Military Review

Near the village of Sokolovo ... 70 years ago the Czechoslovak battalion defended the Ukrainian village

42
Near the village of Sokolovo ... 70 years ago the Czechoslovak battalion defended the Ukrainian villageSokolovo. A village as a village, dozens of villages carry such a name in Russia, Belarus, Poland, and there are three more Sokolovs in the same Ukraine. But this, that on the river Mzha, in the Kharkiv region, in which nearly a thousand and a half people live, is special. Here, in battles for the defense of the village of Sokolovo against the fascist German forces 70 years ago, he received, together with the Red Army units, the baptism of the 1 Czechoslovak Separate Infantry Battalion under the leadership of Colonel Ludwig Svoboda, who later became the first post-war President of Czechoslovakia.


On March 8 and 9, 1943, during the Kharkov defensive operation, the battalion heroically repelled numerous attacks tanks and enemy infantry, destroying about 300 enemy soldiers and officers, 19 tanks and 6 armored personnel carriers. At the same time, having lost 112 fighters and commanders under Sokolovo dead and 106 wounded.

Since Soviet times, there is a large museum in Sokolovo dedicated to the heroic defense of the village, which became a symbol of the military community of the Slavic peoples in the fight against the brown plague of the twentieth century - German Nazism. Directly opposite the museum is a memorial with the mass graves of Soviet and Czechoslovak soldiers. And at the entrance to the 9 Museum in May 1972, the 16-meter monument arms”, The authors of which were students of HISI A. Vengerov and N. Dzuba. Supervised the student group of authors E. Dundich.

For courage and heroism 84 battalion fighter were awarded Soviet orders and medals. And Nadporuchik Otakar Yarosh, the company commander, a Czech, the first of foreign nationals, was posthumously awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.

Another 87 fighters received Czechoslovak orders and medals. And today the street named after O. Yarosh is one of the most famous in Kharkiv, it is located in one of the city’s favorite districts of the city - Pavlovoye Field. The name of the hero is honored by today's Kharkiv citizens. There is also a large avenue named after Ludwig Svoboda in the city, in the Alekseyevka area.

This year was a jubilee year due to many memorable events of the Great Patriotic War. We celebrated the 70 anniversary of the victory in the Battle of Stalingrad, now it is chronologically time to celebrate the series of memorable dates of 1943, associated with the battle for Ukraine and its liberation.

And if today in Ukraine, some are not averse to turning everything inside out, to glorify Bandera, collaborators, SS men and Shutzmans, then, surprisingly, in Eastern Europe many people keep the memory of the joint Slavic military feat of the distant years. That is, after the cessation of the Warsaw Pact, the fall of the Berlin Wall and, say, a peaceful divorce of a single Czechoslovakia into two countries, a unifying tendency is revealed, the source of which becomes common memory. It gives hope.

So, 8 and 9 March with. in the Kharkiv region, the Czech and Slovak delegations participated in the events celebrating the 70 anniversary of the fighting under Sokolovo, in total about 200 people.

On the first day, a ceremony honoring heroes, defenders of the city, who fell at the hands of the SS punishers, was held on the territory of the Kharkiv Regional Clinical Hospital. Here stands the obscure obelisk “Mass grave of victims of fascism 1943 of the year” crowned with a small star. The quiet center of the city, not very passing, and in the new times the tragic events that occurred here 70 years ago, somehow began to leave the focus of public attention. Moreover, not so long ago, they actively began to build the building of the arbitration court - in fact, on the bones of the slain soldiers. In the three mass graves rest more than 1000 who took the truly martyr's death of the wounded Red Army soldiers of the 69 Army, medical workers, about a hundred soldiers of the Czechoslovak battalion.

Approximately 300 people were burnt alive by flamethrowers, there is evidence that Red Army soldiers were stabbed with hospital bayonets on hospital beds, and were bombarded with grenades. One of them was crucified - nailed to the gates of the barn. SS men were photographed against his background.

Germans committed atrocities here from 15 to 17 in March 1943. Thus, the tank crews of the Leibstandard-SS Adolf Hitler division under the command of Obersturmmbührer Schultz, who organized the massacre, eliminated the anger on our heroes, who had a week earlier strongly opposed them to Sokolov.

Recall that it was precisely with the liberation of Kharkov 23 in August 1943 that the Battle of Kursk ended. And already on September 7, the Extraordinary State Commission carried out the exhumation of one of the three graves on the territory of the regional clinical hospital, which was confirmed by Act No. 1 of September 07 1943 (stored in the Kharkiv city archive). This act, together with materials about the execution of almost 40 by thousands of Soviet Jews and citizens of other nationalities in Drobitsky Yar as evidence of Nazi crimes, was presented and voiced in 1946 at the meeting of the International Nuremberg Tribunal - in the list of crimes of Hitler’s Nazi regime in the Kharkiv region during German occupation.

An obelisk of black granite “Mass grave for victims of fascism 1943 of the year” was installed here in 1947.

In the event near the obelisk on March 8 with. took part in the Union of Soviet Officers, veterans, diplomats from the Russian Federation and the Czech Republic, the leadership of the city, as well as clubs historical reconstruction of Ukraine, Russia, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Bulgaria. Opening the rally, the deputy of the Kharkov mayor I. Terekhov said: “We want to express our fraternal gratitude to the Czech people, who, during the Great Patriotic War, put an end to fascism together with the Soviet people. Soviet and Czech fighters fought shoulder to shoulder and defeated this brown plague. Today, there are many young people who must take over from the older generation and never allow fascism to revive. ”

The Consul of the Russian Federation, V. Mokin, expressed his admiration for the fact that those who shared with them the bitterness of losses and the joy of victory over fascism are next to the Kharkiv citizens, who remember the price of victory over fascism. He expressed the hope that an information stand will be installed here telling about the tragedy that took place, indicating the names already established by the search engines.

The head of the Kharkiv association "For cultural and linguistic equality", the chairman of the coordination council of Russian organizations in Eastern Ukraine "Russian Veche" G. Makarov, recalled that three years ago, 9 in March 2010, at a ceremony in Sokolovo, the military attache of the Czech Republic was provided with documents testifying that the names of the 7-men from the Separate Czechoslovak Battalion, listed among the missing, are identified among those shot by the SS in Kharkov hospital. The documents and bodies of the Czech military were discovered during the exhumation of the mass grave of another 13 of September of 1943. This was confirmed by the testimony of the nurse E. Dmitrieva at the Nuremberg trials. Documents in 2010 were handed over to the Czech side by A. Konovalov, the daughter of one of the executed Red Army soldiers who rest in this mass grave. The names of those who were martyred and eternally rested here next to the Russian and Ukrainian fighters are now named. This is the foreman Volt Frenz, Sergeant Mikhail Horowenny, Sergeant Eric Fredal, Private Karl Friedrich, Private Bedrich Scharf, Private Joseph Koenig, Albert Körngau-Zentr.

At the rally, representatives of the Czech side made a remarkable proposal to install a new obelisk here. According to them, the draft of the monument on the initiative of the Czech government has already been developed and will be offered to Kharkov.

It was the Czechs at the rally who expressed the wish that the outcome of the Second World War was never revised. This sounded topical, especially against the background of the very recent decision of the Lviv Regional Council to increase the personal pension supplement to UPA veterans.

In the morning, a solemn opening ceremony of a memorial plaque took place on the building on ul. Shota Rustaveli, 10, where the headquarters of the Czechoslovak battalion Ludwig Svoboda was located in 1943. And on the initiative of the Czech delegation, an anti-fascist march from Vosstaniya Square - along Gagarin Avenue - to the airport took place at 18. From there, foreign and domestic participants in the historical reconstruction departed for Sokolovo. The column was headed by the banners of the branches of the Armed Forces of the USSR and the Victory Banner. Co-organizers of these two-day events marched from the Kharkiv side: veterans' organizations, the Union of Soviet Officers, reconstruction clubs Zvezda, Landmark and Samohod, residents of the city.

And 9 March already in Sokolovo itself honored the heroes who stopped the Wehrmacht’s tanks on the approaches to Kharkov. Gathered at the rally, it was recalled that the Czechoslovak battalion, which had received the baptism of the Czechoslovak battalion under Sokolovo, was formed in Buzuluk, in the Ural region, from patriotic refugees who did not accept the treachery of the US and British leadership, who surrendered their Czechoslovak homeland to German fascism.

The Czech government delegation led by the Deputy Minister of Defense, guests from Slovakia, representatives of the Russian consulate in Kharkov, veteran and Russian patriotic organizations of Kharkov, clubs for the reconstruction of World War II events from different countries, deputies, representatives of the Kharkiv Regional Council, leadership took part in the ceremony in Sokolovo. Zmiev district and the village of Sokolovo.

About a thousand people gathered on this frosty day at the Museum of the Combat Brotherhood, the main place in which is occupied by the diorama "The Battle of 8 March 1943, near the village of Sokolovo".

News agencies noted that on March 9, 2013 at the rally in Sokolovo sounded oaths in preserving the memory of the heroes who resigned to save the world from fascism. The ceremony participants also drew attention to the fact that flags of Ukraine, the Czech Republic and Slovakia were hoisted above the Museum of the Military Brotherhood in Sokolovo, but the flag of Russia, the official successor of the USSR, the winner in World War II, which carried the brunt of the war with fascism, is missing.

The ceremony of laying wreaths and flowers to the obelisk of the Czechoslovak-Soviet military fraternity. At the same time, the memorial wall with the names of the fallen Soviet soldiers, which turned out to be painted black, caused bewilderment.

Then the military-historical reconstruction clubs - about 400 people - conducted a large-scale game on a snowy field, as if returning the audience on those fiery days when 60 SS division tanks with air assault rifles and flamethrowers attacked Czechoslovak soldiers. Then, during the 5-hour battle, 22 German tanks, 5 armored personnel carriers and about 400 Nazis were destroyed. In particular, the feat of arms of the 1 of the Czechoslovak company under the command of O. Yarosh is noted, the fighters of which 8 of March 1943 of the city laid down their heads almost all. Twice wounded nadporchik Yarosh, who continued to command the company and firing, died, undermining a German tank that had broken into a village with a grenade.

The fraternal unity of the Slavic peoples, associated with the memorable celebration of the 70 anniversary of the general anti-Nazi military struggle, left an indelible warm impression on all participants in the two-day celebrations. However, the Kharkov Union of Soviet Officers did not stop at fixing the event, and on March 19 received an appeal at its meeting at the head of the regional state administration M. Dobkin, in which he summarized the observations, perplexities and suggestions that were issued following the results of the past celebrations.
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42 comments
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  1. DS22
    DS22 April 6 2013 09: 12
    12
    Eternal Memory to Slavic brothers in arms! Shame and shame on Bendery’s infirmities!
    1. Zxs
      Zxs April 7 2013 17: 49
      -2
      Stepan Wajda is a member of the OUN ’Hero of the Radyansky Union.
      Having lived through 23 years of rock, he won the chance to capture the Transcarpathian Republic of Ukraine and allow Kyiv and Ukraine. The first self-government of the Czechoslovak brigade stocked up with 307 Czechs, 19 Slovak and 7260 Transcarpathian Ukrainians. They roamed u_ysku in ukrainian and drank our letters ...
      http://galinfo.com.ua/news/119449.html
  2. omsbon
    omsbon April 6 2013 09: 15
    +5
    We must save the fighting brotherhood of our grandfathers!
    1. Sakhalininsk
      Sakhalininsk April 6 2013 15: 34
      +4
      You are more than right, it’s a pity that the current generation of our former brothers in arms has forgotten about the blood that our grandfathers and great-grandfathers shed in the general trenches.
      1. redwar6
        redwar6 April 6 2013 18: 27
        +2
        Not just forgot, but many, many people hate us as "Soviet invaders", which is sad.
  3. Smoke
    Smoke April 6 2013 09: 22
    +5
    Glory to the winners! Eternal Memory of the Fallen
  4. svp67
    svp67 April 6 2013 09: 45
    +3
    Is it interesting to remember this in the Czech Republic and Slovakia?
    1. stannifer
      stannifer April 6 2013 10: 12
      +4
      Recalled, of course. There were quite a few events, from laying flowers and crowns for discussion, for the first time very interesting archival documents were published ... politics by politics, and heroes remain heroes.

      Request to the author - correct the error at the beginning! Ludwik Freedom became the president of Czechoslovakia only in the 1968th year.
    2. opkozak
      opkozak April 6 2013 10: 14
      +7
      They not only remember, but also have museums. Recently, the wife of Ludwik Svobodі handed over his personal belongings to the Museum of the 1-Czechoslovak Army.
      By the way, the army at 70% was staffed by immigrants from Transcarpathia.
      pictured uniforms
      1. Aaron Zawi
        Aaron Zawi April 6 2013 10: 38
        +4
        Quote: opkozak
        They not only remember, but also have museums. Recently, the wife of Ludwik Svobodі handed over his personal belongings to the Museum of the 1-Czechoslovak Army.
        By the way, the army at 70% was staffed by immigrants from Transcarpathia.
        pictured uniforms
        Not certainly in that way.
        The 1-th Czechoslovak infantry battalion began to form in Buzuluk 12 February 1942. By 30 on January 1943, he had reached the number of 974 fighters and commanders. Among the personnel, besides the Czechs and Slovaks, there were Rusyns (Transcarpathian Ukrainians) - 27%, and Jews - 25%.
        1. fzr1000
          fzr1000 April 6 2013 15: 56
          +3
          Rusyns-Orthodox Transcarpathians (I do not know how to write correctly). Familiar with them about 15 years.
          1. opkozak
            opkozak April 6 2013 16: 10
            +6
            Ruthenians - an ethnic group - Lemkos, Boyki, Dolynians and Verkhovins (these are Transcarpathians), Hutsuls, Galicians. Russian language - not to be confused with Russian.
            Example.
            Yaks (yaks) bim mug (mіg) will show you (tell), for the same shameless (seem), I didn’t recognize anything (know), I would tell you the same.
            Transfer. When I wanted to tell you about what I'm talking about, I would not understand anything from that.
            Without brackets, Transcarpathian, in brackets in Galician.
            1. super-vitek
              super-vitek April 7 2013 21: 39
              0
              In Russian, the phrase is not correctly constructed. It is very strange. The meaning is not clear. And in the Transcarpathian language, this phrase may sound differently.
      2. redwar6
        redwar6 April 6 2013 18: 30
        0
        What is the first form of the right sample?
        1. Snoop
          Snoop April 6 2013 23: 37
          0
          The Czech infantry was dressed in English uniforms.
          1. Snoop
            Snoop April 9 2013 16: 03
            0
            For the one who minus:
            “The Czechoslovak recruits who came to Buzuluk were dressed in civilian or prison clothes. Only the first group that came from Oranok (internment camp) was dressed in the working uniform of the Red Army. Fortunately, the Buzuluk barracks had previously served as the base of the Polish Amria V. Anders, who, after her departure, left 3000 sets of British uniforms in place. These uniforms were used by Czechoslovak soldiers after agreement with the Soviet side and were completed with fur hats and winter shoes. "
  5. Kubanets
    Kubanets April 6 2013 09: 49
    +3
    It's a shame that the fraternity went into confrontation
    1. opkozak
      opkozak April 6 2013 10: 16
      +6
      So it is you Mikhail Sergeich for this "thank". The Soviet Union could easily follow the path of China or Vietnam. And then the Warsaw Pact would have been preserved by the SES ...
      1. RPD
        RPD April 6 2013 12: 10
        +6
        CMEA Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, not Sanitary and Epidemiological Station))))
        1. opkozak
          opkozak April 6 2013 15: 50
          +4
          Sorry, of course I was wrong. CMEA - if I'm not mistaken, management on Novy Arbat
  6. opkozak
    opkozak April 6 2013 10: 26
    +2

    Flyer Prague 5.05.1945/XNUMX/XNUMX
    Let the Red Army live!
  7. Aaron Zawi
    Aaron Zawi April 6 2013 10: 45
    +2
    Highly recommend. Detailed combat path of Czechoslovak fighters on the Soviet-German front.
    http://rubej.at.ua/forum/22-342-1
  8. Kaetani
    Kaetani April 6 2013 11: 25
    +1
    A healthy decision would be to organize in the Czech Republic and Slovakia detailed coverage of the feat of their grandfathers in the fight against the Nazis. With the participation of officials and veterans, nothing strengthens as a military fraternity.
    1. opkozak
      opkozak April 6 2013 15: 55
      +3
      Nothing to organize - they all remember perfectly. Look better at their flags.


      Sound familiar?
      1. Krapovy32
        Krapovy32 April 7 2013 18: 36
        +1
        Reminds beautiful flags good
  9. Egoza
    Egoza April 6 2013 11: 25
    0
    Glory to the fallen heroes! Article ++++! There was a unity of peoples in the struggle against the fascists, and now they are trying to separate everyone. A little more time will pass. years 10-15 and begin to remember the true brotherhood of the Slavs!
  10. svp67
    svp67 April 6 2013 11: 28
    +3
    Quote: Kaetani
    it would be a good decision to organize detailed coverage of the feat of their grandfathers in the fight against the Nazis in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. With the participation of officials and veterans, nothing strengthens since the military fraternity



    A good idea. It remains only to forget how many of our people died from weapons produced at Czech plants. Or maybe you should not forget about this?
    1. Denis
      Denis April 7 2013 18: 28
      0
      how many of our people died from weapons produced at Czech plants
      In Soviet times, I didn’t hear about it, and now they are politically correct to keep quiet, even though they quickly jumped from friends
  11. family tree
    family tree April 6 2013 18: 51
    +1
    Concluded on July 18, 1941, the Czechoslovak-Soviet treaty made it possible to organize independent Czechoslovak military units in the territory of the Soviet Union as part of the Czechoslovak army abroad. Soviet broadcasting on January 17, 1942 caused Czechoslovak citizens in the USSR to join the created Czechoslovak army. At the beginning of February 1942, the first volunteers appeared. Czechoslovak battalion became first a foreign military unit that entered the battle on the side of the USSR on the Eastern Front. And in the same year, R. Heydrich banged in Czechoslovakia, and then, all non-military industry was banned in Czechoslovakia. It is not worth forgetting about anything, and memory should not be selective.
  12. Jackyun
    Jackyun April 6 2013 20: 37
    +3
    With all my deep respect for the soldiers who defeated fascism, outside their nationality, it is difficult for me to forget the fact that every second machine gun firing on the Soviet-German front was assembled in the Czech Republic. Until February 1945, the Czech Republic regularly supplied arms and ammunition to the Wehrmacht. Without a doubt, these shameful facts in no way belittle the feat of the true patriots of the Czech Republic, but this must be remembered.
    1. Snoop
      Snoop April 6 2013 23: 44
      +2
      Not only machine guns ... Czech tanks Lt-22 crossed the USSR border on June 35? Lt-38. Later, the Czechs (VMM) developed the Hetzer self-propelled gun based on the Lt-38. In addition, the Czech factories assembled Focke-Wulf 189, aka "Rama", by the way, the French also produced this aircraft.
    2. fzr1000
      fzr1000 April 7 2013 10: 14
      +2
      I read recently that over the years of 2 MB there was not a single fact of sabotage or sabotage recorded at Czech enterprises.
    3. Prohor
      Prohor April 7 2013 12: 07
      -2
      Occupied Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus and part of Russia also supplied a lot of things for the needs of the Wehrmacht. The captured Red Army men worked in concentration camps. It doesn’t mean anything ...
  13. O_RUS
    O_RUS April 7 2013 08: 05
    +1
    Quote: Kubanets
    It's a shame that the fraternity went into confrontation


    alas ... when one half blames the other for everything ... in the end we get confrontation, enmity, mutual insults.
  14. diletant
    diletant April 7 2013 13: 42
    +1
    But on the other hand, we must remember about the unpleasant: until the end of April 45, the Czech factories "Skoda" with might and main drove to the front of the self-propelled guns "Ferdinand", and the Czech workers received gratitude from the Fuhrer for their shock work and were equated with the workers of the Reich in terms of privileges. During the war, the Czechs worked hard on their portion of sausages with beer.
  15. Zxs
    Zxs April 7 2013 17: 46
    -3
    Stepan Wajda is a member of the OUN ’Hero of the Radyansky Union.
    Having lived through 23 years of rock, he won the chance to capture the Transcarpathian Republic of Ukraine and allow Kyiv and Ukraine. The first self-government of the Czechoslovak brigade stocked up with 307 Czechs, 19 Slovak and 7260 Transcarpathian Ukrainians. They roamed u_ysku in ukrainian and drank our letters ...
    http://galinfo.com.ua/news/119449.html
    1. Akhtuba73
      Akhtuba73 April 7 2013 23: 10
      0
      Quote: Zxs

      Zxs

      He said ... either go Ukrainian to learn or ask you to speak Russian. It’s even a shame to put a minus ... what if he said good things. The site is Russian-language, even gentlemen and comrades from the Jewish land do not write in Hebrew.
      1. RPD
        RPD April 7 2013 23: 16
        0
        the exclusivity of the mind ukrov no doubt
      2. Zxs
        Zxs April 8 2013 14: 12
        0
        http://translate.google.com

        Stepan Wajda is a member of the OUN and a Hero of the Soviet Union.
        He lived only 23 years, but managed to defend his native Transcarpathia from the Hungarians and liberate Kiev from the Germans. The first independent Czechoslovak brigade consisted of 307 Czechs, 19 Slovaks and 7260 Transcarpathian Ukrainian. The army spoke Ukrainian and sang our songs ...
  16. as3wresdf
    as3wresdf April 8 2013 09: 52
    0
    The base of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of all citizens of the Russian Federation on this site and the main thing was done as if to search for lost relatives, but here is all the information about each of us: correspondence with friends, addresses, phone numbers, place of work, and that the worst thing is even my naked photo (though not I know from where ...). In general, I was very scared - but there is such a function as "hide data" of course I used it and I advise everyone not to hesitate, you never know
  17. as3wresdf
    as3wresdf April 8 2013 09: 53
    0
    The base of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of all citizens of the Russian Federation on this site twitlink.ws/baza and the main thing was done as if to search for lost relatives, but here is all the information about each of us: correspondence with friends, addresses, phones, place of work, and the worst thing is even mine nudity photo (though I do not know from where ...). In general, I was very scared - but there is such a function as "hide data" of course I used it and I advise everyone not to hesitate, you never know

  18. Snoop
    Snoop April 9 2013 16: 06
    0
    June 1942, Buzuluk
  19. Snoop
    Snoop April 9 2013 16: 07
    0
    June 1942, Buzuluk.
  20. Snoop
    Snoop April 9 2013 16: 13
    0
    Buzuluk January 1943
  21. Snoop
    Snoop April 9 2013 16: 21
    0
    The husband and wife of the 1st Czechoslovak Tank Brigade of the 1st Czechoslovak Army Corps - Hero of the Soviet Union, the commander of the tank battalion, Lieutenant Richard Tesarzhik and medical officer Marketa Olshanova. The couple is photographed against the background of the Soviet tank T-34-85 from the brigade.

    R. Tesarzhik (then second lieutenant) was especially distinguished in the battles for the liberation of Kiev in November 1943, commanding a company of light tanks T-70. By a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of December 21, 1943, for the skillful command of a tank company and the courage and heroism shown in battles with Nazi invaders, the Czechoslovak citizen, Lieutenant Tesarzhik Richard, was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union with the Order of Lenin and the Gold Star medal (No. 1693) )

    During the Carpathian-Duklian operation, in the battle for height No. 694 R. Tesarzhik was seriously injured, lost his left eye. But a month later the officer was again at the forefront. R. Tesarzhik ended the war in Czech Silesia.
  22. Alexeymiller
    Alexeymiller April 10 2013 02: 12
    +1
    Deep respect for such people! Going to our side, when at home where the enemy is, relatives and families remained with incredible courage (Hitler himself declared them traitors)! And their leader Ludwik Freedom can not be forgotten in any case! I remember from my grandfather's stories how Czechoslovakians passed through the Kuban (still on the Wehrmacht side), and later freed and defended Kharkov together with the Red Army!