In May, the 2013 of the Year at the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, the Club of Military Commanders of the Russian Federation will hold a scientific-practical conference “Islamism and National Security of Russia”. On the eve of this event, the President of the Club, Doctor of Economic Sciences, General of the Army Anatoly Kulikov presented his position on the stated topics.
This complex topic can not be opened in one newspaper publication, it is so multifaceted. But without studying it, it is impossible to understand what is happening today in some predominantly mono-national republics of the country and in general in its open spaces. Moreover, the problem poses a real danger to Russia, being at the junction of both external and internal threats, and directly affects the military security of the state.
The Russian Federation, as is known, is a multinational and multi-faith country. For more than a century, representatives of many nationalities have lived in peace and harmony in it, from which the common spiritual core of our society has only been strengthened. Over the past decades, we have together endured incredible trials, including the most bloody war of the twentieth century - the Great Patriotic War. And all this thanks to the friendship of nations. But lately there are those who want to put a landmine under this foundation.
Today, according to various estimates, there live in Russia from 25 to 30 millions of Muslims (including migrants from the Central Asian republics and the Caucasus). In a secular state, which, according to the Constitution, is our country, the analysis of society on the basis of religion could be considered irrelevant for the time being. However, at the end of the past - the beginning of this century, the religious factor, primarily the Islamic one, began to play a new role in the world process. One of the first after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia felt it.
The world community felt this danger 11 September 2001 of the year.
However, Islam and Islamism should be distinguished. In the encyclopaedic interpretation, Islamism is a religious-political ideology and practical activities aimed at creating conditions under which any contradictions within a state where there is a Muslim population, as well as interstate relations with its participation, will be resolved on the basis of Sharia norms. This is the fundamental difference of this ideology from others, its main essence.
In some sources Islamism is called a totalitarian ideology, offering solutions to the complex issues of modern life by medieval methods.
The distinctive features of Islamism include:
In this construction, Islamism is opposed to Islam itself in its modern form, adapted to more or less secular conditions.
Today Islamism is increasing its influence in society, constantly putting forward appropriate justifications for this. From the standpoint of this ideology, there is something to improve, even in Islam itself. For example, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Jordan, the purest in terms of orthodoxy from the existing Islamic states, are also not without sin. For example, the Sharia does not provide for a political regime in the form of the ruling royal power. In addition, the Saudis made seemingly unacceptable - they held the first municipal elections, departing from conservative traditions. In Kuwait, women participate in elections. In Bahrain, the authorities are loyal to mass demonstrations, and in the UAE there are foundations of a free press.
The “Arab Spring” skated around a number of countries. Only those of them, where the modernization of the state political system has not gone too far, retain, albeit tense, but still stability. Nevertheless, with all the heterogeneity of Islamic beliefs and internal divisions, the Muslim world is very cohesive. It is not by chance that many extremist forces are obsessed with the idea of recreating the great Islamic caliphate and have quite a few supporters. Moreover, it is safe to predict that in the near future, the Islamic factor will become a priority when setting the agenda for many forums and international organizations.
Paradoxically, but in the Russian Federation with its state Orthodox culture and the undoubted interdependence of ethnic characteristics and spiritual values of different peoples, Islam has even stronger positions than in the countries of Central Asia. In the absence of an official ideology in Russia in a number of Muslim republics, Islam is de facto an integral part of ideology, education, and business. But Islamism, where it does not receive active resistance, for the time being refrains from outright aggression. But only for the time being.
The example of Chechnya showed it well. Now this republic is pacified. But the sabotage and terrorist war continues, it has moved to other areas - Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Ingushetia. The population even in the adjacent Stavropol Territory found itself in a difficult situation. Each of these entities has its own national base for militants. The situation is so complicated that the federal center sometimes finds a way out of it in rather controversial decisions.
For example, since last year, we have abandoned conscription resources in one of the North Caucasian republics. If before 2010, about 20 of thousands of guys were called out of it, then in the autumn of 2012, only 179 was called. Of these, the military units of the Ministry of Defense - 42, the rest - in the Ministry of Emergency Situations. How reasonable is that? After all, the army is a school of international education, and we, on the contrary, seem to push the Caucasian youth away from us. Not to mention the fact that unemployment is soaring in the republics mentioned above. In Ingushetia, it is 48 percent, in Chechnya - 35, about the same in Dagestan. It turns out that with such measures we replace the concept of international education, the friendship of nations.
Much, of course, depends on the local government, which is still ineffective and places clan, tribal relations above the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws. It is no secret that, unfortunately, there is still no positive return from significant budgetary injections into the North Caucasian republics. The measures for their social and economic development do not give results either.
Thus, the state budget of the North Caucasian republics today at 50 – 90 percent is formed and exists at the expense of federal subsidies. But how is this evaluated in the Caucasus itself? More than once I had to hear: for this, they say, the will of Allah, he gives. Imagine for a moment that Allah will stop giving due to some crisis situations. What then?
But the main thing is not even that. Social and other subsidies often simply do not reach the population due to the corruption of local officials. But with this money real estate in the Stavropol Territory, property and luxury goods in foreign countries are bought up. In my native village (Aigursky settlement of the Stavropol Territory. - Ed.), Where my parents grew up, there were no people from North Caucasian republics at all before, although in principle I don’t see anything wrong with that. It is surprising more. In some streets of the village, there are fewer natives left than visitors. Although the village is large - three and a half thousand people.
I repeat: all would be nothing if the process of migration of the population was carried out in the framework of international communication and education, friendship of peoples. But the settlement of native Russian territories from the Caucasus comes with the introduction of elements of Islamist ideology, medieval traditions and rituals, up to the wearing of hijabs and the tacit introduction of Sharia norms into everyday life. And this is a completely different situation.
Community of the faithful
In a number of regions of Central Russia, jamaats are being created - associations of the faithful. They are members of the same community, grouped around the same mosque. In Soviet times there were few mosques, and in some republics of the North Caucasus they were completely absent. In this case, Muslims gathered in communities (jamaats) and celebrated ceremonies in some premises. At the end of the last century, the concept of “jamaat” was filled with other content. This is a community, but no longer of a religious orientation, but of a politicized Islamist activity, which is based on fundamentalist principles that compete with traditional Islam in the region and traditional communities. The adherents of this trend began to create their own communities, which are also called jamaats, led by the emir - the Arab commander, endowed with power, including military.
Now in the open spaces of Russia there are a lot of such jamaats. Muslim representatives of both internal and external migration wave find their place in them. Their existence, lifestyle is destructive and directed against the indigenous population, including fellow tribesmen, loyal to the order established in the state. See what happens in Dagestan, Tatarstan. There they are already shooting and destroying muftis, other religious leaders of traditional Islam. First of all, because they support traditional Islam, and the Islamists do not need it. They need a caliphate.
All of us, like the leadership of the country, may still not be seriously aware of what is happening. The clergymen who were trained in Saudi Arabia came to our house, who implant their values in Arabic, demand that Islamism in Russia be elevated to the rank of state policy. At the same time, they very subtly play on the internal contradictions of the country, skillfully use social and national problems, support everything that contributes to the development of Islamism, and actively form their social base in this way.
Unfortunately, a number of objective contradictions and problems of our state work on them. Including such as corruption, which we still can not win or at least reduce to a socially tolerable level. Fresh example. Following the appointment of a new head of the law enforcement structure in one of the national republics, a certain criminal group immediately bought him a house in the capital, and the other, an armored Mercedes. After that, this law-enforcement structure began to "protect" business and crime groups, to put pressure on respectable citizens and businessmen. What was left for ordinary people to do in this situation? Not finding justice and protection in the police, the courts, citizens united to commit samozh.
It is here that the roots of terrorism are hidden - in the social fragmentation of society, corruption, with which no one in other regions fights. But it is effectively used in its subversive work by religious radicals. For them, this is a good reason for campaigning more and more militants into their ranks, including guys who we do not take up military service for which there are no jobs. It is not surprising that after appropriate ideological treatment, they go into the forest, pick up weapon, become suicide bombers.
Are there any retaliatory measures? Of course. But they should be more effective. Ahead of the Olympic Games, and if their security is not reliable, there may be problems associated with the arrival of their participants and guests.
Much of this was said in the President’s Address. I am convinced that now all the security forces must constantly work in the venues of the Games in order not to allow the militants to move freely not only between the subjects of the Federation, but also within the North Caucasian republics. The earth should burn under the feet of the bandits.
If we lose, it will be a loss to all of Russia for the next 50 years. This will be a victory of terrorists over the state, which should not be allowed. Our security officials must constantly report to the political leadership of the country on the preparations for the Olympics, and keep the situation under control in their areas of work.
There are different forms and methods of resisting radical Islamism in Russia. This is a separate topic. But one thing I can not say. Our country is the only one in the world that has so many ethnic groups in its federal structure - around 140. Why in the state there is no body that would coordinate the work in this direction, develop the methodology, recommendations for proactive conflict situations and problems of actions. We do not have the Ministry of Nationalities and Religion, and the problems in this area are just screaming. They can lead to disaster throughout Russia.
It is said that crime has no nationality, as does terrorism. But if we share this point of view, we will pound the problem in depth and never solve it. We must finally admit that crime and terrorism, which in the Caucasus and in a number of regions of Russia are closely linked to radical Islam, have a nationality. Recognize and not hide.
Our special services have gained rich experience and have the appropriate opportunities to obtain the necessary information, to take preventive measures. This will ensure stability both in the North Caucasus and in the Russian Federation as a whole.