Military Review

Time of birth

30
Perpetuum mobile design life of the aviation complex to them. S.V. Ilyushin


After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation lost its military transport aviation. Serially produced IL-76 remained in Uzbekistan, Antonov cars - in Ukraine. Aviation complex them. S.V. Ilyushin, founded in 1933 as an experienced design bureau, turned out to be the only company in Russia with experience in creating military transport vehicles. Ilyushin residents had to make a difficult choice of the future path. Continuing to build wide-body aircraft - the IL-86, IL-96, the design bureau chose the main line of development for the revival, or rather, the creation of military transport aircraft from scratch. Viktor Vladimirovich Livanov, General Director - General Designer of OJSC Il, talks about how this was possible and about further work plans.

"MIC": Viktor Vladimirovich, you came to KB them. Ilyushin in 1967 year, when work on the creation of IL-76 just started. What was then and now the main competitive advantage of IL aircraft?

- When I came to the company, Sergey Vladimirovich Ilyushin was still working here. He taught us: "Never scold competitors, praise your own." You can compare specifically: what, for example, is good IL-96-300 compared to A340 Airbus. There are pluses, there are downsides, as in every case. But the general opinion of all the operating organizations, civilian and military: Il-grade airplanes have simplicity, reliability and efficiency. It was these requirements that Sergey Vladimirovich Ilyushin set forth at the time. And now for 80 for years, we have been making airplanes primarily reliable, economical and simple in technology.

"MIC": IL-76MD-90A has these qualities?

- The base plane, which we launched today in Ulyanovsk, retained all the positive qualities that it possessed during 40 years. These are operational advantages, and unpretentiousness, and the possibility of operation at remote airfields, far from bases, and reliability.

"MIC": Please name the main innovations of IL-76MD-90A. What do they give?

- About 70 percent of systems and units underwent modernization. Aircraft 40 years from the beginning of its flight work. We have replaced the subsystems with modern ones, which are more economical, lighter, more reliable. Made a new wing, having received a weight reduction of more than a ton and reducing the complexity of its manufacture by 20 percent.

Time of birth

The PS-90А-76 engine is more economical than the D-30КП-2 engine that we had on the base plane and still stands on the main fleet. With this engine, the aircraft meets all ICAO noise requirements, chapter 4 in particular, and emissions. Although the engine is somewhat heavier and larger in diameter.

"MIC": "Glass cabin" - is it a fad?

- No, first of all, it is the reliability and safety of operating the aircraft and facilitating the work of the flight crew. On the old cabins there are several dozen instruments, it is rather difficult to follow them, and the “glass cabin” on the IL-76MD-90А, apart from the navigation, flight situation, responds only to failures. If everything is normal with the plane, the pilot can fly and fly.

"MIC": How to increase the range, capacity?

- The maximum payload of the base aircraft - 40 tons. IL-76MD-90А - 60 tons maximum. The range of the aircraft has increased by about a thousand kilometers by reducing the weight of an empty aircraft and engine efficiency.

"MIC": What do the preliminary market estimates of this machine say, how much will the aircraft be in demand?

- We evaluated the market for military and civilian use. The Ministry of Emergency Situations on IL-76 aircraft perform a number of non-military functions, which will be expanded. We recently transported injured children from Belgium on IL-76 aircraft equipped in the hospital version. Unfortunately, we live in a troubled world.

As for the commercial part, we have not yet begun a marketing campaign to promote the aircraft to the market. Firstly, it is necessary to confirm the flight performance and, secondly, we consider the main task to fulfill the state defense order.

"MIC": Still, what are the export expectations, are there agreements with potential customers other than the Ministry of Defense?

- We hope that the prospects are very good. Today, more than a hundred IL-76 planes flying abroad have been bought officially, and not resold in dashing Russian times. Western partners, exploiting IL-76, are closely monitoring our progress. Few people believed that we would launch this aircraft at all. We launched it. Now they are waiting for what flight performance it will show. In addition, India, Algeria, Iran, Iraq, Libya want to touch everything. Together with Rosoboronexport, we drew up a marketing plan and began to implement it. The delegations of a number of countries - potential buyers visited our company, looked at the flight copy. Some foreign delegations have already visited Ulyanovsk to make sure that the plane is flying and the plant is ready for mass production.

"MIC": What is the maximum load can be at the Ulyanovsk production plant?

- It all depends on the suppliers. Contracting for the first 39 machines with all of our suppliers is in full swing. Everything is very difficult, but I think this process has already been completed on 80. By the way, by the way, the entire production program of Ulyanovsk has been approved before 2020, we have to reach 18 machines a year. In my opinion, for Ulyanovsk this is enough - a serious load.

"MIC": At the moment, what other projects exist in the aviation complex to them. Ilyushin?

“In early December, after heavy preparatory work, we began designing multi-purpose transport aircraft (MTS) or Multi-Role Transport Aircraft (MTA) with our Indian colleagues.

According to the classification, MTA is an average military transport aircraft. If on IL-76 we have the maximum payload of 60 tons, then on this plane - 20. We are trying to make it sufficiently unified so that the Russian and Indian armies are not re-trained and the ground infrastructure is ready. Formally, this aircraft in its size, size - half of the 76-th.

"MIC": So this is a mini version?

- Not. That is impossible to say. He has his own niche. The largest market in the world - this is just the average military transport vehicles, twenty-ton. There is a famous, absolutely unique American C-130 aircraft. It is under 60 for years, but it has been constantly upgraded and continues to be mass-produced. We, Ilyushins, still regret that we stopped the production of IL-18 aircraft. They are in demand today. It was possible to modernize, install new modern engine, new equipment and continue to produce it, repeating the fate of C-130.

"MIC": When will we get the first MTA?

- Must go on sale in 2018 year.

"MIC": To create an airplane Ilyushins work together with the Indians?

- Yes, our specialists and Indians work. We are now at the stage of choosing the final look, materials, components. This plane is only being laid, it will live for at least 40 years, so we are trying to apply absolutely new materials on it, in particular aluminum-lithium alloys. Today we are discussing with the military about the possibility of making composite plumage, which is less susceptible to damage. And we also want all the systems on this plane to be new, modern.

"MIC": Do Indians have experience building transport aircraft?

- No, that's why they agreed to work together to build airplanes to go through this school. For many years, India, like China, has been pursuing a strategy not to buy, but to create and manufacture inside the country. And this is absolutely correct. Instead of simply buying weapons, Indians want to become partners in design and production. The other side of this cooperation is the investment burden, which is already divided into two countries, not only Russia. This is beneficial for Russia. Next is the issue of market expansion. We took the Russian market, took the Indian market, and already through India it is easier to enter the markets of third countries. These are the reasons that, together with our Indian colleagues, have pushed for the joint creation of this aircraft.

We already have a launch order for two countries - 145 aircraft, this allows you to start the program.

“MIC”: How do you think the situation with military transport aviation in the country has leveled off now?

- The deep modernization of the IL-76 is the first step in the revival of the military transport aviation of the Russian Federation. MTA is the second step. The third step will be the creation of a light military transport aircraft. Well, then we will see how the fate of An-124 will develop. Either we will continue this line, modernizing it, or we will offer something new. Unfortunately, the plane is not born very quickly.


Viktor Vladimirovich Livanov —General Director, Aviation Complex S.V. Ilyushin ”(Moscow) from 1997 year.

Born September 17, 1943 in Khabarovsk. He graduated from the Moscow Aviation Technological Institute in 1967. Since the same year, he has been working at an aircraft building enterprise (now the Ilyushin airline complex) as a process engineer, head of the coordination and analysis team, and deputy chief of design bureau. In 1988–1996, he was the director of the airline complex, and in 1996–1997, he was the deputy minister of the defense industry of the Russian Federation. Academician of the Russian Academy of Transport and the Academy of Aeronautics. Laureate of the State Prize of the Russian Federation (2000), awarded the Order of the Badge of Honor, Friendship of Peoples, "For Services to the Fatherland" IV degree. Married, has two children. Is fond of historical literature.
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  1. Vadivak
    Vadivak 15 May 2013 15: 37 New
    +6
    Serially produced IL-76 remained in Uzbekistan,


    A bit of history about Uzbekistan

    in 2005, Sochi signed a contract with the PRC for the supply of 34 military transport Il-76 and 4 tankers Il-78. Russia signed the contract, and making planes, quickly and cheaply, was supposed to be using Soviet stocks (backlogs) of fuselages and components in Tashkent, where the Il-76 and Il-78 were assembled in Soviet times. After signing the contract, it turned out that there were no such reserves either in Russia or in Uzbekistan, and the Chinese were announced that it was impossible to fulfill the contract in terms of price, terms and number of cars.
    1. SlavakharitonoV
      SlavakharitonoV 15 May 2013 17: 29 New
      -7
      And not only. Right. Let them develop it themselves. And we will sell aircraft to Venezuela. For transportation of oil the same. They have a lot there.
      1. zart_arn
        zart_arn 15 May 2013 17: 58 New
        +4
        Oil - by air ??? belay
        1. SlavakharitonoV
          SlavakharitonoV 15 May 2013 19: 21 New
          -2
          Yes, but since this type of transportation is much more expensive than the rest, it is rarely used. Can be found on the internet
    2. zart_arn
      zart_arn 15 May 2013 17: 55 New
      +1
      Quote: Vadivak
      After signing the contract, it turned out that there were no similar backlogs in either Russia or Uzbekistan,
      Apparently the Moscow fat belts from the Moscow Region and the military-industrial complex, who have absolutely no idea about the real situation in the military industry, signed the agreement.
    3. Reasonable, 2,3
      Reasonable, 2,3 15 May 2013 18: 21 New
      -1
      And we didn’t lose anything. The Aviastar in Ulyanovsk received a defense order for 2013, with 12 aircraft. Before that, there was nothing of the kind. We’ll meet at the MAX, (I hope you will). I’ll introduce you to your plane, but you won’t be disappointed.
    4. Suhov
      Suhov 15 May 2013 20: 11 New
      +4
      Quote: Vadivak
      it turned out that there were no similar backlogs either in Russia or in Uzbekistan

      Not there struck looking:
      In reception centers of non-ferrous metals it was necessary to search, in reception centers ...
    5. starshina78
      starshina78 15 May 2013 20: 30 New
      0
      ILOV aircraft are the most trouble-free. Mentioned in the article, IL - 18 is practically the safest aircraft, when three of the four engines stop, it can easily fly, it is noisy.
  2. avt
    avt 15 May 2013 15: 46 New
    +2
    Interestingly, from the responses it was heard that the IL-112 had not yet been buried. So the question has not been resolved on AI-140 either. Well, the MTA have been doing something for a long time.
    1. No_more
      No_more 15 May 2013 18: 49 New
      +3
      Well, about the AN-140, the question is where it will be produced and whether it is needed.
      If you knew how they collected them in Samara, with a mat and a swab. When ordering the entire cab at another factory. Considering that with my own eyes I saw most of the design (paper!) Documentation on it, it would be better if another aircraft replaced the AN-140. But in a couple of years, maybe they shoveled all the problems and shortcomings in the design documentation at the factory and transferred the machine to digital, the work there was not an edge.
      1. avt
        avt 15 May 2013 19: 43 New
        0
        Quote: No_more
        Well, about the AN-140, the question is where it will be produced and whether it is needed.
        If you knew how they collected them in Samara, with a mat and a swab. When ordering the entire cab at another factory.

        And when you consider that it is a passenger and transport version with a ramp there request Nothing is clear at all.
        1. No_more
          No_more 16 May 2013 13: 43 New
          +1
          To order, the military had an option with a rear hatch, the passenger was redesigned into it, the design was strengthened, but for me - this is all cunning. It’s better to do the same with the Indians, and the Chinese can be captured and we will have one for three easy transporters - the sales market for such aircraft is huge, though I don’t know if we can compete with the Chinese in our production culture, which will full right to export and produce such an aircraft. Here we need to discuss the terms of the contracts, maybe they will pay us for each sold, maybe a version which is simpler without our technologies will be allowed to export.
      2. cooper
        cooper 19 May 2013 14: 48 New
        -1
        I think that one should not trample down Samara in the mud, there is a decent production, they don’t collect planes with rotations :)) And the plant can’t fix the design documentation on its own :)))))))))))) DO NOT ATTEMPT.
        1. No_more
          No_more 13 June 2013 14: 50 New
          0
          Well, I’ve been living here for 26 years in Samara and graduated from an aerospace university. A design documentation can only be changed by a design bureau that developed it or that was given the rights to it. Changes are made and sent for approval to Ukraine in Antonov Design Bureau, which was a separate hemorrhoids. And in factories there are a maximum of design bureaus that develop equipment or tools, but this is not the same as an airplane.
  3. fzr1000
    fzr1000 15 May 2013 16: 37 New
    0
    Great news. Let's go, my dear ... The aviation industry is one of the engines for the development of high-tech industries. Good afternoon.
    1. S_mirnov
      S_mirnov 15 May 2013 18: 18 New
      +3
      Good afternoon ???
      http://news.rambler.ru/19057048/
      "The Ministry of Defense has announced a tender for cutting more than 400 military aircraft and helicopters. According to the tender documentation, in addition to unremarkable old serial fighters, maize and training aircraft, unique and legendary representatives of the domestic aviation industry are to be cut up."
      for whom is this good hour?
      1. BDRM 667
        BDRM 667 15 May 2013 21: 51 New
        -1
        Quote: S_mirnov
        Good afternoon ???
        http://news.rambler.ru/19057048/
        "The Ministry of Defense has announced a tender for cutting more than 400 military aircraft and helicopters. According to the tender documentation, in addition to unremarkable old serial fighters, maize and training aircraft, unique and legendary representatives of the domestic aviation industry are to be cut up."
        for whom is this good hour?

        Cutting, it turns out, is also necessary with the mind!
  4. Kostya pedestrian
    Kostya pedestrian 15 May 2013 16: 39 New
    +2
    Ilyushin is a talented designer, ahead of time. And most importantly - he always thought about people, so his technique was trouble-free and easy to operate.

    What did the design of the two-seater Il-2 cost, although they began to produce single-seater at first. But all, both the first and the second, were like "flying fortresses" - they withstood heavy enemy fire.

    It is correctly said: do not waste energy criticizing a competitor, but, much more effectively, use resources to advertise your products. Both culturally and efficiently.
  5. kind
    kind 15 May 2013 16: 51 New
    +2
    Quote: Vadivak
    Serially produced IL-76 remained in Uzbekistan,


    A bit of history about Uzbekistan

    in 2005, Sochi signed a contract with the PRC for the supply of 34 military transport Il-76 and 4 tankers Il-78. Russia signed the contract, and making planes, quickly and cheaply, was supposed to be using Soviet stocks (backlogs) of fuselages and components in Tashkent, where the Il-76 and Il-78 were assembled in Soviet times. After signing the contract, it turned out that there were no such reserves either in Russia or in Uzbekistan, and the Chinese were announced that it was impossible to fulfill the contract in terms of price, terms and number of cars.

    I recall an old joke. Two peasants bargained for a carriage of jam, agreed and parted. The first went to look for jam, the second is money. fool
  6. vpo3000zm
    vpo3000zm 15 May 2013 17: 32 New
    +2
    How many cars did TAPOiCh produce per year?
    1. albatross
      albatross 16 May 2013 02: 03 New
      +1
      As I understand it: about 30 pieces a year. If they have released 1973 pieces since 1000.
      Who worked there and in the know, let him clarify.
  7. lucidlook
    lucidlook 15 May 2013 18: 13 New
    +1
    60 tons? Hmm Well, three pieces of BMD-4M will not just fit in dimensions, but also in weight. What is gut.
  8. MIKHAN
    MIKHAN 15 May 2013 18: 28 New
    +3
    Everything will be with us ... !!! Russia has not survived this .. there is a terrible anti-Russian howl around the world .. (especially in interest) a couple of months reading your site .. articles and especially comments ... Russia is alive !!
  9. AIR-ZNAK
    AIR-ZNAK 15 May 2013 18: 46 New
    +1
    Ip-76 in T TD variants for relatively short flights took a payload of 50 tons each. It can take off and land on ice temporary airfields, unpaved strips. It has established itself in the Arctic conditions. AARI (Institute of the Arctic and Antarctic) has been actively used for transfer cargo and people to high-latitude stations. Il-18, alteration in the Il-38 also proved the vitality of the ideas of the Il-18. The Il-18 in the cabin for passenger traffic has outlived itself, and as a military transport plane, it would have worked even after modernization to transport military personnel and small-sized cargo. And he would save more than one composition of kerosene for the Air Force. But in Soviet times, Academician Tupolev ate his KB and ate everyone and everything. Example-KB V.M. Myasishcheva. Then - dashing 90s. Maybe even now we will act in the field of aircraft engineering a little more reasonably. I hope so.
  10. shpuntik
    shpuntik 15 May 2013 19: 34 New
    -2
    It is good that they restored the production of IL-76, modernized. But...
    What is this?
    Quote: "As for the commercial part, we have not yet started a marketing campaign to promote the aircraft to the market. Firstly, we need to confirm the flight performance and, secondly, we still consider the implementation of the state defense order as the main task."

    In any international company, this CEO was removed from his duties. Because it is known that the first thing necessary for production is marketing, market research. Only after that they decide how much and what exactly to produce. Instead of finding buyers on the foreign market, this director is counting on a defense order, saying: "We need to confirm the flight performance." Does he not know what he was doing? The Boeing 787 Dreamliner, when it had not yet taken off, had already been sold, in a quantity of more than 200 pieces. This is how you have to work, not chew snot.
    I conclude: a sluggish director, not sharp questions, not an interesting interview.
    1. vadson
      vadson 15 May 2013 21: 11 New
      +4
      just for the fact that production is restored to the star of the hero of labor
      1. shpuntik
        shpuntik 16 May 2013 00: 36 New
        0
        vadson (1) Yesterday, 21:11 p.m. ↑
        just for the fact that production is restored to the star of the hero of labor

        Wait Wadson handing out awards. Time will tell. Or: "spring will show who and where n ... shit ... l." :-) Not so simple. http://www.rbc.ua/rus/news/economic/zamenu-an-70-na-il-476-prodavil-v-interesah-
        rodstvennika-06042013175200
        "Deputy Prime Minister of Russia, Head of the Military-Industrial Commission of the Russian Federation Dmitry Rogozin, being a relative of the head of the Ilyushin Design Bureau Viktor Livanov," pushed through "for him the post of General Designer for military transport aircraft and lobbied for a contract with the Russian Ministry of Defense for the supply of 39 Il-476 aircraft, which, according to the Russian Ambassador to Ukraine Mikhail Zurabov, will replace the An-70, about this in his article in the weekly Zerkalo Nedeli. Ukraine "writes the director of the Center for Army Research, Conversion and Disarmament Valentin Badrak."

        And the article is thorough: http://newsland.com/news/detail/id/1033157/
    2. fzr1000
      fzr1000 15 May 2013 22: 02 New
      0
      Yes, the main thing is that production has begun. Well, remove it and everything will rise again. I don’t think that while doing the plane a month, you should first think about marketing.
      1. shpuntik
        shpuntik 16 May 2013 00: 15 New
        +1
        fzr1000 Today, 22:02 ↑
        Well, remove it and everything will rise again. I don’t think that while doing the plane a month, you should first think about marketing.

        No, exactly, marketing first. The essence of market research (marketing) is what is done in the first place. In order, for example, that if you decided to invest in the production of something that seemed promising and promising profit, then you would not lose your money, but rather increased your capital. And, one plane a month, this is 115 million dollars, 140 billion rubles-39 Il-76MD-90A. This is for mo.
        And what is offered to conquer the foreign market? Judging by the application, nothing. Now, let's get started soon, we'll see. They must feel it, "Let.Tech.H-ki, etc. must be confirmed.
        Nothing will arise because of one person. For such statements, you need to change the leader, if you need to move forward.
        1. studentmati
          studentmati 16 May 2013 00: 21 New
          +2
          These are, after all, long-proven Laws! And all other attempts have a clear corruption connotation.
    3. stranik72
      stranik72 15 May 2013 22: 23 New
      +1
      "Chewing snot" is your destiny, because you are not trained to think in principle.
      The Ilyushinsky Design Bureau, as well as all the others in the Russian Federation, is in such a position that defense orders are often the only way to survive. and about Boeing, on Tverskaya in Moscow there is their design bureau, the largest Russian branch outside the USA, almost all the most intelligent Russian designers work there, and the most capable periodically leave for permanent residence in the same USA, so about marketing on the world market under such conditions , this is in his bazaar.
      1. shpuntik
        shpuntik 15 May 2013 23: 40 New
        +1
        stranik72 Today, 22:23 ↑
        "... the level of specialists has dropped significantly, for some systems there are no designers at all even in the country,"
        "moreover, periodically the most capable leave for permanent residence in the same USA,"

        How then to fulfill the state order, if everything is so bad in your opinion? It turns out everything is collapsed, you can’t build anything? Or with the remaining specialists, can the IL-76 be built for the Moscow Region, but not for sale abroad? Do you like logic, in general?
        Where and who taught you to think? Or was it too long? Why are you here painted about the distressing situation of the aviation industry, thought you would cry all around, or what?
        What prevents marketing? Weak KB? You are off topic in your answer, opus. You didn’t explain the quote I quoted, and you didn’t refute my opinion about it.
        Quote: "As for the commercial part, we have not yet started a marketing campaign to promote the aircraft to the market. Firstly, we need to confirm the flight performance and, secondly, we still consider the implementation of the state defense order as the main task."

        They replied in the style: "Everything is bad with us, so at least it is." "Not to fat, maybe I would live." This is ostrich thinking. See no perspective.
        And do not confuse the market with the market, please. Any beginner economist will tell you that without entering the foreign market, the enterprise has no prospect.
        Roughly speaking: we, the taxpayers of Russia, will pay for IL-76 for the MO, and a foreigner will pay for IL-76 and the added value will come to Russia. This is the economic strengthening of the state.
        And when leaders say this, that says a lot.
        PS And yet, not: "marketing on the world market", but simply: "market marketing".
        1. studentmati
          studentmati 15 May 2013 23: 56 New
          +2
          An exhaustive and beautiful comment! good
        2. rsnv
          rsnv 15 May 2013 23: 57 New
          -5
          For a manager named tongue-and-groove:
          What kind of sale abroad is it? In the BTA of the Russian Federation, the average age of the fleet approached close to thirty years; soon there will be nothing to carry the landing force on. This plane has been needed here for a long time.
          PS In any serious international company such a manager as you would long ago have sent to hell.
          1. studentmati
            studentmati 16 May 2013 00: 14 New
            +6
            Thought, thought - and all the same rsnv did not understand you? Can the skis not go? Thanks for the minus.
          2. shpuntik
            shpuntik 16 May 2013 00: 48 New
            0
            rsnv (4) Yesterday, 23:57 p.m. ↑
            For a manager named tongue-and-groove:
            What kind of sale abroad is it? In the BTA of the Russian Federation, the average age of the fleet approached close to thirty years; soon there will be nothing to carry the landing force on. This plane has been needed here for a long time.


            What is the connection between selling abroad and the fact that "we ourselves need it"?
            Build not one per month, but two planes. Work not in one but in two or three shifts. Need an example? Please: Vietnam ordered six submarines of Project 636 Varshavyanka, due to this we are able and are doing six such submarines for the Black Sea Fleet. Something like this...

            PS In any serious international company such a manager as you would long ago have sent to hell.

            Well, well ... They made laugh :-)
      2. rsnv
        rsnv 15 May 2013 23: 46 New
        0
        To all of the above, we can add the degradation of aviation engineering education, and indeed education in general.
        1. studentmati
          studentmati 15 May 2013 23: 57 New
          +3
          Degradation begins in the heads of each of us! Look inside yourself.
    4. The comment was deleted.
  11. k220150
    k220150 15 May 2013 19: 41 New
    +1
    Aviation is one of the few that remains with us. Enrichment of uranium, missiles and radars, armored vehicles, air defense.
  12. studentmati
    studentmati 15 May 2013 22: 42 New
    +4
    A nice article with brief and concise comments of a professional of the highest profile! good
  13. rsnv
    rsnv 16 May 2013 01: 25 New
    -1
    Quote: shpuntik
    Build not one per month, but two planes.

    IL-76 is smaller than AN-124, but also not small, additional collection areas are required. They are? In which condition? A bunch of subcontractors are involved in the production process of the aircraft, they will cope with twice the volume of supplies to Aviastar, will they not miss the deadline? There are a lot of questions that need to be resolved in order to double the production of the IL-76, maybe you can help with your advice to the management of Aviastar and JSC IL?
  14. rsnv
    rsnv 16 May 2013 01: 34 New
    -1
    Quote: shpuntik
    Work not in one but in two or three shifts

    Great tip. Where can I get qualified specialists for three shifts? With skilled engineers and workers problems, managers are a dime a dozen.
  15. rsnv
    rsnv 16 May 2013 01: 53 New
    -1
    Quote: shpuntik
    Need an example? Please: Vietnam ordered six submarines of Project 636 Varshavyanka, due to this we are able and are doing six such submarines for the Black Sea Fleet. Something like this..

    Judging by the above example, you know the exact cost of six diesel-powered submarines of Project 636, the cost of the Vietnamese contract, and also that during the construction process, which lasts more than one year, the cost will not increase. I envy the level of your competence) Do not tell these numbers in secret.
  16. rsnv
    rsnv 16 May 2013 02: 01 New
    -2
    Quote: shpuntik
    Well, well ... They made laugh :-)

    So it’s good, the amount of stress hormones decreases from laughter and immunity is strengthened. It’s hard to give advice. Oh, it’s better to laugh more.