Military Review

Guided tank missiles "Bastion" and "Sheksna" - 30 years in the ranks

In 1983, 30 years ago, new weapons were adopted by the Soviet Army tank KUV - a complex of guided weapons 9K116-1 "Bastion" and 9K-116-2 "Sheksna", designed for use with cannons of the T-54/55 and T-62 tanks, respectively. The use of these ATGMs allowed to extend the life of the tanks, since their combat effectiveness was practically equal to the tanks of the next 3rd generation, which included tanks of the M60, Leopard-1, AMX-30, etc. type. A big plus of these systems was that the use of the Bastion and Sheksna anti-tank guided missiles did not require the replacement of tank guns, but only supplemented the range of ammunition used by them.

In total, the 4 complex of guided anti-tank missiles was developed: 9K116 “Fasteners” for the T-12 (MT-12) anti-tank guns (according to NATO codification AT-12 Swinger is a lifesaver); 9K116-1 "Bastion" (according to the NATO codification AT-10 Stabber) tank TOR for T-54 / 55; 9K116-2 "Sheksna" - tank KUV for T-62; 9K116-3 "Fable" - KUV for use with the BMP-3.

By the 1981, the USSR Army adopted the 9K116 "Faste" guided weapons complex with a rocket, which was guided by a laser beam and fired from the X-NUMX-mm anti-tank T-100 gun. This complex was designed in the well-known Instrument Design Bureau of the city of Tula, which was headed by the designer A. G. Shipunov. Even before the completion of the development of the "Kastet" complex, it was decided to deploy work on the creation of unified guided weapons complexes designed for T-12 / T-54 and T-55 tanks. Almost simultaneously, work began on the creation 62-X complexes 2K9-116 «Bastion", which was compatible with 1-mm rifled guns family D-100T mounted on tanks T-10 / 54, and 55K9-116 «Sheksna", which was intended for T-2 family of tanks with 62-mm smooth-bore guns U-115. Work on the creation of new systems for the T-5 and T-55 tanks was completed in the 62 year.

Guided tank missiles "Bastion" and "Sheksna" - 30 years in the ranks

At the same time, the 9М117 rocket was borrowed from the “Kastet” complex with little or no change; in the “Sheksna” complex, this rocket was equipped with special support belts to ensure steady movement along the 115-mm artillery barrel. All the changes affected mainly liners with a propellant charge, which was redesigned for the chambers of these guns.

As a result, it was possible to create conditions for upgrading 2-generation tanks, which provided a multiple increase in combat effectiveness and substantially equalized the firing capabilities of the upgraded tanks - T-55М, T-55МВ, T-55А in a fairly short time and at relatively low cost. , T-55AMB, T-55AD, T-62М, T-62МВ when shooting at long distances with tanks belonging to the next generations. In the future, the Bastion and Sheksna complexes became the basis for the development of the 9K116-3 “Fable” guided weapon system for the BMP-3 infantry fighting vehicle. Over time, modernized versions of the missiles were also created in Tula, equipped with a tandem-shaped cumulative warhead and capable of overcoming the reactive armor of modern and promising main battle tanks.

The following elements are included in the guided weapons complex for the 9K116 tanks:
ZUBK10-1 shot with anti-tank missile 9М117;
Control equipment "Wave";
Sight-pointing device 1K13-1, having 8-fold increase when using the day channel and 5,5-fold when using the night channel;
Voltage converter 9C831.


In the outer hull lines, the controlled shot ZUBK10-1 is quite close to its unmanaged counterparts - high-explosive fragmentation shots ZUFO37 and ZUBK10-1. It consists of 2 elements: sleeve and the rocket itself. The sleeve is made of steel, has a screw bottom with a detonator. A special propellant charge is placed inside the liner, which tells the anti-tank missile the initial velocity 400-500 m / s. The use of a centering ring, a lattice shell, and an inert gas reservoir on the rocket provides for the purging and removal of the combustion products of the propellant charge after the shot has been fired. At the same time, the ZUBK10 shot is a unitary loader ammunition, which makes it possible to use it in tanks with automatic loaders. The entire sequence of operations for launching an ATGM is performed automatically.

The rocket itself was designed in an aerodynamic "duck" configuration with an air-dynamic steering gear in front of the cumulative warhead 9H136М of a closed circuit with a frontal air intake and aerodynamic rudders deployed backward through the anti-tank missile. To reduce the size of the solid-fuel engine was manufactured with front-mounted 2-x oblique nozzles. In the tail section of the rocket, the main units of the onboard guidance system equipment are located, here is the receiver of laser radiation. Wings that unfold using a special device are angled to the longitudinal axis of the ATGM, which ensures its rotation in flight. A missile is aimed at a target in a semi-automatic mode using a laser beam.

The automated tank control system Volna was developed on the basis of the equipment of the Kastet armament complex, while it is distinguished by a minimum volume and mass - 47 liters of additionally installed units. SUO "Wave" is well protected from all sorts of interference, which ensures its high accuracy of defeating various ground targets.


However, time did not stand still, and in the well-known opposition of the “sword” and “shield” to the anti-tank arms and its carriers are all new requirements. The main battle tanks had new, modern means of defense, the requirements for combat were changed, and at the same time, the disadvantages of the 9K116-1 Bastion and 9K116-2 Sheksna complexes became obvious. For example, shooting a guided missile only from a place made a combat vehicle a very good target on the battlefield. And the installation on the enemy’s armored vehicles of dynamic protection (also called reactive armor) makes the cumulative warhead of a missile insufficiently effective. Also, the ability of tanks to fight at night only at ranges up to 800-1200 meters does not meet modern requirements of the time.

That is why in KBP in Tula, all the past years, design work has been carried out to increase the combat potential of the Bastion and Sheksna guided weapons complexes and to eliminate their shortcomings. The shots 3UBK10М-1 and 3УБК10М-2 with a guided missile 9М117М “Kan”, which was equipped with a leading charge, designed to successfully overcome dynamic protection were created. Also, work was carried out on locating the elements of the armament complex on the BMP-3: a digital ballistic computer, an 1KV-2 sight, and a modernized weapon stabilizer. These measures allowed for the possibility of firing on the move and increased the accuracy of firing with standard artillery weapons 1,3-1,5 times.

In 1997, the modernized T-62 tanks owned by a foreign customer were successfully demonstrated and tested. In 1998-2004, in one of the African countries, work was carried out on the modernization of 30 tanks Т55, which later took part in the hostilities. At present, the Instrument Design Bureau offers to its potential customers the modernization of the T-55 and T-62 tanks with the 3 UB10-1 (2) shotgun and the installation of elements of a modern unified fire control system.

Equipping medium-sized T-55 and T-62 tanks with an all-day SLA will allow them to be brought up to the same level with modern tanks as far as possible for identifying and detecting targets on the battlefield, increasing the effective range of artillery armament from the course and from the spot, increasing the accuracy of shooting, and also allowing use guided munitions at any time of the day. The main elements of the all-day MSA are: a combined (optical thermal imaging) gunner's sight, equipped with an ATGM laser information channel and a laser rangefinder, as well as a digital ballistic computer with a shooting conditions sensor.

The installation of an automatic fire control system on T-55 and T-62 tanks allows you to fire a rocket from a place and on the move, at any time of the day at a distance of 4-x kilometers. At the same time, effective shooting with any type of standard unguided ammunition available to the customer increases 1,5-1,8 times. Increase the search capabilities of the gunner occurs through the use of thermal imaging channel, the gunner's sight with high-precision stabilization of the field of view and improved optical characteristics of the target channel.

Performance characteristics:

Firing range - 100-4000 meters;
ATGM flight time at maximum range - 13 seconds;
ATGM flight speed - 370 m / s;
The weight of the rocket 9М117 - 17.6 kg;
Rocket caliber - 100 / 115 mm;
Rocket length - 1048 mm;
Scope of stabilizers - mm 255;
Armor penetration - mm 600 for dynamic protection, for 9М117М1 missiles - 750 mm for ДЗ;
The probability of hitting the target type tank at the maximum distance - 0,8;
Temperature range of combat use -40 .. + 50 ° С.

Information sources:
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  1. Kovrovsky
    Kovrovsky 3 July 2013 09: 17
    Like it or not, it's all yesterday! For the Africans it can and will do.
    1. avdkrd
      avdkrd 3 July 2013 10: 19
      ... well, 750mm for dynamic protection is not very good yesterday ...
      1. dustycat
        dustycat 3 July 2013 22: 17
        Patriotic DZ.
        And it is a little easier than imported.
    2. datur
      datur 3 July 2013 14: 43
      [quote = Kovrovsky] Whatever one may say, it's all yesterday! For the Africans it may work, too, because it says -30 years in service !!! wink
  2. royk
    royk 3 July 2013 09: 39
    "Sheksna" - we have such a river in the Vologda region.
  3. Fetel
    Fetel 3 July 2013 10: 27
    All missiles that are unable to overcome the KAZ are suitable only for firing at targets without this complex. It’s time to improve the ammunition itself - for example, equip it with a simulator fired when approaching.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 3 July 2013 10: 30
      It’s easier to significantly increase speed. To hypersound. The task is completely solvable
      1. Prohor
        Prohor 3 July 2013 18: 42
        Hmm ... Hypersound is 5-10 km / s, is it really "quite solvable" today?
        1. Lopatov
          Lopatov 3 July 2013 18: 56
          It is already there. Anti-tank guided CKEM (Compact Kinetic Energy Missile) from Lockheed Martin. Marching - 6M
          1. shalk
            shalk 3 July 2013 23: 24
            What does this rocket have to do with the tank’s ammunition under discussion?
            1. Lopatov
              Lopatov 3 July 2013 23: 33
              And what is the problem of making tank ammunition based on it?
              1. shalk
                shalk 4 July 2013 00: 32
                And what, in general, are the problems in order not to make tank ammunition that allows you to shoot through the barrel of the Abrams directly from America at the Kremlin?
                1. Lopatov
                  Lopatov 4 July 2013 00: 34
                  You may not have noticed, but we are on a branch about guided missiles fired from a tank barrel.
                  1. Odysseus
                    Odysseus 4 July 2013 00: 44
                    Quote: Spade
                    You may not have noticed, but we are on a branch about guided missiles fired from a tank barrel.

                    I apologize for being almost off topic, but knowing that you are an expert in "land" I will ask, how many T-55s, T-62s in the 80s had time to re-equip for these missiles? Was it a massive upgrade or just prototypes?
                    1. Lopatov
                      Lopatov 4 July 2013 00: 47
                      I'm an artilleryman, and your question is more likely to tank
                    2. svp67
                      svp67 4 July 2013 18: 08
                      Quote: Odyssey
                      I apologize for being almost off topic, but knowing that you are an expert in "land" I will ask, how many T-55s, T-62s in the 80s had time to re-equip for these missiles? Was it a massive upgrade or just prototypes?

                      A lot, all the tanks leaving the repair plants in Kiev, Leningrad, Ussuriisk were brought to the level of modification "M", this is from the second half of the 80s, and from the 90s to the level of "MV", and then "MV-1", with engine from B48
                  2. shalk
                    shalk 4 July 2013 23: 28
                    So I wonder how smoothly creating a hypersonic charge shot through the barrel of a tank? At least on the basis of SCEM, at least on the basis of something else.
    2. My address
      My address 3 July 2013 22: 22
      Cheap and angry. You're right.
  4. Alekseev
    Alekseev 3 July 2013 10: 35
    "Launched" such a racket from the modernized 62-ki.
    A simple and reliable complex, which cannot be said about the entire tank.
    The stabilizer holds poorly due to the heavy tower with "eyebrows", there is no thermal imager (they are true, then we did not have request ), antediluvian mechanical transmission, requiring constant adjustments, etc.
    But remelting is not necessary!
    For Afghanistan, Africa, the most, especially if you replace some components and assemblies with modern ones.
    Still, a hundred times more expensive than metal!
    1. svp67
      svp67 4 July 2013 18: 11
      Quote: Alekseev
      Simple and reliable complex, h

      I don’t agree ... After a couple of shots, the range finder’s settings go astray and then you have to adjust it again.
    2. piter-tank
      piter-tank 8 July 2013 19: 37
      He also "let" them go, but from 55, on Sakhalin in 90th. "Emki" just came to rearmament after 55A. The command of the 51st Army decided to show all the commanders the capabilities of the 55M. There are no specialists. And I have been replaced for a year since the GSVG. They handed over two tanks, two crews and gave a month to a deadline. We did it! The commander presented a watch.
      The complex is not bad, but STV to hell. Abductions, dodging while aiming at the target are terrible. I turned on only the horizontal drive, vertically pointed manually.
      The target, by the way, was nailed to a birch at 3300 m.
  5. viktorR
    viktorR 3 July 2013 11: 07
    Delivered a picture from Lockon)))
  6. My address
    My address 3 July 2013 22: 18
    What are some sixty sixty twos! They did everything, hid the vodka in the canals, Mongolian sand was not afraid! True, not very comfortable and a bit capricious. So everything is not without sin.
  7. bublic82009
    bublic82009 3 July 2013 23: 42
    interesting solution to extend the life of old systems
  8. basil200
    basil200 4 July 2013 05: 53
    Or DCS Ka 52 Picture
  9. Bongo
    Bongo 4 July 2013 08: 23
    KUV - 9K116-1 “Bastion” and 9K-116-2 “Sheksna” guided weapons complex, designed for use with T-54 / 55 and T-62 guns, respectively. The use of ATGM data allowed us to extend the service life of the tanks, as their combat effectiveness was virtually equalized with the next-generation 3 tanks, which included the M60, Leopard-1, AMX-30 tanks
    What is interesting indicated Western tanks superior to domestic, that they are assigned to the next generation?
  10. Kremlin
    Kremlin 4 July 2013 09: 00
  11. mvkot120669
    mvkot120669 12 March 2014 03: 30
    An interesting article ... VERY only confuses the 4 km in shooting and% of the accuracy of the defeat .... I understand, similar data appears everywhere ... but the "tank Biathlon" - I understand a little, they really fired guided missiles ... at a distance of 1,5 km, under ideal conditions, 2 out of 4 crews did not hit the large-scale projection of the tank (training target) ... This is what makes me very, very much thinking about the actual performance characteristics of our weapons ..