Ethnic история, as science, differs from other stories in its discreteness (discontinuity). This means that the existence of each ethnic group has its beginning and end. The concept of ethnos has been known for a long time, but only in the 20 century by Leo Nikolayevich Gumilyov a theory of ethnogenesis was created - the science of birth, life, disease, and death of ethnic groups. Like humans. Ethnicity according to Gumilyov: “a steady, naturally formed group of people, opposing themselves to all other similar groups, which is determined by the feeling of complementarity (one’s own), and characterized by a peculiar stereotype of behavior, which regularly changes in historical time”. In each phase of ethnogenesis, ethnos behaves differently: since ethnogenesis is an entropy process, therefore the drive tension in the system, depending on the age of the ethnos, is different. Each ethnos is to some extent internally heterogeneous: within it there are subethnos, consortia, convictions that can arise and disintegrate, and the members of the ethnic group, as a whole, do not lose their sense of unity. Groups of ethnos close to each other constitute a superethnos. ”For example: the Cossacks living in the Caucasus were very similar in their life and customs to the inhabitants of the Caucasus, but they considered themselves Russian. So the Cossacks are a subethnos belonging to the Russian ethnos.
Attempts to define ethnos through a number of signs: as a language, culture, territorial unity, the self-name constantly failed, because the main attribute that determines the belonging of an ethnos is: who they consider themselves.
The main thing in L. Gumilyov's theory is such a concept as passionarity - “the energy of the living substance of the biosphere, appearing in the form of a mutation, during periods of calm or diminished activity of the sun”. Cosmos is involved in the micromutation of people, like all other living beings, and because of this, life on planet Earth does not stop. Some scientists believe that this is the business of the Most High. Passionality is the appearance in a certain place, at a certain time, of people of “long will”, to put it differently: as a result of the impulsive drive, there are people who aspire and are able to withstand prolonged exertion and overvoltage, make sacrifices, die for their Fatherland, make great deeds and exploits. These people have the ability to sacrifice themselves for a great purpose, often an illusory one.
The ethnic history of any country — the history of the peoples inhabiting it — cannot be viewed as we consider economic relations, political conflicts, the history of culture and thought. Therefore, the concept of progressive movement or progress to such natural phenomena as ethnogenesis is unacceptable.
Ethnically, the history of Russia cannot be imagined as a linear process going from Rurik to Putin. The events of the ethnogenesis of the peoples of our Fatherland constitute the historical fabric of life of at least two different superethnos. Therefore, it is necessary to distinguish the history of Ancient Kievan Rus from (from 9 to the 13 century, including the history of Novgorod to its fall in the 15 century) and the history of Moscow Russia from the 13 century to this day. And the key period of understanding the national historical destiny is three centuries: 13, 14, 15, - when Russian reality was formed by superimposing two different processes of ethnogenesis. The final phase of ethnogenesis is obscuration of Kievan Rus, with an initial incubation period in the history of the future Russia. This combination gave the tragic tint of the time of Alexander Nevsky, Dmitry Donskoy, Vasily the Dark.
Did contemporaries know these great sovereigns that they live in an era of changing traditions? Of course not. The collapse of the old Russian statehood, the feuds of the princes, the Lithuanian and Tatar raids, the need to pay the Khan "way out" and princely duties. It seemed as if time could not be harder. From the point of view of historiography (description of events), everything is correct, but this if we use the methods of the humanities. Analyzing the ethnic history of Russia - Russia must take into account the ethnogenesis of all the peoples of our Motherland. Each of these ethnic groups, having its own ethnic age and corresponding passionate potential, had a powerful influence on the course of the ethnogenesis of the entire superethnos. And, only taking into account the whole spectrum of ethnic contacts and their social consequences, one can come closer to the true concept of the past of the Fatherland.
Moscow did not continue the traditions of Kiev, as did Novgorod. On the contrary, it destroyed the traditions of veche liberty and princely feuds, replacing them with other norms of behavior, largely borrowed from the Mongols: a system of strict discipline, ethnic tolerance and deep religiousness.
In contrast to the cultural tradition, the ethnic tradition is not the continuity of the dead forms created by man, but the unity of the behavior of living people, supported by their drive (tension in the system of the ethnos). Monuments of culture tell us far from all about the people who created them. Of course, we cannot but admire the Sistine Madonna Raphael, and David Michelangelo. But they will not tell us that it was at this time that Western Europeans became a daily occupation of massacres of people.
It was the new system of behavior created on the old ideological basis - Orthodoxy - that allowed Russia to say and, I hope, it will also have its say in the history of Eurasia. This continent for the historically foreseeable period united three times. At first it was united by the Turks who created the Khaganate (principality), which covered the land from the Yellow Sea to the Black. Mongols came to replace the Turks from Siberia. Then, after a period of complete disintegration and disintegration, Russia took the initiative: from the 15 century, the Russians moved east and came to the Pacific Ocean. The new power has acted as the "heiress" of the Turkic kaganate and the Mongol ulus.
United Eurasia, led by Russia, has traditionally, always, resisted: in the West - Catholic Europe, in the Far East - China, in the south - the Muslim world. In contrast to the landscapes of Western Europe, the landscapes of Eurasia are very diverse. But for any nation, links with the native landscape, which determines the economic system, are extremely important. Ethnicity is adapted to its landscape, it is convenient to him in it. If the landscape changes radically, then the ethnos changes radically.
The diversity of landscapes has a beneficial effect on the ethnogenesis of peoples. Each was an acceptable and dear place: the Russians mastered the river valleys, the Finno-Ugric peoples and Ukrainians - watershed areas, the Turks and Mongols - the steppe, and the circumpolar peoples - the tundra. And with a large variety of geographical conditions for the peoples of Eurasia, unification has always proved to be more beneficial than separation. Disintegration deprived of strength, resilience; to disunite in the conditions of Eurasia meant to make oneself dependent on neighbors, by no means always disinterested and merciful. Therefore, in Eurasia, political culture has developed its own, original vision of the ways and goals of development.
Eurasian peoples built their common statehood, based on the principle of the primacy of the rights of each people to a certain way of life. In Russia, this principle was embodied in the concept of conciliarity and was observed quite rigorously. Thus, the rights of the individual were ensured. When joining the Volga region, the Urals and Western Siberia, in the army of the Moscow tsars, along with the regiments of the foreign system, archers, noble cavalry, appeared "lower strength" - the nomads, who in maneuverable wars were very successful. It was with their help that Aleksei Mikhailovich freed Ukraine from Poland and thereby saved it from destruction.
Historical experience has shown that while every people retained the right to be themselves, a united Eurasia successfully restrained the onslaught of both Western Europe, and China, and Muslims. Unfortunately, in the 20 century, we abandoned this healthy and traditional policy for our country, began to be guided by European principles - we tried to make everyone the same. Mechanical transfer to the conditions of Russia of the West European traditions of behavior gave little good, and this is not surprising. After all, Russian superethnos appeared on 500 years later. Both we and Western Europeans have always felt this difference, realized and never considered each other as "our own". Since we are younger than 500, no matter how we study the European experience, we cannot now achieve the well-being and morals characteristic of Europe. Our age, our level of passionarity suggests completely different imperatives of behavior. When we imitate Europe, we become like a little girl, when she, trying to be like an aunt to appear adult, wears Tetina a hat and high-heeled shoes.
Of course, it is necessary to study the European experience, but one should not forget that this is just someone else’s experience. The so-called civilized countries belong to another superethnos, previously called the "Christian world." It originated in the 9 century, and for more than a millennium came to the natural finale of its ethnic history. They are already in the phase of obscuration, and the next phase of ethnogenesis is relict (homeostasis). Relic can exist without developing for as long as desired, if there is no threat of conquering it from the outside. Or, if a new passionary impulse does not occur, prompting not the regeneration of the old, but the birth of a new ethnos.
Today, the aliens are trying to “introduce us into the circle of civilized nations,” that is, tear us away from our native roots, destroy our ethnic tradition and dissolve in someone else’s super-ethnos alien to the world. But, unfortunately, nothing is given for nothing. It is necessary to realize that the price of such integration will be the complete abandonment of its national tradition and subsequent assimilation. For some reason, we don’t want to admit the obvious: the basis of ethnic relations lies outside the sphere of consciousness - it’s in emotions: likes and dislikes, love and hate. And the direction of these sympathies - antipathies is quite due to each ethnic group. It is impossible to make love by order of the ruler! You can evaluate this phenomenon as you please, but this will not make it any less real.
What is nostalgia? This is a complex of negative mental phenomena caused by the separation of a person from his ethno-landscape environment. Gumilyov explains this state of mind, on the basis of ideas about the ethnic field, which has its own unique frequency of oscillations for each superethnos. The ethnic field is impossible to see - we feel it.
It is impossible to consider the ethnic history of the Ukrainian sub ethnic group separately from the Russian ethnic group, since we are “links of one chain”, the main elements of the Eurasian (Russian) superethnos. We, Eurasians and Eastern Ukrainians, including, today are about seven hundred years old. According to the theory of passionarity of L. Gumilev, each superethnos passes through five main phases of development in the following order:
1) lifting phase (including latent incubation phase)
2) is the akmatic phase, which has the largest number of passionaries in the system, always ending with overheating.
3) breakdown - the phase of a sharp reduction in passionate tension, accompanied by a split of the ethnic field. In the fracture a large number of subpassionariums appear - individuals of the energy-deficient type. These are people who, due to their inability to absorb a sufficient amount of energy from the environment, cannot fully adapt to the environment.
Subpassionality (lack of energy) is manifested in the inability to restrain instinctive lust, asocial behavior, parasitism, lack of care for offspring. People of this type are found in all eras and in all ethnic groups. They are called vagrants, lumpen proletarians, niello, the dregs of society, tramps, homeless, etc. Usually they accumulate in large cities, where there is an opportunity to live without working, but to parasitize and have fun. Such a concentration of subpassionarians leads to a tremendous increase in alcoholism, situational prostitution, drug addiction, natural disturbances.
4) inertial phase - characterized by some increase in the level of drive and then a gradual decrease. State power and social institutions are being strengthened, there is an intensive accumulation of material and cultural values, and an active transformation of the surrounding landscape. This is the most favorable period of development for harmonious people (ordinary inhabitants). A law-abiding, efficient person becomes dominant in the inertia phase. Usually, in the inertial phase there is a powerful centralized leadership, able to pacify internal conflicts and the ethnos does a tremendous job, which is useful for culture and sometimes harmful for the enclosing landscape. Culture and order in this phase are so perfect that they seem to be eternal to contemporaries. People do not know, after the "golden autumn" come "twilight" - the phase of obscuration.
5) In the phase of obscuration, an ethnos exists at the expense of the material values and skills accumulated during the previous inertial phase. The proliferated subpassionarii make any constructive activity impossible, requiring only the satisfaction of their insatiable needs. Anyone who retains a sense of duty, diligence and conscience is condemned. Imperative subpassionary: - “Day, yes my,” which reflects their complete inability to forecast. As a result, the social organism decays: corruption is legitimized, crime spreads, the army loses its combat capability, cynical adventurers in power play on the mood of the crowd. Depopulation is occurring, the population is significantly reduced by the end of the phase. The ethnic system loses its resistance and can become easy prey for more passionate neighbors. The phase of obscuration precedes most often the death of an ethnos. Moreover, the homeostasis system can reach an insignificant healthy part of the ethnos, preserved in the "bloody darkness" of the era of obscuration, when the life of the ethnos will depend on the host landscape and subpassionaries that are not able to work will be quickly expelled.
Each phase lasts about 300 years. Thus, the full life cycle of an ethnos, if no displacement occurs and its death, is from 1200-1500 years.
The first two phases of ethnogenesis, incubation and acmatic, we have successfully passed and today we continue to be in fracture, where we are from the 19 century. Today our society is sick, and this disease of the ethnos is age-related.
Before the first inauguration in May 2000, the future president of Russia came to the Pskov-Caves Monastery to see the elder, confessor, father John. The conversation in the old man’s cell lasted for more than an hour. Serious, excited and even a little confused, as it seemed to me then, the future president of Russia V. Putin said: “We have almost no time left. We need to hurry - we have very little time. "
A prolonged illness depletes the body (the ethnic system) and a shift can occur (the transition from fracture to obscuration, bypassing the inertial phase), as a result of which the ethnos perishes.
One of the signs is that the fracture phase began in our super-ethnos - the Decembrist uprising in 1825. This event is the breaking of system links. When not the people, but the Europeanized elite of Russia, for the first time spoke out against the Russian autocracy, the foundations are the foundations of the Russian state.
In the phase of fracture, various anti-systems flourish, which penetrated Russia as early as the beginning of the 16 century, especially flourish. The first anti-system tried to take root in the emerging Russia in the form of the “heresy of the Judaizers” in Novgorod. This anti-church movement had nothing to do with the Jews. Heretics actively resorted to fraud. The Psalter is preserved from them, where its first pages represent an exemplary Slavic Psalter, but then there is a substitution with special texts developed within the anti-system and, naturally, have nothing in common with the original source. Thus, a literate but poorly educated person sincerely thought that he was reading the Psalter. When the heretics were captured, they repented and even repented. But after some time, the same “repentant” organized not only in Novgorod, but also in Moscow new circles of heretics, where the grandson of Grand Duke Ivan the Third, Dmitriy and his wife Elena Voloshanka (she was from Wallachia), as well as Dyak Ivan Third (today corresponds to the Minister of Foreign Affairs) - Fedor Kuritsyn. And then many high-ranking officials were executed by the European execution, from where the heresy arrived: the heretics were burned at the stake. Dmitry and Elena were put in prison, where they died.
One of the following antisystems was oprichnina. For the emergence of oprichnina there were no social or political prerequisites. Oprichnina was created by Ivan the Terrible in a fit of insanity in 1565. and it officially existed for seven years. The task of the guardsmen was "to plague the sovereign with treason." Define the "treason" were themselves guardsmen. Thus, they could kill any person, declaring him a traitor.
The oprichniki were hired "free atoms" - people who were separated from their social groups, their families, from their super-ethnic systems. They had to make fun of the monks way of life. The mildest of the punishments of the guardsmen were the beheading and hanging, but, in addition, the guardsmen burned at the stake, froze in the snow, impaled. The boyar’s execution, the guardsmen massacred his courtyards, and took the peasants to themselves and transferred them to their own lands.
The main content of oprichnina became completely meaningless murder for the sake of murder. The most terrible characteristic of the oprichnina is that both the king and his guardsmen were absolutely sure of the goodness of their monstrous misdeeds. The king sought to kill not only the body, but also to "kill the soul": the bodies were cut into small pieces because the deceased could not appear on the Last Judgment without a body. Then he entered the names of his victims in synodic, served requiem services for them, and sincerely considered himself an example of an Orthodox Christian. Ivan the Terrible considered royal grandeur equal to God’s and therefore deprived of the right to discuss his actions. Thus, in the oprichnina, we are confronted in a pure form by what is characteristic of each anti-system: good and evil change places.
Surprisingly, Russia was saved from oprichnina, surprisingly, the Crimean Khan, who violated the treaty with the tsar and attacked Moscow (1571). The Tatars fired on Moscow with incendiary arrows, and the city burned out in three hours. To repel the attack of the Crimeans on the orders of the king were called on everyone who can wear weapon and oprichniki including. And here that “special people” showed themselves: many deserted, others pretended to be sick. Defenseless assassins, they were unable to fight an armed and powerful enemy. And then the heads of the oprichnina leaders flew off on the fires.
The people, being in the akmatic phase, young and strong rejected the antisystems, struggled with them. Godunov, the people did not forgive his belonging to the oprichnina. A person who mocked the monastic saints, who committed murders and robberies could not be in power. All of their people called pomeshnikami, which means "darkness", non-existence. People always accurately determine the essence of the matter.
According to L. Gumilev, as I wrote earlier, “the antisystem is the system integrity of people with a negative outlook, which has developed a common world outlook for all members. All antisitemic ideologies and teachings are united by one central attitude: they deny the real world in its complexity and diversity for the sake of certain abstract goals. Either such teachings call for a fundamentally change the world, in fact, destroying it, or require a person to break out of the shackles of reality, destroying himself. Both in the limit gives one result - non-existence. The anti-system is characterized by a well-known secrecy of actions and such a method of struggle as a lie. Among the adepts of the anti-system, people with a futuristic sense of time prevail. The anti-system always seeks to destroy the ethnic tradition of the ethnos where it is being introduced. ”
Here is an interesting fact, the beginning of the 17 century, the Western superethnos, which is in fracture: in the process of the Counter-Reformation, when Europe was divided into Catholics and Protestants, Poland and Sweden had extremely tense relations. Poland became a stronghold of Catholicism, and Sweden adopted Lutheranism. But the king of Sweden, Zigismund Waza, was a zealous Catholic and the Swedes gladly replaced him with Lutheran. Then the Poles, in spite of the Swedes, chose Sigismund as their king. As a result, the Swedish king, who was on the Polish throne, began to prepare for war with Sweden! In this ease of changing kings, the phenomenon of superethnos is clearly manifested. With a strong political hostility, Poles and Swedes belong to the same super-ethnic world - Western Europe - and remain their own. The French in Germany, too, their own, and the Italians in Denmark, the Spaniards in Italy.
From the examples above, it is not surprising that in our Great Patriotic War 1941-1945. in fact, they fought with the whole of Europe, and not only with Germany.
Attempt to put, on the Moscow throne of the Polish king, we all know how it ended. Pole Marina Mnishek incorrectly attached herself to the icon: instead of attaching to the hand of Our Lady, “The Queen kisses the Virgin Mary on the lips!” This fact shocked the Russian people. The foreign Western imperative of the behavior of the Polish woman decided the further fate of the impostor: the Falsite were seized and killed.
The names of the rescuers of Russia Kozma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky know everything, but what they really had to do was very few people know. It is no coincidence that the salvation of Russia came from the north - eastern outskirts, to Nizhny Novgorod, because it suffered less than others from the Troubles. So, there were more passionate people there. The assembled Zemstvo Council unanimously adopted the decision proposed by Minin and Pozharsky that the Fatherland should be saved. Two things are needed for salvation: people - in the army and money. There were enough people, and money from the people of rich Nizhny Novgorod was driven. When Nizhny Novgorod was asked to lay out funds for the population, the population said that he had no money. They came up with all sorts of reasons: either the goods went to the Caspian Sea, the treasury in Arkhangelsk, the clerks went to Siberia and left no money. Then Kozma Minin, knowing the citizens well, threw a cry: “We are laying our wives and our children, but we will save the Russian land!” It seems no one was against. And if so, then Minin with elected people took power and put up for sale as slaves for the wives and children of all wealthy citizens of the city. The heads of families had nothing to do, how to go to the gardens and dig up the dice with the money hidden and buy out their own families. So Mother was saved - Russia.
In the so-called perestroika, unknown to the monument to Minin and Pozharsky, located on Red Square in Moscow, they attached a sheet with the open hand of Minin to the Kremlin with an open hand, “Look, prince, what a scum in the walls Kremlin started up! "They say the author was looking for a long time, but found no one.
Do not think that passionate people are necessarily high on the social ladder. Elected people who supported Kozma were passionaries. We do not know their names, because they are not leaders of the masses, but part of the people. It was these nameless passionaries, forcing their compatriots to forget laziness and cowardice, inducing their passionarity on them, which is passed on to their compatriots, if the passionary is nearby, provided for them, their families and their descendants. Sometimes they acted harshly, but you cannot explain to everyone that it is beneficial for Russia to exist independently and not turn into a colony of Poland and Sweden. Such unnamed passionaries represent the most important element in ethnogenesis. Acting not so much by force as by personal example, they show others a new stereotype of behavior, force the masses to perform absolutely necessary, urgent work. Discussions are a long, expensive, unpromising business: you cannot argue with everyone. But it is necessary to act only when passionarity has subsided, so that it becomes possible to organize people.
We, Ukraine, are a fragment of Russia that has broken away as a result of a split in the ethnic field. On the territory of present-day Ukraine, two subethnos and Russian ethnos live in their landscapes. These two subethnos: Western and Eastern Ukrainians belong to different superethnic systems. Eastern Ukrainians and Russians to the Eurasian superethnos, and western Ukrainians to Western Europe. Never agree on anything constructive with them. Because of the behavioral trivialities composed global likes and dislikes of ethnic and superethnic values. For example: some believe that a dog can and should be beaten, because this is a dog. And others are outraged: "How can you beat this beautiful, devoted animal"? And who will prove to someone in this dispute?
“A negative outlook, as well as a positive one, is associated with the creation of special philosophical, religious or political concepts, which are least intended to prove someone's rightness or conviction of opponents. After all, for the expression of attitude, logical evidence is not required. It is impossible to reconcile with logical arguments people whose views on the origin and essence of the world are polar, for they come from fundamentally different attitudes. Some people feel the material world and its diversity as a blessing, others as a clear evil. ” Lev Gumilyov
Gumilyov warned of aberration of proximity and range. He said that it is difficult to properly assess events occurring in the distant past: due to lack of information, due to aberration of range: when, in the depth of ages, even the most ambitious events seem to us "blurred" due to remoteness in time, or to be because they do not concern us personally. But it is even more difficult to properly assess the events of the recent past and what is happening to us at the present time. Most recent events seem to us such grandiose, which in history has never been and can not be in the future.
74 of the USSR is a very short period compared with the life of the ethnic group. And after our time, only our descendants can give a correct assessment of these events.
Forgive me, for my fantasies, the late Lev Nikolayevich, but I will gain impudence and try, from my point of view, to evaluate, based on the theory of Gumilyov, the events of the recent past and present, not looking at the proximity aberration. The third part will be devoted to this.