stand, and these girls would die for us.
      We must tell our children about these girls, make films about them, call them street names ...
      Eternal memory and glory to them.
      1. Andrey78
        Andrey78 27 August 2013 10: 26
        This episode is shown in Yuri Ozerov's epic "Stalingrad"
        1. Doctor71
          Doctor71 20 October 2013 16: 42
          I agree. Perfectly shown, especially about shoes.
  2. George
    George 26 August 2013 09: 23
    Hello all.
    I saw a documentary film, where one unfinished German tankman with a malicious smile told how he crushed our anti-aircraft gunners together with guns on a tank. The first desire was (yes it remains) - to give a reptile in the face.
    And the main thing is that they did not flinch, they perished at a military post, but did not give up, these Soviet girls. I myself sometimes think, but would I not drift in such a situation? Would it not smell boiled turnip from me? And I find the answer: with such ancestors I have no right to cowardice.
    Eternal memory to our heroines.
    1. smile
      smile 26 August 2013 10: 55
      Thank God I haven’t seen this movie, but on Mr. ... I would have gone out on the screen. But he read the memoirs of a tanker who said that when their tanks were finally able to destroy one of the batteries that got in their way, everyone was amazed that the guns had only girls ... not one ran. everything remained there ... says, we were crushed ... by the losses, and by the resistance that these almost schoolgirls had ...
      By the way, the German was terribly grateful to our people for the way they were treated in captivity and Russian women fed them after the war ... says, we did not deserve it .... damn it. sorry I did not remember his last name. such rare honest memoirists need to be written down ...
      1. Neksel
        Neksel 26 August 2013 11: 43
        Quote: smile
        everyone was amazed that the guns had only girls ... not one ran. everything remained there ... says, we were crushed ... by the losses, and by the resistance that these almost schoolgirls had ...

        And this is far from the only case.
      2. Alex 241
        Alex 241 20 October 2013 17: 27
        About anti-aircraft gunners

        Under any bombing, under any shelling, they remained at their guns. When the troops of the Don, Stalingrad and Southwestern fronts closed the encirclement around the enemy groups in Stalingrad, the Germans tried to organize an air bridge from the occupied territory of Ukraine to Stalingrad. To do this, the entire German military transport fleet was deployed to Stalingrad. Our Russian anti-aircraft gunners organized an anti-aircraft barrier. They shot down 500 three-engine German junkers 52 in two months.

        In addition, they shot down another 500 aircraft of other types. The German invaders had never known such a rout before anywhere else in Europe.
    2. psdf
      psdf 26 August 2013 22: 32
      Something is reminded of contemporaries - contract soldiers, officers, you automatically try on roles on them ... our girls can do such things even then.
  3. il grand casino
    il grand casino 26 August 2013 09: 58
    Yeah ... a lot of people died on my land. God gave an opportunity in his youth to talk with one grandmother with an order on her chest ... a former anti-aircraft gunner ... Then she was still alive. Eternal glory and earth to the rest of the fallen
  4. Vadim2013
    Vadim2013 26 August 2013 10: 26
    Blessed memory and eternal memory to the anti-aircraft gunners who defended Stalingrad on 23 on August 1942
    1. LION
      LION 26 August 2013 13: 57
      So they honored the memory of dead anti-aircraft gunners and civilians with a grand bike show on August 23 in our city of Volgograd. In Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Coventry, Dresden and Cologne, bombardment is not celebrated. In this bloody rating, Stalingrad is far from the last place. No nation in the world can afford such nonsense and dance on bones. And we can. I will not give links. Google yourself.
      1. Yang
        Yang 27 August 2013 04: 17
        On August 23, the organizers of the show "came up with the idea" from the stage to congratulate the Volgogradites on the "Holiday!" This is how concepts are substituted and the memory of the people is distorted.
  5. Kovrovsky
    Kovrovsky 26 August 2013 10: 29
    Another page of the heroic battle of Stalingrad is open. They beat the Fritz with their weapons!
  6. Prometey
    Prometey 26 August 2013 10: 36
    In some Soviet film - not to lie - like "Marshal Zhukov", just shows an episode about the Wehrmacht attack on Stalingrad and the preparation of female anti-aircraft crews for battle. There, the girls ask the commander to allow them to take off their boots and put on shoes, because the boots were big for women. And the commander says: "Okay, go into battle in your shoes." Already takes for the soul.
  7. krpmlws
    krpmlws 26 August 2013 11: 25
    Another example of heroism ... However, why call girls into the army. They don’t have a place there, how many died, how many were crippled and why, especially since all the girls could be replaced by men. And now again there are many women in the army, even in the airborne forces in command posts ...
    1. Poppy
      Poppy 26 August 2013 12: 16
      Surprisingly, there weren’t enough men, the girls weren’t even volunteers, they were quite officially called up, especially to the rear posts, such as anti-aircraft gunners ... they shouldn’t be on the front line
      1. krpmlws
        krpmlws 26 August 2013 15: 09
        If you wanted to find it in the southern republics and among small nations and white-ticketers, there were a lot, or you could create fewer combat units. I mean, it was such a policy, supposedly equal rights for men and women, and therefore they took women into the army. Now a similar situation , only the experience is foreign experience, but our military leadership is bluntly tearing it apart, well, we can’t live with our own heads, we are all looking west.
      2. Duelist
        Duelist 26 August 2013 15: 31
        Mac, I agree with you Countryman! But the time was different ... As a child I had a chance to read the book "Hold on, little sister!" - these memoirs were written by a pilot, Hero of the USSR. She said that before the war she worked at Metrostroy, knee-deep in cold water, almost without light, with a lack of air in the adit, but there was such patriotism that even 16-20 year old girls were eager for this job and went to see M.I. ... Kalinin for permission!
        So that Ostrovsky with his "How the Steel Was Tempered" is resting.
        And to defend the Homeland is Holy!
        These are our heroic Ancestors!
        I bow to you, Glory and Eternal Memory to you girls!
  8. deman73
    deman73 26 August 2013 11: 26
    My paternal grandmother fought an anti-aircraft gunner in Stalingrad, was seriously wounded and 8 months of hospitals
  9. Rider
    Rider 26 August 2013 12: 57
    I advise everyone to read the book "Anti-aircraft gunners" - V. Polischuk.
    the book is in the style of "hit-and-miss" but fairly realistically shows the life and combat operations of anti-aircraft gunners.

    and I would also like to say.
    Direct-fire anti-aircraft gun - almost guaranteed death to the calculation.
    since this is not 45ka, you can’t move it to the reserve position in your hands.
    they allowed the enemy to reach the firing range - a nonsense, and they beat him.
    the Germans retreated, pulled up mortars, or (as in this case) aviation, and mixed the positions of the batteries with the ground
    so it turned out that basically, the first battle for the calculation almost always became the last.

    blessed memory, and eternal Glory to the defenders and defenders of the Motherland.
    1. xan
      xan 26 August 2013 15: 58
      Quote: Rider
      Direct-fire anti-aircraft gun - almost guaranteed death to the calculation.

      if you fight in the steppe, then no.
      anti-aircraft gun - the only weapon that allowed not to let closer, but to wet when I saw the target. And from afar it’s even better.
      1. Rider
        Rider 26 August 2013 16: 52
        Quote: xan
        anti-aircraft gun - the only weapon that allowed not to let closer, but to wet when he saw the target

        you’ll excuse me, but even in a steppe as flat as a table, PRECISE shooting over 2 kilometers is problematic.

        Enemy tanks, having come under fire, depart and call either howitzer artillery or aviation.
        I remind you that in EVERY German motorized shock group (camp group) there was a howitzer division (not to mention anti-aircraft defense and mortars) and cooperation with aviation was remarkably well established.
        I’ll also remind you that something similar appeared (or rather began to be used effectively) only by the summer of the 44th.

        which absolutely does not detract from the stamina and courage of our soldiers.
        THE MATTER OF THE BEAST was inundated.
      2. il grand casino
        il grand casino 26 August 2013 17: 25
        The Volgograd (and then Stalingrad) steppes are not so even ... believe me, I climbed more than one beam there)))
  10. xan
    xan 26 August 2013 16: 03
    I believe that Russian men owe a great deal to Russian women
    and indeed, if God gave us such women, it means he singled us out on this ball
    1. smile
      smile 26 August 2013 22: 29
      There is a saying, if you want to know what a man is, look at his woman .... and vice versa ...
      1. xan
        xan 27 August 2013 11: 43
        There is another saying, although a little to the side - women do not look at handsome men, but at men with beautiful women.
  11. Tigrahaud
    Tigrahaud 26 August 2013 17: 17
    Girls 18-20 years old and German tanks ... And for sure no one flinched or fled from their position. Eternal glory!
    1. Doctor71
      Doctor71 20 October 2013 16: 47
      Yes what you say. There was a detachment of the NKVD. They shot them all. With combat tripods.
      1. soldier's grandson
        soldier's grandson 20 October 2013 16: 50
        the squadron has never fired at its own
    GVARDEETS 26 August 2013 20: 08
  13. Genady1976
    Genady1976 26 August 2013 20: 35
    Mum! Mum! I got to the chain.
    But in the steppe, on the Volga shore,
    Girl in darned overcoat
    She threw her hands in the snow.
    Julia Drunina
  14. Genady1976
    Genady1976 26 August 2013 20: 46
    They say that the war is not a woman's face. Yes, it is, but the Great Patriotic War showed that women and young girls fought shoulder to shoulder with men at the front, defending their land, their home, their family. For three and a half years, we anti-aircraft gunners walked the road of war, enduring all the difficulties of front-line life, and participated in battles for our native land. Happy is he who survived after this terrible war. And many gave their life for the freedom of the Motherland, they gave it for the happiness of future generations. So let them be worthy of it. Let them not forget those who won the victory. They were young, full of energy, they also wanted to live. War is death, loss, tears, blood. Young, be worthy of their feat, take care of their native land.
  15. chehywed
    chehywed 26 August 2013 21: 56
    We, the peasants, have a reproach and a lesson. We should not have allowed the girls to die while doing our work and should not allow this to continue. Here, something like that ...
  16. egsp
    egsp 26 August 2013 23: 08
    who of the 18-20 year-old men who live now could repeat this ... they would have done it on the KMB, after having been tested by tanks as if in the past, once. drischi ...
  17. Danila791
    Danila791 26 August 2013 23: 16
    Quote: il grand casino
    The Volgograd (and then Stalingrad) steppes are not so even ... believe me, I climbed more than one beam there)))

    These beams saved more than one hundred lives ...
    1. il grand casino
      il grand casino 26 August 2013 23: 19
      yeah ... but not a few died there ... how many children we all dig up there ... and mines and shells ... and bones ... My father told me how they boiled small shells of shells ... or mines with grenades were thrown into the fire ... and played like that ...
  18. Leonid Pavlov
    Leonid Pavlov 26 August 2013 23: 23
    This is an eternal memory for women. The bloopers are astonished in the article, the author considers the beginning of the Battle of Stalingrad on August 22, 1942. According to Russian historiography, the Battle of Stalingrad began on July 17, 1942. He considers shooting at tanks an unusual task for an anti-aircraft gun. On the contrary, this is quite an ordinary phenomenon, which Red army that in the Wehrmacht
  19. bublic82009
    bublic82009 26 August 2013 23: 25
    sorry for the girls, but the glory to them and their commander, they were not afraid of the fascist tank and restrained their impending impulse.
  20. Massik
    Massik 27 August 2013 01: 15
    They just admired the spirit and upbringing of those years, start the war now, more than half of the guys will run away from the trenches, as it’s not a toy, you won’t survive, they’ll kill me so beautiful ...
  21. Bakht
    Bakht 27 August 2013 08: 04
    The most emotional book about the Second World War is A.I. Utkin (in my opinion, of course). This is how he describes these days

    “The second echelon on the smooth steppe was rolling the 3rd motorized division of the Wehrmacht, it was difficult for it to keep up with fast tanks, it was difficult to navigate through the tornado of steppe dust. Even further in the rear (like a third echelon) followed the 60th motorized division. In Golubinka (which will become the “capital” of Paulus), the advance detachment did not find anything special: “1 pm. Another confirmation that the enemy was taken by surprise.” A few hours later, the tank commanders saw in front and slightly to the right of the domes of churches and white buildings. “To the right along the course of Stalingrad.” This was the Gumrak area, the outskirts of the city. Young girls from technical schools and universities recently stood behind the sights of anti-aircraft guns. Their eyes were fixed on the sky when, unexpectedly for themselves, they saw the tanks of the ground enemy moving towards them. these girls were never shot at all, and they did not even know in theory how to shoot at ground moving targets. But something was beating in their hearts, and they did not settled scattered. The vents of anti-aircraft guns were aimed at tanks. Hardly many guns were able to fire. The front tanks hit several huts in the steppe. They dismounted, saw parts of women's bodies torn apart by shells and joked that the Russians had put their women forward. Not everyone liked the joke, blood poured over the squalid housing, where there was no one to pray. The first shots in Stalingrad, the blood of the ignorant and innocent, gross arrogance. "
    “Once again, the girls came out against the German tanks - they were the ones who served the anti-aircraft guns and it was they who saw tanks with crosses in the north of their hometown with wide eyes. Another anti-aircraft battery opened fire on German tanks. The report of the Germans:“ We had to fight against 37 enemy batteries. "One of the German participants in the battles writes in his diary:" Russian women are real soldiers in skirts. They are ready to fight for real and in military affairs they can plug many men in the belt. "
  22. soldier's grandson
    soldier's grandson 20 October 2013 16: 54
    anti-aircraft gun against the tank is a terrible thing, it is not for nothing that the Germans armed their tiger with an anti-aircraft barrel
    1. Doctor71
      Doctor71 20 October 2013 17: 41
      Yeah, scary ... But the sea guns probably sucks. They can only pierce ship's armor. :-). BZ-3 exception. Everything is through us .. smile