Vladimir Putin instructed the scientific community to write a “consistent” national history textbook. This work, admittedly, is largely Sisyphus. Indeed, on the one hand, our history is a building made up of reinforced concrete facts, and on the other, this historical “concrete” begins to crumble at the first serious scientific examination. This is especially true of the events of the Great Patriotic War. Take the seemingly most indestructible truth: the vast majority of Russians are sincerely convinced that by May 1945 of the year the USSR was in ruins, and then in just a few years the country made an incredible leap, literally, to the stars. In the textbooks of history, this era is called "Overcoming the post-war devastation." The concept, which initially became ideological, is still used by liberal economists and Orthodox communists to this day. The columnist for Itogi turned over the statistical reports of the worst war of the 20th century. And this is what came of it.
Truth in Pravda
There is the most important official document on the post-war devastation. In September, 1945, in Pravda, a message appeared from the Extraordinary State Commission (CPP) to investigate the atrocities of aggressors. We quote: “The German fascist invaders completely or partially destroyed and burned 1710 cities and more 70 thousands of villages and villages, burned and destroyed over 6 millions of buildings and deprived of shelter about 25 millions of people ... destroyed 31 850 industrial enterprises ... They destroyed and sacked 98 thousands of collective farms , 1876 state farms and 2890 machine and tractor stations; 7 million horses, 17 million cattle heads, 20 million pigs heads were slaughtered, taken away or hijacked to Germany. ” The damage caused to the national economy and residents was identified in astronomical 679 billion rubles. At the then exchange rate - 128 billion dollars. At today's prices, this is more than 3,3 trillion dollars, or the eight-year budget of Russia.
Under Brezhnev, the “clarified amount” of damage appeared in the multivolume “History of the CPSU”. Refined four times - upwards. Porn it turned out on 2,5 trillion then rubles. In other words, Soviet industry, agriculture, housing and infrastructure were definitely in ruins. How did the country with "self-reliance" manage to cancel the rationing system before England already in 1947, in August 1949, to test a nuclear device, and through 16 years after the war - to launch the first man into space? The labor enthusiasm of the people, the use of prisoners of war and the potential of the Gulag, of course, can not be discounted. But maybe everything is simpler and information about the catastrophic devastation taken from the ceiling?
Recall, according to the statement of CPG, exactly 1710 cities were destroyed. So, in 1914, in the Russian Empire, only 931 was listed as a town with city status. Today in Russia - 1100 cities. In Ukraine - 458. In Belarus - 113. Total: now on the territory of the former Soviet republics subjected to German aggression, there is 1671 city. Major settlements of Moldova and the Baltic states can be ignored, since the Germans, as we know, reached only the Volga, and we also counted all the Russian cities located east of it. Hence, the case is most likely a forgery. The fact that in the Stalinist commission with the "city losses" went too far, they were suspected a long time ago, but they did not dare to contradict the data published in the organ of the Central Committee. Soviet researchers began to play with numbers: in school textbooks, the destroyed cities of 1710 turned into “1710 cities and towns”. The edited 1945 quote of the year has migrated to modern manuals. In the book for 11 class Vladimir Shestakova "villages" were "workers' villages." In the middle of 2000's, Vladimir Putin first drew attention to the problem of the abundance of mutually exclusive points of view in teaching history. The author Alexander Filippov was recommended to compose the “correct” textbook. So he has "more than 1700 cities and towns" in general "disappeared from the face of the earth."
It seems that the authors of the textbooks do not have time to follow the historiographic novelties. And in vain. Back in 2003, in the collection of archival documents “Soviet Life. 1945 — 1953. ”The most interesting reference“ On the state of the urban housing stock in 1940 — 1952 ”was published. According to this document, the living space at the end of 1940 was 167,2 million square meters, and at the end of 1945 year - 158,3 million. Living space in the barracks has not changed - 12,5 million meters. It turns out that the losses of the city fund during the war years were less than 9 million "squares". Not houses (6 millions according to CPG and 5 millions - according to Filippov’s “modern data”), namely 8,9 million square meters of living space, where 25 millions of “homeless” people hardly lived. Well, it could not, with all the harsh Soviet reality with its seals, fall on one person 35 square centimeters of housing!
Go ahead. The urban living area of the USSR, equipped with electricity, in 1940 was 91 a percentage of all buildings, and in 1945, 88 percent. So, during the war years, we lost three percent of electrified housing. There was no total devastation in the notorious closets. Before the war, 40 percent of houses were equipped with drains, and immediately after it, one percent more.
The official list of the cities most affected during the war on the territory of present-day Russia is limited to 15 names. In relation to these settlements 1 November 1945, a government decree was passed "On measures to restore the cities of the RSFSR destroyed by the German invaders: Smolensk, Vyazma, Rostov-on-Don, Novorossiysk, Pskov, Sevastopol, Voronezh, Novgorod, Velikiy Luk, Kalinin (Tver. - “Results”), Bryansk, Orel, Kursk, Krasnodar and Murmansk ”. For reference: Sevastopol was included in the list, because in 1945, Crimea was still part of the RSFSR.
With this seemingly indisputable devastation, everything is not simple either. There is such a nuance: go and know which part of the cities and villages was destroyed by the Nazi invaders, and which - by the Red Army and the NKVD. The fact is that when the Stalinist plan “to defeat the enemy with little blood on its own territory”, let's say, did not work, on November 17, 1941 (order No. 0428), the Stavka recommended other “measures for the defeat of the German army”. In particular, it was ordered "to destroy and burn to the ground all settlements in the rear of German troops at a distance of 40-60 km in depth from the front edge and 20-30 km to the right and left of the roads. To destroy settlements within the specified range, quit immediately Aviation, make extensive use of artillery and mortar fire. ” There is nothing supernatural in Stalin’s order: the tactics of scorched earth were invented in the first Patriotic War. Or here is another example of similar events of the Great Patriotic War. In July 1941, the leader teaches the head of the Central Committee of Ukraine Nikita Khrushchev what to do if the Soviet troops withdraw: “In the area of the 70-verst zone from the front, all adult male population, working cattle, grain, a tractor should be removed ... which cannot be removed, destroyed without touching however, birds, small livestock ... Do not blow up power plants, but remove valuable parts ... Do not blow up plants, but remove all necessary valuable parts from the equipment. ” As a result, one and a half million wagons with property were taken to the rear from places that were threatened by seizure.
25 July 1945 at the Potsdam Conference Joseph Vissarionovich told Churchill and Truman that the USSR had the full right to compensation for material losses from property not only from the east, but also from the western occupation zone of Germany: “I’m not used to complaining, but I must say that our situation is even worse. We have lost several million killed ... If I began to complain, I am afraid that you would have burst into tears, to the dire situation in Russia. " Despite his dislike for complaints, the Generalissimo on July 31 repeated: “We lost a lot of equipment in this war, a terrible lot. We must reimburse at least one twentieth. ”
No less deplorable picture painted representatives of academic science. In the series “Academic School Textbook” (one of the project leaders is RAS Vice-President Valery Kozlov) a manual for school was published under the editorship of Academician Alexander Chubaryan, Director of the Institute of General History of the RAS The book says that during the years of the Great Patriotic War "the country lost 1 / 3 of all its material wealth". (In non-academic textbooks, it should be noted, they write about a third of the “national wealth”.) Chapter VII, written by the rector of the RSUH, member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Yefim Pivovar, also states that “in 1950, the country reached the pre-war level of production of the main industrial products ... rebuilt hundreds of cities ... you can often hear about the Japanese "miracle of restoration" ... but there was also a "Soviet miracle" ... a rapid post-war revival, our country can be as proud as the Victory itself. "
Well, what was really? In reality, the “Soviet miracle” is basically the wonders of statistics. Back in Soviet times, the monograph by Yakov Chadayev “The economy of the USSR during the years of the Great Patriotic War (1941 — 1945)” was published, refuting any arguments about “miracles”. According to the researcher, not after the war, but “in October 1944, the industry of the USSR reached the level of 1940 ... In general, for 1944, the gross output of industry amounted to 104% to the pre-war level, and military production - to 312%”. The findings of the scientist are based on data from the statistical collection "National Economy of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War 1941 — 1945.” In the USSR, it was kept for seven seals in a secret archive, but today, if academics again have a desire to delve into our unpredictable past, there is no need to go far - you can read the document on the Internet.
According to the table "Main indicators of the development of the national economy of the USSR", the products of industry as a percentage of 1940 in the war years were as follows: 1941 - 98, 1942 - 77, 1943 - 90, 1944 - 104, 1945 - 92. In Leningrad, already in 1945, output increased by 1944 percent compared to 80. By 1948, the gross output of the entire industry of the USSR surpassed the prewar level by 18 percent. In the 1950 year, about which Brewer writes, the production volume did not reach the pre-war level, but exceeded it by 73 percent.
Almost 32 thousands of enterprises destroyed according to official data, should also be attributed to statistical errors. According to various estimates, in Russia before the 1917 coup, the year was from 25 to almost 40 thousands of factories. The yearbook “Russia in the World” presents the dynamics of commissioning enterprises in the USSR from 1917 to 1 in June 1941 of the year - 11,2 thousands. That is, the maximum number of all industrial giants and dwarfs at the start of the war is 51,2 thousands. In fact, it is possible that much less, because there were only about 30 thousand plants even after 49 years after the war there were only about 30 independent plants. If we assume that we have lost a third of enterprises, it is 17 thousand. But it is known that 1941 enterprises were evacuated to the east from July to December 2593. From how many factories have partially removed the valuable equipment and taken to the rear, nobody knows. In any case, the Germans could destroy no more than 14,5 thousands of enterprises. Or boxes, where they were previously?
Incredibly inflated and damage in agriculture. The enemy, for example, could not have “killed, collected and hijacked” 20 millions of pigs, because before the war the whole USSR had 27,5 million pigs. As for the devastation and plundering of "98 thousand collective farms and 2890 machine and tractor stations", it should be borne in mind that in 1936, those were respectively 244 thousands and 5 thousands. It turns out that not a single collective farm or station has survived in the occupied territory, which is unlikely.
Foreign countries will help us
Today, no one doubts the decisive contribution of the USSR to the defeat of fascism, although in the past such people have come across. One of them is Joseph Stalin. In his opinion, the USSR’s contribution to the Victory was exactly 50 percent. Here is how it was. At the Yalta Conference in February 1945, Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill signed a protocol on the issue of reparations. The latter, according to the document, "should be received primarily by those countries that bore the brunt of the war, suffered the greatest losses and organized a victory over the enemy ... the amount of reparations ... should be 20 billion dollars and that 50 percent of this amount goes to the Soviet Union." No Stalin for the language is not pulled. 10 billions of dollars then - he personally approved the price of victory. But if we take into account that the material damage to the USSR, according to the data of the same special commission, amounted to 128 billion dollars, it turns out that the leader is a bad bargain. Or, the data of CPGs published in Pravda is sheer fraud, and 10 billion dollars is enough to cover the real losses of the USSR during the war? By the way, according to German historians, the total cost of reparations (excluding the "price" of thousands of German specialists and 1,5 million prisoners of war, USSR gains from uranium mining in Germany and German patents) was from 14 to 16,3 billion dollars - about 400 billion dollars in modern money . Judging by the pace of the restoration of our country after the war, this amount was quite enough to overcome the devastation.
From March 1945, within one year, the highest authorities of the USSR made almost a thousand decisions relating to the dismantling of 4389 enterprises from Germany, Austria, Hungary and other European countries. Plus, about a thousand more plants were transported to the Union from Manchuria and even Korea. According to the historian Mikhail Semyryagi, from Germany alone “no less than 348 thousand machines were taken to the USSR, which covered the USSR’s losses by half”. So much for the compensation of the “twentieth part” of losses. "In fact," writes Semireg, "reparation ... served as an impetus for technical progress in Soviet industry." Better, perhaps, to say: jerk. Soviet ministries and departments sent a specialist 9332 to Germany. They had to study the local scientific and technical achievements and then decide how to transfer all this German VDNH to the Soviet soil. As a result, in the Union in the shortest possible time appeared unprecedented factories producing nylon, artificial silk, synthetic rubber. Also disassembled in the USSR imported "96 power plants with a total capacity of 4 million kilowatts, 976 thousands of mobile power plants, 200 thousands of electric motors, 9340 power transformers."
World-renowned scientists came to the USSR with their families: Nobel laureate Hertz, Professor Riel, physicist von Ardenne, and dozens of other future Stalin Prize laureates.
The question is: should all these contradictory facts be reflected in a “non-contradictory” textbook? Of course, it is necessary! As well as the fact that in the course of the most brutal war in the entire history of the world, the enemy could not inflict catastrophic damage on our economy. Including due to the brilliantly carried out evacuation. Well, after the war an unprecedented economic spurt really took place, including at the expense of the German industrial potential. All these historical facts do not diminish the great feat of the country and its people.