Ivan the Terrible began to create schools in Muscovy Russia, in the 1550 of the city, the hundred-head council pointed out the need for “literacy to learn.” These schools operated at temples, monasteries and provided general education, sufficient for their era. And the rest of the knowledge a person had to pick himself, in communication with "knowledgeable people" and "extensive reading." That is, each continued education individually, depending on the chosen profession.
And in the XVII century. schools began to be created for deeper education. Conventionally, they can be considered "higher." Under Mikhail Fedorovich - for the training of clergymen, and under Alexey Mikhailovich and for secular officials. These were schools at the Miracle, Zaikonospassky monasteries (here students were given scholarships - 10 rubles per year!), Gymnasium at the Church of St. John the Theologian in China-town, a school at the Church of St. John the Theologian in Bronnaya Sloboda, a school at the Printing House. Finally, under Fyodor Alekseevich, the famous Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy was created.
5 printing houses operated in our country. The Moscow Printing House was a very large enterprise for that epoch, 8 machines operated here. According to the general circulation of published literature, Russia ranked first in Europe! But the demand for it was so high that it was not enough. Private printing houses of Belarus and Lithuania specialized in printing Russian books and supplying them to Russia. There was a fair amount of handwritten literature, and book creativity was generously complemented by oral folklore — tales, fables, epics. It has now been recognized that in terms of quality they were in no way inferior to the best samples of foreign literature, they were true masterpieces.
Books in Russia are very appreciated. Large libraries gathered in monasteries, in orders, at schools, at the printing houses of the Greek language, with the king, his children, in the homes of nobles and merchants. But the libraries in 3 — 5 books were even in the homes of some wealthy peasants! And foreigners describe a book mile-long series in Moscow, selling only books.
A significant proportion of the books was Orthodox literature, various editions of the Bible, the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, the Psalter, and the lives of the saints. Developed textbooks, "alphabet" - manuals for teachers. Guldenstern in 1602 mentions a Russian primer. And in 1634, the Moscow Printing House published a textbook by Vasily Burtsev: "Primer of the Slavonic language, that is, the beginning of teaching to children."
In 1648, the Grammar published by Melentiy Smotrytsky, published in Lithuania, systematized the book Slavic language and taught not only the “good of verb and writer”, but also “by meter or measure of the number of verses of slugat”. (By the way, it was one of two books that Lomonosov later called the “gate of his scholarship). Innocent Giesel's book “Synopsis or a short collection from various chroniclers about the beginning of the Slavic-Russian people”, the first Russian textbook, was published in Kiev in 1674. stories (it was considered the best until the middle of the XIX century and sustained 30 editions).
Among the translations of publications that circulated in Russia were virtually all ancient classics, artistic chivalry novels, the best works on medicine, history, and geography. But there were talented authors in Russia. St. Dmitry of Rostov compiled and published the “Chetyi-Mei”, left wise and instructive notes. Andrey Lyzlov created the “Scythian history”, Karion Istomin - “Small primer”, “Big primer”. Moldovan emigrant Nikolai Spafariy-Milescu became the author of a number of scientific works, and Simeon Polotsky became the ancestor of Russian book poetry.
Our country had its own traditional medicine. The Italian ambassador, Foscarino, wrote: "Doctors treat by experience and tried herbs." There was a medical literature - “Herbalists”, “Zeleniki”, “Healers”. There was an Apothecary order, something like a “Ministry of Health”. In Moscow, there was a Potion Series, which traded in medicinal herbs and other medical drugs. There, in the Zeleynyy Ryad, one could hire “leztsi”, “zuboder”, “ophthalmic”, “chiropractor”, “krovopusk” and even “woman’s affairs of the master”. Pharmaceutical order allocated drugs and medical personnel for the army, there are detailed paintings on this subject - how many “lechtsov”, surgeons, chiropractors. Under the tsarina, the Russian “dokhturitsa” is mentioned (and the “dokhtur” was higher than the “lechtsa”, usually the “dokhturami” were foreigners). Medical experts were among the monks of almost every monastery.
Since ancient times in Russia existed and mathematics. Moreover, its own, subsequently displaced by the European. Not only the decimal system was used - they were considered to be more nines and magpies. I will not argue how convenient it is, but not at all primitive. Try to count in several systems and easily switch from one to another! (And everyone was able to count - what kind of trade without an account?) In the textbooks of the 16th century that have come down to us. The terms are called “lists”, the sum is “bottom list”, the difference is “residuals”, decreasing is “borrowed list”, deductible “pay list”, the dividend is “big list”, private - “foal list”, the remainder is “ residual fractions ”.
There were manuals on geometry “with the application of surveyors”, which provides information on the calculation of the areas of different shapes. The calculations of the areas are also contained in the composition of Yermolai Erazm “The Ruler of Agriculture and Farming” by the gracious king. And theoretical mathematics operated with numbers up to ... 10 in 48 degrees! And also had its own terminology. “Darkness” in mathematics meant a thousand thousand — that is, million million million - “legion”, legion of the legions - “leodr”, and leodr leodrov - “raven”. The unit of the 49 th digit. By the way, Old Russian mathematics in general often operated not with linear, but with power dependencies - one thousand thousand, forty forty.
There were highly educated specialists - “arithmometers”, cartographers. Of course, without foundational knowledge in the most diverse areas, such foundry workers as Andrei Chokhov, who created the Tsar Cannon, the huge Reut bell, etc., could not work. At this point, natural talent and ingenuity were clearly not enough. As for the architects who solved the most complex engineering problems. Fulvio Ruggieri, who admired the construction of our fortresses, respectfully referred to the Russian city planners as “engineers”. They knew how to make clever mechanisms. They are mentioned among the gifts of the False Dmitry to their bride. And under Mikhail Fedorovich, a clock was set on the Spasskaya Tower, which called up a “musical scale” on the bells.
There were enthusiastic scientists. The archive of the hegumen of the Solovki monastery Fedor Kolychev contains descriptions of many inventions that were introduced under his leadership. This and the giant hydraulic structures of the monastery with cunning pipelines, when the water from the 52 lakes was fed to the mills, set in motion the forges and hammers. As well as a mechanical dryer, a fan, and a device for warming up clay in the manufacture of bricks, and even original devices that accelerate and facilitate the manufacture of kvass. Boyarin Matveyev studied algebra and made chemical experiments.
Travelers and merchants recorded their “walkings”, stories about the countries of Central Asia and the Caucasus. Fundamental geographical works were also created: “A large drawing of the Russian land” with descriptions of roads, rivers, etc., “Drawing of the Siberian lands” of Stolnik Peter Godunov. The outstanding scholar was Archbishop Kholmogorsky and Vazhsky Athanasius Lyubimov. Without leaving spiritual works, he was engaged in medicine, geography, astronomy. He built a telescope and watched the celestial bodies through the "optical round glass in the tree." Made maps of Ukraine and Pomerania, "Description of the three ways from the Pomeranian countries to the Swedish land," developed a project for the development of New Earth.
If we touch on art, then it should be noted that foreign guests who visited Russia were well acquainted with the achievements of the European Renaissance. Nevertheless, they admired Russian icons. They were highly appreciated by the papal legate Possevino, and the Czech Tanner, and the Dutch artist de Bruin. But if European art followed the path of blindly copying nature, then iconography is a very special, much more complex genre. This is not a picture, it is a symbol that helps a person to concentrate, detach himself from the earthly and rush his soul towards the Lord. Icon painters created by inspiration from above. In order to gain it, they especially fasted and prayed.
Technique could change, develop, enrich with new finds, but without the violent fantasies and vacillations inherent in European artists. So, in the XVII century. complex multi-figured compositions began to be created: “Symbol of Faith”, “Not Peace, but Sword”, etc. There were icons of “Frâzhskogo Letters” - the general canon of the image was preserved, but combined with the “living” of faces and figures. And Palekh masters brought bright folk motives to the canon. The demand for icons was very high. In Moscow, there was an Icon Series, "occupied by painters who sell only images." There were several major centers of icon painting - in Yaroslavl, Novgorod, Pskov, Palekh, Salt-Vychegodskaya, Iconic settlement of the Trinity-Sergius Monastery, Antonievo-Siya Monastery. There were also schools where novice icon painters studied, for which there were special aids.
And in Moscow at Armory in 1660, the school organized a "school of royal salted and fodder isographs." Those who were on a permanent salary were called salaries, feed received “feed” (payment) piece by piece. The workshop was headed by the best artist of the time Simon Ushakov. He created such masterpieces as murals of the Faceted Chamber of the Kremlin, the painting “The Tree of the Moscow State”, the Iveron Icon of the Most Holy Theotokos in Nizhny Novgorod, the “Holy Trinity” - in composition it is close to the icon of Andrei Rublev, and yet completely different. Nicola Pavlovets, Joseph Vladimirov, Semyon Spiridonov were also famous for their skills.
But secular painting was also developed in Russia. Only one Western genre was not practiced - nude images. Everything else was. Ceremonial portraits were painted from the 16th century. Portraits of kings, Ordin-Nashchokin, Matveyev, Golitsyn, Natalia Naryshkina, and others, made by Russian masters, have been preserved. The technique of writing them in no way inferior to the European. Foreigners mentioned that another number was located next to Icon in Moscow, where "there are painters of flowers, fruits, and species." Very popular were popular prints. Europeans called them "prints". The image was engraved on a board, and prints were made from it on paper. The popular popular prints, like Nikon's portrait, represent not a “cheap”, but quite mature level of creativity.
It was not customary to sculpt large statues in Russia, but Russian craftsmen could argue with the best sculptors of any country in making small statuettes and figurines made of bone or wood. Preserved carved folding Nikon. On it the masters superbly carved a whole miniature iconostasis! Domestic jewelers have also achieved the highest art. Various techniques were used - casting, chasing, granulation, filigree, niello, various types of enamels, enamel, filigree, carving, engraving. Until now, in museums you can see cups, dishes, ladles, censer, chalices, women's decorations covered with the finest patterns, delightful in their performance. No less high was the art of embroidery — the craftswomen (both commoners and nobles) created wonderful swaddles, air, banners, vestments of clergymen, and embroidered icons.
And if now tourists from all over the world are going to see the miracle of architecture, wooden temples in Kizhi, then the 17th century. All of Russia was decorated with such miracles! They were ordinary, stood to every village, every city. The apotheosis of wooden architecture was the construction of Alexei Mikhailovich in the Kolomna Palace. It was erected from 1667 to 1671, the work was carried out by carpenter foreman Semyon Petrov and archer Ivan Mikhailov, the team of carpenters and carvers was headed by Starets Arseny, it included Klim Mikhailov, Davyd Pavlov, Andrey Ivanov, Gerasim Okulov, Fyodor Mikulaev. The Bogdan Saltanov Armenian was engaged in gilding, and the paintings were made by the masters of the Armory Chamber, headed by Ushakov.
The palace consisted of seven "Horomin". They were built in 3 — 4 floors, connected with each other by passages and staircases, and full will was given to the masters' fantasies. The buildings were decorated with intricate carvings, arches, porches, openwork railings, not a single roof repeated the other, and the palace was crowned with bizarre heaps of onions, hipped roofs, turrets. The patterned carving covers the door, trim 3 thousand windows. 270 rooms delighted the eye with carved benches and benches, the walls were painted with ornaments and paintings. Foreigners wrote that the palace "seems to be all taken out of the casket thanks to a wonderfully skillfully executed decoration," called it "an architectural diva," "the eighth wonder of the world."
But the stone Russian architecture was not inferior to wood. In the XVII century. stone temples have become common even in the countryside. Impregnable fortresses, magnificent administrative buildings, boyar and merchant houses were built. They were also generously decorated with stone carvings, decorative columns and pilasters, borders made of colored tiles.
Russian since ancient times loved music. Among the musicians there were real virtuosos - tones, housekeepers, dulcimer, angels, guslars. From time immemorial, church singing was perfected. It was high art. In Russia, it was decided to make permanent "stanitsy", choral ensembles of 5 choristers. The king had 5 villages, the patriarch 7. Each village could sing separately, and on holidays they united into large choirs. To record music, hook (note) recordings were used, there were several types of them - banner, track, demestvennaya. There were special "ABCs" for their reading and training of singers. There were composers who composed church music. The manuscripts and scores that have come down to us show that the melodies were exceptionally beautiful and melodic.
In folk art there was a theater. Buffoons played funny scenes, puppet shows with the famous Petrushka, in cities and villages people organized “amateur” performances on Maslenitsa, “carols” before Christmas, in December in the temples they organized mysteries of “cave action”. And during the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich, the first professional theater in Russia was created at the court.
Is our ancestors even in some areas behind the western countries? It turns out - no! We admiringly read about European navigators, about great discoveries, travels. But it remains behind the scenes that the Russian Pomors paved the way to England for half a century before the British reached Russia. The sea was named after the deceased Goddand explorer Barents. But it was left behind the scenes that he "discovered" the edges, long ago mastered by the Russians. He died at the "discovery" of the New Earth, where the Pomorians went regularly, not considering it to be something special and heroic. They saved the remnants of the Barents expedition, which crashed and died on Novaya Zemlya. By the way, academician V.N. Scalon discovered that, as a map of the northern seas, compiled by Barents, was completely wrong. But the Russian explorers of the XVII century. knew how to make maps even more accurately than graduated geographers of the nineteenth century.
Are they inferior to the western discoverers of the voyage of Semyon Dezhnev, Poyarkov, Erastov, Erilo, Bugr, the journeys of Khabarov, Stadukhin, Galkin, Beketov, Zyryan, Moskvitin, Shelkovnikov, Gavrilov and other pioneers. Through the efforts of these brave and motivated people for half a century, the territory of Russia has almost doubled! Our country has grown huge spaces of Siberia and the Far East. It grew under the rule of the first Romanovs, and the wise policies of the kings contributed to this. Decrees of Moscow demanded the establishment of friendship with the locals. Not conquest, and establish mutually beneficial relationship.
The orders and instructions of the sovereigns to the governors repeatedly repeated one and the same thing: “To bring foreigners under the high sovereign's hand” and collect yasak with “caress, not cruelty”. “To caress and greet and care for them, but in vain cruelties and no taxes they have nothing to repair with some affairs, so that they should not be hardened in vain and not be driven away from the sovereign mercy”. It was forbidden to use the death penalty for yasak people - even in the case of uprisings! And Russian Cossacks, hunters, and peasants who reached out to Siberia for their handicrafts, were strictly forbidden "lands of the yasak-like imatis." It was allowed to settle only in the "outskirts of places". For harassment and attempts to take away someone else’s land, they whipped him. So the story of buying Manhattan for 24 thaler in Russia would not have passed.
Foreigners in the XVII century. They were amazed how “a handful of people seized such a huge space.” They gave the correct answer: the cause of success was not at all "conquest by military force, but according to the natives' conviction." And already in 1901, US Senator Baveridge, who visited the Far East, noted: “Russian differs from other nations in that it does not show any offensive way of dealing with races that it gets along perfectly well”.
The result is known: in the times of Yermak, the indigenous peoples of Siberia numbered about 200 thousand people. Over the 200 years, their number has increased 4 times - this is not counting the mixed population, since the Russians very often created families with Tatars, Yakuts, Buryats. And in North America at the end of the XVI - the beginning of the XVII century. there were 2 million Indians - in the twentieth century. 200 thousand left, mainly in Canada.
For some reason, a legend was introduced that Russia lagged behind the west militarily. This is complete nonsense. Western armies in the XVI - XVII century. represented a rather pitiful sight. Knightly cavalry outdated its age, the nobility was undisciplined, constantly changed. Troops were made up of mercenaries. This worked the German and Italian princes, "condottierri." Formed shelves from any rabble, sold to the one who pays.
The obedience of such soldiers was supported with sticks and gallows, but they were also allowed to do anything. The mercenaries burned, raped and slaughtered everyone, behind the troops were the ruins of cities with piles of corpses. The soldiers did not have a homeland, they plundered and exterminated everywhere. The assembled army quickly pushed into the territory of the enemy, let it be grazed there. There was no form in sight, the army looked like a bunch of ragged, behind it dragged a huge train of dealers of the loot, Tickers, prostitutes.
Elite units were small. In France, the Musketeers' 2 Company and the 2 Guard Regiment (King’s personal guard). More advanced, professional army, created in the XVII century. in Holland Moritz of Orange, then the Swedes took over. Therefore, they defeated all their opponents. In England, Cromwell took over their achievements, formed the “Army of the new sample” of 22 thousand people.
But in Russia the professional army began to be created a hundred years earlier. In the 1550-ies, Ivan the Terrible began to form regiments of regular infantry, archers. They already had a single form: colorful caftans, hats, uniform armament with flames, bears, swords.
Although foreign achievements are not neglected, tracked. Why not adopt, if really useful? In 1606, clerks M. Yuriev and I. Fomin transferred L. Fronsperger's German “Military Book”. In 1621, clerk O. Mikhailov compiled the “Charter of military, cannon and other matters relating to military science,” which summarized the advanced experience of European states, valuable information on fortification, ballistics, artillery. In 1647 in Moscow, it was published in a huge for that time edition of 1200 copies. the book “The Doctrine and Cunning of the Military System of the Infantry People” is a complete translation of the textbook of I. Wolgauzen “The Military Art of the Infantry”. In 1650, they transferred from the Dutch statutes for teaching to the reiter system.
The creation of troops on the Western model is usually attributed to Peter I. But much was attributed to him from what was done long before him. By the way, an example is a shipyard in Voronezh, supposedly founded by Peter. But in fact, Mikhail Fedorovich and his father Patriarch Filaret in 1620-s - barges and planes for Don Cossacks were built on this shipyard.
Similarly, the troops of the “new” or “foreign” system began to be formed not by Peter I, but by his grandfather Michael and great-grandfather Philaret. The decree on the establishment of the first two regiments was issued in April 1627. The Swedish army was taken as a sample, foreign commanders were hired. Each regiment consisted of 8 companies, 200 soldiers, 120 musketeers and 80 pikemen. From 1632, Reiter regiments are also being created - from 2, thousands of horsemen, protected by cuirass, armed with a carbine, 2 pistols and a sword. Then came the dragoons, light cavalry with carbines.
Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich established the first officer school for the training of command personnel. A Swedish resident in Moscow, de Rodes, reported to Stockholm about two training regiments of a thousand people, “for the most part all of the noble nobles” that Colonel Buchgofen prepared for command service - “he now taught them so much that there are few among them would not have been able to replace the colonel ”.
And the number of regiments of the "new system" gradually grew. In the 1660-ies in the Russian army there were already 22 Strelets regiment, 48 soldiers, 8 dragoons, 22 reytar, 1 hussars. Two "elected" guards regiments, Kravkov and Shepelev (and later they will become Butyrsky and Lefortovsky) also appeared. All units had uniform weapons, uniform. The shelves of the "new order" were reckoned to be caftans shorter than Streltsy, to the knee. And the hats were similar to Streletsky, but without a fur rim. The form of different regiments and types of troops differed in the color of collars, hats and boots, and military ranks were determined by the color of the chest lacing on the caftan.
The hierarchy of officer ranks was already very developed. Some ranks were taken over from foreign armies, some were their own, Russian. In our army there were colonels, half-colonels, captains, captain, majors, lieutenants, ensigns. There were already Russian major generals, lieutenant generals. And in 1669, the Boyar Duma adopted three flag colors: white, blue and red. Again, contrary to the legends that tricolor was invented by Peter, turning the Dutch flag upside down. No, tricolor introduced Alexey Mikhailovich. And these three colors were chosen due to the fact that they dominate on the icon of St. George the Victorious. Although the order of their alternation remained arbitrary, and on the banners of different regiments the colors were used in various combinations, from different angles.
But the Russian army was not only perfectly organized and well-dressed. She was well armed. The products of our gunsmiths are rightfully famous in different countries. Russian armor was much lighter and more convenient for European lats - chain mail from 50 thousand rings weighed only 6-10 kg. There were also excellent quality sabers — a good one was considered such that it was possible to cut a gas kerchief on the fly. For their manufacture used a special steel- "way", apparently, akin to the eastern damask.
Domestic artillery under Ivan the Terrible reached the highest perfection, researchers consider it the best in the world. The Tsar Cannon, cast by Andrei Chokhov in 1605, did not exist in the singular. There were four such giants - on each side of Red Square there were two guns. True, they have never been used - it is long and difficult to charge, the cores must be lifted using special devices. Rather, they played the role of psychological weapons. Let’s say, for example, the ambassadors of the Crimean Khan, admire them - and think about it, is it worth it to climb to Moscow? But made and operating huge guns. The siege “Unicorn” weighed 450 pounds (more than 7 tons), and its core - 1 pounds 30 hryvnias. Cannons “Stepson”, “Wolf” (each in 350 pounds) also shot pood nuclei, a little smaller were “Krechet”, “Achilles”, “Faceted”, “Peacock”, “Basilisk”, “Boar” and others.
Venetian Tjapolo reported that "in Moscow make rifles in large quantities." Pole Nemoevsky also noted "good food and muskets." In the era of Ivan the Terrible, Russians began to export firearms. Large batches of guns and shotguns were bought by Persia. In 1630's, more advanced, lightweight muskets appeared and entered Sweden. They could shoot without a stand, they were charged with a paper cartridge, which increased the rate of fire.
At first, Russia bought such new items, but in 1640, the Russians learned how to make them, launched into mass production. Before the war with the Poles, the Barrel Order reported to the king that 31.464 muskets, 5.317 carbines, 4.279 pistol pairs were sent to the troops, and the order still had 10 thousand guns and 13 thousand guns to them. All this is domestic production! And the guns were produced so much that they were sold abroad, Russia exported guns to 800 a year. By the way, you can compare with France. During these years, there were not only factories, but not even gun workshops. All weapons from cannons and guns to noble swords were purchased in Belgium, Holland, Germany. Or in Russia - through the Dutch.
Domestic weapons continued to improve. In 1659, the ambassadors of Allied Denmark visited Moscow. Through their compatriot, colonel of the Russian service of Bauman, they managed to get to the Cannon Yard, described some of the developments that were carried out there. In particular, the model of a giant mortar, whose weight was supposed to reach 8.750 pounds (140 t), weight of grenades - 14.050 pounds (5,6 t), for charge required 2.000 pounds of gunpowder (800 kg), and for ignition of grenades and charge - 200 pounds ( 80 kg). And gunpowder in the chamber was poured from the breech, which was closed with screws. In general, the main thing for the siege of cities is to somehow bring such a monster into place. And then one bomb threw - and that's enough.
It is unlikely that the super-mortar was made in reality, only the model that “reached the chin” is described. But the Danes have described and the samples put into production are light field guns on the carriages, they were carried by a 1 horse, and the calculation consisted of a 2 man. And they were charged “from behind,” from the breech! In the west, these have not been. At this time, "screw" (rifled) and "organ" (multi-barreled) guns appeared on the armament of the Russian army. With 1667, the release of hand grenades began, in Moscow the Grenade Yard was built. There were grenades in metal shirts, there were “pitted ones” - in glass ones, they were worn on a belt in special bags. Foreigners noted their excellent quality.
Yes, our army was so “backward”. And about how she fought, show the results. After all, only in the history books the story about the reunification of Russia with Ukraine ends with the Pereyaslav Rada. In fact, for this reunion, 27 had to fight for years with a coalition of the strongest powers of that time. Poland argued with Russia for centuries about domination in Eastern Europe. In Troubles, it even seemed that she won. But under Alexey Mikhailovich, Poland was smashed to such an extent that it generally dropped out of the number of great powers. Her fate began to dispose of others. Russia has become the undisputed leader in Eastern Europe.
Sweden intervened in the war, its army at that time was considered the best. But she received so well that little did not seem, chose to make peace. And only a coincidence of circumstances allowed her to leave the game "draw." The Ottoman Empire also intervened, the Turks were generally called "shakers of the universe", they exhibited countless hordes, smashed all opponents. But the Russians near Chigirin buried two Turkish armies, and completely repulsed the hunt to climb north.
In addition, Russia gradually, with the construction of the borderline, moved into the Wild Field. She mastered fertile black soil of the steppe. And on the way of the raids of the Crimean Tatars rose fortress, fortification systems, border guards. At the same time, our country reflected the attempts of Persia to seize the North Caucasus. And in Transbaikalia and on the Amur she won the war with China. Several offensives of Chinese troops were hurt by Albazin and Nerchinsk ... What country, what army in the XVII century. could boast such victories?
Alas, in subsequent times, much has been overwritten and forgotten. Successes and achievements dimmed, obscured by some less significant, but more recent events. Foreign professors who came to Russia in the eighteenth century were pretty messed up in history. Elevated their own states, belittling our progress from the Russians reduced to borrowing from abroad. And from the richest cultural heritage of Moscow Russia, only a tiny part has reached us. "Enlightened" descendants, fascinated by foreign samples, rejected the achievements of their ancestors. Folk art began to be considered "low" and "mean." Ancient masterpieces of architecture were destroyed, rebuilt. Old books were lost, and even burned, as unnecessary trash. Priceless icons were concealed in attempts to depict something more “artistic” in a European way.
By the way, the first exhibition of ancient Russian icons was organized only in 1913! And the first to give them the highest assessment is not even Russian, but the French artist Henri Matisse! He was amazed at what he saw, he wrote: “This is for sure folk art ... Here is the primary source of artistic research ... The Russians do not suspect what artistic riches they own!” And only after Matisse did our intelligentsia catch up, began to look differently at their own national wealth ... And for the loss of the past is the destruction of the foundation on which our present lies with you. And the future too. The history of the twentieth and twenty-first century. showed it quite eloquently.