WITH AUTOMATIC AND DROPPER
In the IDF there are three categories of doctors: medical orderlies, paramedics (paramedics) and doctors. All of them, in the case of an appeal, are sent to military units with weapons and a miniature set of medical equipment and essential drugs. According to the staff distribution of duties, the medical instructor is present in each platoon. In addition to the usual weapons of a fighter, he is obliged to carry folding stretchers and first-aid equipment. In the companies and battalions, the positions of senior medical orderlies are determined. Paramedics provide assistance in companies and evacuation centers. In the field, it is on paramedics that the main responsibility for the deployment of hospitals lies. However, there are no inpatient hospitals in Israel. Still the founder of the IDF Haim Sheba Medical Corps (IC) (real name Shiber; 1901 – 1972), a native of Romania, a graduate of the Medical Faculty of the University of Vienna, Lieutenant Colonel of the British Army, participant in the Second World War, created a system in which military medicine was largely integrated into a civilian health care system.
Brigadier General Professor Arieh Eldad (born 1950) made a significant contribution to the development of military medicine in the Jewish state. For many years he headed the IDF BK. He is the son of Israel (Washer) of Eldad (1910 – 1996), a native of Ukraine, one of the leaders of Lehi (Hebrew abbreviation of “Lohamei Herut Israel” - “Fighters for Freedom of Israel”), an underground Jewish military organization that fought with the British to create the then Palestine independent Jewish state. Another well-known military physician with “Russian” roots is General Efraim Sneh (born 1944), the son of prominent Israeli communist Moshe Sne (real name Kleinbaum; 1909 – 1972), a native of Ukraine, a graduate of the Medical Faculty of the University of Warsaw. Efraim Snee graduated from the Faculty of Medicine at Tel Aviv University, served as a doctor in the amphibious brigade. It should be noted that Arieh Eldad and Efraim Sneh made an important contribution to medical science, both of which received doctoral degrees in plastic surgery and immunology, respectively. Their students work in the research department of the IDF VC.
In Israel, graduates of medical faculties of universities are becoming military doctors; after seven years of study, they undergo a special four-month course of field therapy and surgery. Usually they sign a contract for a five-year service life. If the contract is not further extended, the medical officer remains in reserve and monthly retraining takes place annually. Doctors who have received education abroad and have not served in the IDF are also obliged to undergo intensive training courses for infantry officers. Special combat training is provided by doctors who are called into special forces and reconnaissance and sabotage units. In the IDF, doctors who graduated from Soviet and Russian specialized universities are considered to be high professionals. All of them are called “Russians” (in quotes and without them), regardless of the place of birth and ethnic origin. And as the military "Russian" doctors deserve high marks.
SALVATION OF SERIAL SPITSER AND COLONEL PELED
In January, 2009, a high military award, was awarded to Major Medical Service Alexander Kataev. The then chief of the General Staff, Gabi Ashkenazi, presented him with a Calash (an abbreviation for the Hebrew “Tsiyun les Shevah”: translated from “The Sign of Valor”). During Operation Cast Lead, Major Kataev, commanding a group of medics, managed to organize the evacuation of seriously wounded soldiers, and he saved twelve people under enemy fire.
For the evacuation of the wounded in the IDF, special armored vehicles, armored personnel carriers, helicopters and tank bullets are used, which are heavy equipped for mobile first-aid posts Tanks "Merkava" (translated from Hebrew - "Chariot") of Israeli production.
Among those rescued by Alexander Kataev was Private Beni Spitzer, who was wounded in the head, legs and arms. Major Kataev evacuated Spitzer with two hands, which were torn off during the explosion. At the hospital, the hands were sewn, but only one hand got accustomed. Kataev pulled the commander of one of the battalions of the Golani brigade, Colonel Avi Peled, out of the ruins of a Palestinian building collapsed as a result of shelling.
In fact, Alexander could claim another award. However, there are a number of limitations in Israeli reward law. For example, an IDF soldier cannot receive more than one distinction or medal in a single war. In principle, you can not get more than two medals of the same rank. In Israel, it is not customary to award generals. And one more limitation: in the Israeli army, military personnel are not awarded for well-done or well-done work, but for their courage and heroism.
The Israeli hero Alexander Kataev was born in Dushanbe in 1969, and upon reaching the draft age he served two years in the Soviet army. Then he tried to enter the Military Medical Academy in St. Petersburg, and when the attempt failed, he returned to Dushanbe and graduated from the local medical institute. In the 26 years, along with his family, Alexander repatriated to Israel with a great desire to become a military doctor. His wish came true, for 17 years he has served in the IDF for the past five years, occupying the post of head of the military medical center in Jerusalem.
Alexey Kalganov, who graduated from the Chelyabinsk Medical Institute in 1989, even received two military awards. But he participated in two wars. In the Jewish state, Kalganov repatriated in 1992 and immediately began working as an orthopedist at a local hospital. Dr. Kalganov was annually called up for military gatherings, and in 2004, in the Beit-Lehem area, during the operation “Protective Wall”, he saved the first soldier.
Here's how it was told by Kalganov himself on the pages of the Israeli Russian-language newspaper Vesti: “We covered our special forces, who started a fight with the militants ... Four soldiers were seriously injured. One bullet landed in the mouth. I looked - everything is torn up. I thought he was dead, but the pulse was still palpable. I quickly inserted a tube into the throat, pumped blood from the lungs, and we evacuated it along with other wounded people. In truth, I had no doubt that he was not a tenant, but he not only survived, but almost completely recovered ... Everyone decided some seconds. He was just lucky that he was not just a doctor, but a surgeon. ”
It was for the salvation of this soldier that Captain Kalganov received the first award. The military doctor Alexei Kalganov received the second military medal during the Second Lebanon War, when he served as a battalion doctor. The award order says it rather dryly: “For dedication in the performance of a combat mission, personal example and professionalism in the battles at the village of Ayta al-Shaab in South Lebanon 5 August 2006 of the year”.
But the story of Captain Kalganov in the first person: “The enemy decided to shoot rockets at the house in which we took refuge in order to bring it down on us. Most were slightly injured, but one soldier did not have time to jump out after all - he suffocated from the acrid smoke that quickly spread after the explosion. I tried to insert a tube into his throat to restore breathing, and I could not: he had developed severe edema. Then I cut the wounded larynx - a trivial surgical operation, in this case carried out in the field, and inserted a tube directly into the throat ... Closer to the night they called a helicopter and evacuated it along with a dozen lightly wounded. This guy survived. By the way, I know him well - more than one year we have been together at the reserve training. ”
Dr. Kalganov showed heroism and 13 of August of the same year in the battle of the village of Jbeil Abu-Twil. He could be presented to the award and for this fight. But in Israel, as I noted above, they do not award twice in one war. And today Kalganov remains a military doctor in reserve, the commander of the medical unit. “I tell my medical officers that we are not at war on the front lines, but are saving the wounded,” says Captain Kalganov on the pages of the same newspaper, Vesti. “Professionals who have been specially trained for this fight, and we only have a weapon in case of emergency.”
Wounded soldiers were taken to the city hospital.
Military doctor Oleg Vyazemsky, a native of Moscow, received higher medical education at the Hebrew (Jewish) University in Jerusalem. He has served as a doctor in an infantry battalion for five years. In an interview with an NVO correspondent, Vyazemsky emphasized that an IDF soldier could receive a referral to a doctor of any profile if necessary. Dentistry, which in principle is very expensive here, is free for all military personnel. Ordering and making glasses is also free. If necessary, the IDF doctor can call to the wounded helicopter with the resuscitation team to any point at which this injured military was.
It is impossible not to pay attention to how the Israeli military medics are instructed in this case. “It will be easier for you when explaining the case to explain the commissions,” say the big ranks in the IDF VC, “why you called the helicopter without good reason than if you didn’t call, but the helicopter was most likely needed.” In other words, the IDF is ready to chase a helicopter for nothing, but just not to miss the life-threatening condition of a wounded or sick soldier.
In Israel, military doctors are very high demands. They are obliged not only to be able to provide first aid, including resuscitation, intubation and artificial respiration, but also to install pleural drainage (a tube for pumping air from the lung sheath) in case of rupture of this membrane and lung collapse. A military doctor, even if he is not a surgeon or resuscitator by specialization, but, for example, a dermatologist or oculist, must be able to do a tracheostomy - a tracheal incision to provide breathing. That is precisely to increase the universal medical qualifications and organized officer courses for doctors who are drafted into the IDF. In Israeli military medicine and disaster medicine, in principle, an algorithm has been developed for the treatment of multiple lesions, taking into account the sequence of problems that confront a doctor in multitrauma. It turned out that when the doctor encounters multiple injuries of the victim, it is first necessary to ensure that the injured person has airway and ventilation, without paying special attention to burns, bleeding and open fractures.
DOCTORS, OFFICERS AND UNCONFINED WOMEN
The military medal was posthumously awarded the reserve physician captain Igor Rotshtein. He was born in 1971 year. After graduation, he entered the Tomsk Medical Institute, but left the second course in the then Soviet Army. After serving two years on the Chinese border, he returned to the university and received a higher medical education. Then Igor repatriated to the Jewish state. In Israel in peacetime, he worked as a surgeon at the Poria hospital in the city of Tiberias on the shores of Lake Tiberias. From 3 on August 4 on August 2006, in the area of the village of Markabe in southern Lebanon, Captain Rothstein, a military doctor with a 13 fire support company battalion of the Golani Brigade, heroically died, saving the lives of the soldiers. One of his colleagues Igor left a Facebook post about him: “He was a Doctor, Officer, Man”.
4 February 1997 of the year in the area of the northern border during the collision of two Israeli helicopters killed young IDF medical officers Captain Vitaly Radinsky, a graduate of the Chelyabinsk Medical Institute, and captain Vadim Melnik, a graduate of the Kiev Medical Institute (KMI). Professor Lyle-Anson Best, head of the department of thoracic (thoracic) surgery at the Rambam Medical Center in Haifa, called Radzinsky "the most brilliant surgeon he has met in his life."
Vadim Melnik before he entered the KMI, served two years in the Soviet army. Working in Israel at the Safed City Hospital, he earned a reputation as a talented anesthesiologist. Speaking about Vitaly, Dr. Mark Tverskoy, Head of the Anesthesiology Department of the Tsfat Hospital, expressed confidence that “if it were not for his premature death, then this doctor would have been a first-class scientist.”
The award for courage, shown during the Second Lebanon War, was given to the military doctor of the 52 Tank Battalion, Captain Marina Kaminska. Then she was 32 of the year. She was the first woman to enter South Lebanon on her tank hull. In the area of the village of Bint Jbail, under enemy fire, she was able to assist several soldiers and literally saved the life of Lieutenant Gidon Goldenberg, deputy commander of the special unit of the Golani brigade. It is interesting to note that Marina was a medical officer in the Soviet army, and after moving to Israel, she became the first female doctor in the IDF combat units.
The medal of distinction from the commander of the Israeli Air Force, Major General Ido Nehoshtana, was also received by junior lieutenant, military paramedic, 20-year-old St. Petersburg native Anastasia Bagdalova. In August, 2011, terrorists who penetrated into the area of the most famous Israeli resort of Eilat on the Red Sea, fired on buses and cars. Eight people were killed and seventeen were injured. Nastya Bagdalova was in one of the shelled buses. She helped the five wounded. Replying later to the journalists' questions about how she was able to orient herself and provide medical assistance on the bus, Anastasia replied: “In such situations, the head starts to work by itself — you use your clothes ... Actually, I took off my shirt, and then a girl brought me a sporty elastic bandage. He also went to work. ”
The junior lieutenant of the medical service Bagdalov saved the life of a soldier named Gal, who was sitting next to her on the bus. Both knees pierced him with one bullet. The fragment broke the artery. Began to whip blood. Then again let us give the floor to Anastasia: “The only thing I could do was hold my wound with my hands. Only in this way could I stop the blood. Naturally, I already stayed with him. Here you don’t think about the time or where to get the forces - when such an injection of adrenaline, the forces appear by themselves. Your eyes are getting darker, but you continue to act automatically. ”
That guy survived. Nastya continues to be friends with him and his family.
HIGHER EDUCATION FOR NURSES
In 2010, the Israeli system of training military nurses and nurses changed. Three-year courses for the IDF nursing staff were closed, and for three years you can become a military nurse or nurse only by obtaining an academic degree at Tel Aviv University. Thus, the middle level worker will at least have a bachelor's degree. Although it is possible to get a master's and even a doctoral degree in the specialty of a nurse and a nurse. In fact, their education is approaching medical, but their skills and abilities are more practical.
In this regard, Major Rachel Meizan, head of the nursing service at the IDF Medical Department, said in an interview in the Vesti newspaper: “In fact, it’s not just a change of concept, but a kind of revolution. I am convinced that our graduates will change the situation not only in the army, but also in Israeli medicine in general. Because military nurses and medics are a special "caste." They are not only good specialists who, assisting the soldiers, including the wounded, are confronted with the most difficult cases, but also potential leaders, given that many of them have officer ranks and commanding experience. ”
And indeed, the Logistics Service, which actively begins to act in emergency situations, primarily involves military nurses and nurses.
One of the most prominent Israeli military historians, Alexander Shulman, in his study “Guardian to His Brother,” cites the oath of the IDF military medics, in which there are such words:
“I swear to always be“ my brother's guardian, ”whether in battle, in the evacuation of a wounded man, or in a hospital ward. I swear that the words of the commandment of self-sacrifice will be imprinted in my heart forever: "Never leave the wounded on the battlefield."