The black myth of the “national liberation uprising of the Kyrgyz people against tsarism” in 1916

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The black myth of the “national liberation uprising of the Kyrgyz people against tsarism” in 1916

In the former national outskirts of Russia-USSR in Central Asia, a black myth about the “Russian colonial past” was formed. Thus, in Kyrgyzstan in 2016, a memorial was opened to the participants of the Central Asian uprising of 1916, which led to the massacre of Russians in Turkestan.

Black myth


Officially, the Kyrgyz people call this monument “a monument to the heroes and those who died during the national liberation uprising of the Kyrgyz people against tsarism in 1916.” The bloody revolt of the local Middle Ages against the higher Russian civilization is called “an important stage in the development of Kyrgyz statehood.”



The problem is that the facts say that those “heroes” are ordinary bandits and Basmachi who carried out a massacre of the Russian and Christian population of Turkestan. Moreover, at the suggestion of interested foreign “partners” of Russia - Turkey, Germany and Britain. Who were interested in the separation from Russia of its then Ukrainian outskirts - Central (Central) Asia - Turkestan. And when the Russian army began to restore order and protect its own, screams and hysterics began. Like, “Russian colonial occupiers”, “bloody tsarist regime” and so on.

Interestingly, the same unrest took place in the Soviet republics of Central Asia and Transcaucasia when the Soviet Union was overthrown. The scenario was similar. A sharp surge in anti-Russian sentiment, although it was the Russians who stood behind the spiritual, scientific, educational, and economic growth of the potential of the national Ukrainian regions. Carnage, violence, expulsion, looting and robbery. Lies about the Soviet army when it belatedly began to restore order.

Emotions and parochial interests interrupt facts. Unfortunately, Soviet historiography often supported such myths, to the detriment of the superethnos of the Rus-Russians. Leaders of the uprising such as Amangeldy Imanov and Alibi Dzhangildin were regarded as revolutionary heroes, and many streets and settlements in Kazakhstan were named after them. In general, the uprising was glorified; it was declared an uprising against autocracy and tsarism.

What does such flawed mythologization lead to? stories?

Ukraine is a tragic and bloody example before our eyes. Where they created a myth about the supposedly ancient history of the Ukrainian people, about the history of Ukraine. They cut off a large piece of a single people - the Little Russian Russians - from Russian history and the Motherland, brainwashed them on the topic of “independence and independence” and pitted them against other Russians.


As part of his official visit to the Kyrgyz Republic, Vladimir Putin laid a wreath at the memorial to those killed during the tragic events of 1916 at the Ata-Beyit national historical and memorial complex. 2023 Source: kremlin.ru

Turkestan revolt


As you know, many nationalities and tribes in the Russian Empire were exempted from military service. The main military and material burden for the creation of the empire-power was borne by the Russians.

Russia played a huge role in the development of the region. After the annexation of Central Asia, this backward region gained railways, irrigation canals, postal services, telegraphs, industry and medical services, which sharply reduced mortality. During the imperial period, there was a noticeable increase in the standard of living, which was a consequence of the rapid development of the economy, growing demand for agricultural products, industrial development, construction of new cities, etc. In the region, for example, in present-day Kazakhstan, major cities are being built. The foundations of urban civilization were laid.

In the Kazakh zhuzes, like the Central Asian khanates, population growth before the arrival of the Russians was very low due to constant internecine wars, raids, slave trade, low living standards, epidemics and the lack of modern medicine. After joining Russia, the number of Kazakhs began to increase rapidly. The total number of Kazakhs during the 2,25th century increased from 4 to 1916 million people, or almost doubled. The population of the Turkestan region from the mid-4th century to 7,5 also almost doubled, increasing from XNUMX to XNUMX million people.

The reason for the uprising was the decree of Emperor Nicholas II of June 25 (July 8), 1916 during the First World War on the recruitment of the male “foreign” population aged 19 to 43 inclusive for rear and defensive work in the front-line areas. It was planned to recruit 250 thousand people from the Turkestan region to work, and 140 thousand people of indigenous peoples from Steppe (now Kazakhstan).

At the same time, there were socio-economic preconditions for unrest in Turkestan. Thus, the tsarist government pursued a policy that was generally aimed at developing the region. To this end, land reform was carried out from the 1880s to 1890s, with the goal of transitioning former nomads to a more productive settled life. A resettlement policy was implemented, which caused an influx of Russian population into Turkestan. Russians were bearers of a higher spiritual and material culture. As a result of the resettlement policy, the Russian population of Central Asia increased from 200 thousand people in 1897 to 750 thousand in 1917, which accounted for 10% of the region’s population.

There was a forced mass requisition of livestock (pack, cargo and meat and dairy) from the indigenous population for the needs of the front. Livestock was requisitioned for almost nothing (1/10th of the market value). In fact, the tsarist authorities introduced surplus appropriation.

Representatives of the former elites - feudal lords and Muslim clergy - took advantage of the discontent of the population (the breakdown of the former traditional world, its development, military difficulties), who called for a “holy war” against the “infidels” (Russians).

Naturally, the German-Turkish agents provoked and supported anti-Russian sentiments as best they could. German and Turkish agents, under the guise of entrepreneurs, traders, travelers, and missionaries, even before the start of the war, incited pan-Islamic, pan-Turkic and anti-Russian sentiments in the local population. A significant number of militants, propagandists and weapons. Among the anti-Russian activists were captured Germans, Turks and representatives of the Muslim clergy.

The military governor of the Semirechensk region A.I. Alekseev in a memo to the Governor-General of the Turkestan Territory A.N. Kuropatkin at the beginning of November 1916 noted that

“among the main reasons for the discontent of the Kyrgyz, which led to open indignation, we must consider: propaganda penetrating from neighboring China (Kulja, Kashgar), where there are German agents acting through the Dungans and Chinese, who came in large numbers to Karkara and Przhevalsk; involvement in the riots in Semirechye of Chinese anarchists of the Gelyao party, who had connections with German agents.”

In Semirechye, on the border with China, in July 1916, rumors spread that “the Russians want to take away the healthiest element of the Muslims, send Russian soldiers to the theater of operations to work ahead of them, where Russian and German troops will kill them, and thus there will be The Russian goal of destroying Islam has been achieved.” The steppe became agitated, and young people of military age began to gather in gangs.

The riot began in Khojent on July 4 (17), 1916, when the police opened fire on a crowd demanding the destruction of the lists of conscripts. Unrest quickly spread across Samarkand, Syrdarya, Fergana, Transcaspian and Steppe (Akmola, Semipalatinsk, Semirechensk, Turgai, Ural) regions with a population of millions.

Workers left enterprises, lists of those mobilized were destroyed, there were attacks on postal stations, individual military commands, Russian officials, displaced peasants and workers. Armed gangs were created. The pogromists blocked Russian settlements and tried to destroy them, stealing cattle. The crops of Russian peasants were destroyed. Defenseless courtyards were robbed and vandalized, residents were killed, captured, and women were raped.

The rebel Kyrgyz were armed with outdated firearms, cold steel and homemade. Some weapons were seized from single Russian soldiers or small units. Thus, on August 6–7, rioters seized a poorly guarded transport carrying 170 Berdan guns and 40 rounds of ammunition. 000 soldiers died. Some weapons were bought from local feudal lords or brought from China.

The Russians and Cossacks tried to fight back, creating their own squads and self-defense units. The peasants fled to cities where there were more Russians, they could defend together, or there was a small garrison. Moreover, before the uprising in 1915, Russian settlers in Semirechye were disarmed. Thousands of Berdan rifles were sent to arsenals. The situation of the Russian residents was aggravated by the absence in the region of many Russian men mobilized to the front. The Russians found themselves defenseless in the face of brutal bands of fanatics.

The city of Przhevalsk, expecting an attack from day to day, was barricaded by residents on August 11. Telegraph communication with the outside world was interrupted. Only in mid-August did an army detachment arrive in the city and the threat was averted. However, around the city, even at the beginning of September, killings of single Russians still took place.


Map showing the areas of the uprising. Appendix to the report of A. N. Kuropatkin to Nicholas II dated February 22, 1917. RGVIA.

Massacre


The most severe excesses occurred, which are characteristic of spontaneous riots, manifestations of feudal nationalist chauvinists and religious fanatics.

From materials of the Russian State the archive: “The Issyk-Kul monastery was destroyed. Among those killed were seven monks and novices. Priest I. Roik was taken to the mountains and killed for not agreeing to convert to Islam, his wife and daughter were raped.”

A wild massacre occurred on August 13 from 9 to 11 am with defenseless students of the Przhevalsk Agricultural School, who were attacked by nomads. “In addition to school employees, residents of the village of Vysokoye gathered there; most of them were killed in the most cruel way, and some of the young women and girls were taken captive.” The school manager, teachers, housekeeper and four students were killed. As witness I.A. Potseluev reported: “I was told by eyewitnesses several cases that Dungan teenage girls were torn into two parts by stepping on one foot and being pulled up by the other until the victim was divided into two halves.”

The report on the state of the Turkestan diocese for 1916 contains the testimony of the rector of the Intercession parish, E. Malakhovsky, who noted that on August 14, on the road to Przhevalsk, “many mutilated murdered corpses of Russian people, both adults and children, began to come across on the way... A whole book could be written about the atrocities of the Kyrgyz. The times of Batu will probably give way. It is enough that on the road there were corpses of 10-year-old raped girls with their entrails pulled out and cut out. Children were smashed against rocks, torn apart, impaled on spikes and spits. Older ones were placed in rows and trampled by horses. If death is terrible in general, then death like this is even more terrible. It was creepy when I saw all this...”

And further: “In rural areas, the Kyrgyz exterminated the Russian-speaking intelligentsia. Ordinary people suffered the most, especially those from whom the natives saw only good things - doctors, teachers. In the village of Ivanitsky, the Przhevalsky district doctor Levin was killed, the party of engineer Vasilyev, teachers and members of their families were massacred. Before killing their victims, the Kyrgyz practiced various tortures - cutting off the genitals of Russian men, and the breasts of women; cutting off ears, gouging out eyes.”

Putting things in order and summing it up


On July 17 (30), martial law was declared in the Turkestan district. Regular units numbering about 30 thousand people were sent against the rebels. They were supported by local self-defense units created by Russian peasants and Semirechensk Cossacks. Poorly organized, armed and weak-spirited gangs, although they had a great numerical superiority, could not resist the Russian units. By the end of the summer of 1916, the main centers of the uprising were suppressed. The last gangs were finished off by the beginning of 1917 in the Trans-Caspian region.

At the same time, the regular army had to restrain desperate Russian local residents who were trying to take revenge for the atrocities of the Kyrgyz and responded with violence to violence. Driven to despair, residents staged a Kyrgyz pogrom in Przhevalsk, in which women mainly participated. On August 12, in the Przhevalsk prison, Kyrgyz prisoners were shot while attempting to escape. About 80 people died.

According to reports from the field: “In the Belovodsk area, the Russian population is extremely embittered, has disobeyed the bailiff, and is destroying the Kyrgyz.” In the area of ​​Belovodsk on August 12, a local city squad captured the Kyrgyz, who killed six refugee peasants, raped women and gouged out the eyes of children. A total of 338 people were detained, 138 of whom were sent to Pishpek prison, but during their transfer to prison they were killed by vigilantes while attempting to escape. In the village of Belovodskoye, where the Kyrgyz killed many residents, women were taken captive, and children were tortured, on the night of August 13, local Russian peasants responded by killing 517 arrested Kyrgyz and Chinese.

The authorities were restoring order. According to A.N. Kuropatkin, “the Kyrgyz must be severely punished, but the lynching of the Russians must also be severely stopped, otherwise normal life will not be restored.”


The losses of the Russian civilian population amounted to over 3,5 thousand killed and missing (mostly men were killed, captured, women and children disappeared), over 10 thousand peasant farms were ruined. According to other sources, there were more Russian victims. Thus, according to the resettlement organization, in the area of ​​Lake Issyk-Kul alone, 1 people from the Stolypin settlers were killed and 803 people went missing. Military casualties exceeded 1 people.

The region suffered serious material losses. Thousands of estates, houses, settlements, and stations were looted, destroyed, and burned. The total amount of material damage declared by the Russian population amounted to more than 30 million rubles. The Russian authorities had to allocate millions of rubles to help the affected population.

The number of victims of the suppression of the uprising among the indigenous population is unknown and ranges widely from 4 thousand dead (plus 12 thousand died during the stampede to neighboring China) to 100 thousand and above. Fear of revenge and reprisals for participating in the riot caused a mass exodus of Kazakhs and Kyrgyz to neighboring China. From 160 to 300 thousand people fled, but then many returned. The Russian prisoners who were taken away were mostly killed.

The liquidation of the uprising and its consequences was led from July 22, 1916 by the Turkestan governor-general and commander of the troops of the Turkestan Military District, as well as the military ataman of the Semirechensk Cossack army, Alexey Kuropatkin.

Russian diplomat S.V. Chirkin spoke positively about his activities during this period: “The appointment of A.N. Kuropatkin as the chief commander of the Turkestan region could not but be considered extremely timely and successful. Due to his previous activities, he was already extremely popular among all the nationalities inhabiting Turkestan. He loved the natives, was available to them and was attentive to all their needs, knowing their life well. Less than two months after his arrival in Tashkent, through a series of light measures, through influential natives loyal to him, he achieved not only that the unrest among the population caused by the above orders ceased, but even that rear work detachments were formed in a timely manner without grumbling and sent to the front.”

On October 16, 1916, Kuropatkin held a meeting at which it was decided to evict 80 thousand Kyrgyz from the Pishpek and Przhevalsky districts, in which the Russian population suffered the most, and to form the Naryn district. The decision was determined by the plan to evict the natives from the territories where Russian blood was shed. Przhevalsky district was planned to be populated exclusively by the Russian population.

However, this measure was not implemented in connection with the revolution. In the spring of 1917, the Kyrgyz began to return to their former places of residence.

By February 1917, approximately 123 thousand people went to the rear. 32 death sentences were approved against the leaders of the uprising. In March 1917, the Provisional Government suspended sending to rear work, and in May it was decided to return all those sent home.

In 1917–1920 One of the fronts of the most brutal Civil War unfolded in Turkestan. The determining factor was ethnic, religious and class confrontation. Former peasant settlers and workers mainly supported the Reds; The Cossacks took the side of the whites. The Kirghiz again created gangs and attacked the Russians. A new great massacre occurred.


Russian military and statesman Alexey Nikolaevich Kuropatkin (1848–1925). Portrait by Vladimir Poyarkov, after 1905.
73 comments
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  1. -5
    6 March 2024 05: 26
    Not a word is said here about the background against which this rebellion arose. The First World War was going on. Perhaps during this period attention to Central Asia as a whole weakened. In 1916, there was a rebellion of the Kyrgyz. And a year later there were unrest in Petrograd. And unrest began over shortage of bread. The bread that we have on the table was not enough in the capital. When they say that there is always one truth, they mean their own truth.
    1. +2
      6 March 2024 07: 12
      Quote: Nikolay Malyugin
      When they say that there is always one truth, they mean their own truth.

      The truth is one, the lie has many faces.

      When they say that everyone has their own truth, maybe they mean misconceptions? Say, everyone has their own cockroaches?
    2. +9
      6 March 2024 08: 35
      Quote: Nikolai Malyugin
      .. When they say that there is always one truth, they mean their own truth.

      They have their own interest in mind.
      One is only objective truth. And it lies in the fact that if the legislation does not contain a common, unifying interest, then the Empire will exist until the first difficult test.

      There was a common interest in the legislation of the USSR. Therefore, the USSR was a Union, not an Empire. Just like the USA and subsequently the EU.

      And when the people of the USSR nominated thieves as leaders, they decided to abandon the common popular interest. And the peoples received their native bits - what was left of them. And they rush around with these truths like fools with a white bag.
      1. -5
        6 March 2024 17: 50
        Quote: ivan2022
        The empire will exist until the first difficult test.

        how interesting - i.e. The war with Sweden, the invasion of Napoleon, the Crimean War were not difficult trials? bully
        Quote: ivan2022
        There was a common interest in the legislation of the USSR.

        If it’s not a secret, what was the interest for the Russians? When did their lands become republics?
        Quote: ivan2022
        And when the peoples of the USSR nominated thieves as leaders,

        But the peoples of Russia did not choose their leaders - the Bolsheviks SEIZED power and retained it through terror! request Moreover, many Bolsheviks were thieves who robbed - Stalin or Kotovsky, for example... request
        Quote: ivan2022
        And they rush around with these truths like fools with a white bag.

        And they even fight for them, maybe they’re not fools? see Ukraine, Transnistria, Azerbaijan, etc... hi
    3. +4
      6 March 2024 08: 56
      “Not a word is said here about the background against which this rebellion arose.”
      Have you tried reading? everything is written in great detail
    4. -1
      6 March 2024 09: 45
      The author Samsonov, who writes historical articles, should stick to the historical facts, and not read through articles from Wikipedia and Soviet quotes from annotations to a collection of documents.

      In the Kazakh zhuzes, like the Central Asian khanates, population growth before the arrival of the Russians was very low due to constant internecine wars, raids, slave trade, low living standards, epidemics and the lack of modern medicine. After joining Russia, the number of Kazakhs began to increase rapidly. The total number of Kazakhs during the 2,25th century increased from 4 to 1916 million people, or almost doubled. The population of the Turkestan region from the mid-4th century to 7,5 also almost doubled, increasing from XNUMX to XNUMX million people.


      was not there in 1916 no Kazakhs. Kazakhs, like Ukrainians, were invented by the Bolsheviks after the revolution.

      The documents of those years (correspondence and reports of officials) speak about such peoples of Turkestan as

      Kirghiz
      sarts
      -Sart-Kalmyks
      -Turkmens
      -Dungans
      The same is said about foreigners and natives.
      The lies are the same about these
      -zhuz-hundreds
      in those days, the Kirghiz were divided into hordes, and not into any zhuzes.

      What is especially interesting in the documents

      https://daniyarov.kg/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/2016.-Kotyukova-Tatyana.-Vosstanie-1916-goda-v-Turkestane.-Dokumentalnye-svidetelstva-.Sbornik-dokumentov.pdf

      There is no mention of such a large people as the Uzbeks, and this is for the period of 1916. Everywhere they talk specifically about the Sarts, as the urban Turkestan population.
      It’s a good story that they’re slipping us!
      The Sart people are the white people of Turkestan by genetics and Muslims by religion, but this is what cunning historians say, perhaps the faith was different.
      The Bolsheviks erased the Sart people from history, but new peoples appeared, Uzbeks and Kazakhs.
      Following on from the documents of those years, these are the thoughts.
      Can such “research” be true stories, if even a superficial reading is puzzling?
      Let me add a touch to this picture.
      I myself am from Kyrgyzstan and my aunt, the eldest of my sisters, told me how in 1932. they came, she already said, “Kazakhs” plundered the land in the village of Uspenovka in the Chui Valley, took away the cattle, evicted them from the house and dad took this whole family - 3 girls and one guy with his wife (they left a horse and cart) to Pishpek, they found it difficult to get a job there on the job. This is about the question of who oppressed whom.
      1. Tim
        +3
        6 March 2024 14: 58
        [/quote]wasn’t there in 1916. no Kazakhs. Kazakhs, like Ukrainians, were invented by the Bolsheviks after the revolution.[quote]

        First of all, this is not true. The Kazakhs were divided into Zhus long before the creation of Soviet Russia, even under the Tsars! For example, the younger zhus (at times) was an ally of Russia, the rest pursued a hostile policy, VO has a whole article “Military Review History of Russian fortresses in defense of the Kazakhs” dated September 16, 2016! My ancestors served in the Orenburg Cossacks to protect the borders of the Russian Empire from the raids of the Kyrgyz-Kaisaks - that’s what modern Kazakhs were called in Russia!
        1. The comment was deleted.
          1. Tim
            +1
            6 March 2024 15: 15
            I live 27 kilometers from the Kazakhstan border! Pavel, let's not call it proper without insults *Empty Words with VO"
            [/quote]Cossack fortress is a complex of church, military and domestic buildings surrounded by an earthen moat (or palisade). Inside the fortress there were premises for troops, horses, ammunition and food supplies. Whenever possible, chapels were erected or places for worship were designated.

            The battery was intended for cannon fire from prepared positions and was a stronghold in cases of military operations against the enemy, both on the offensive and during retreat.

            The picket was a prefabricated structure, often it could be a hut with a tower, surrounded by fences and intended for the temporary presence of Cossacks.

            Depending on the distance to the strongholds, the characteristics of the terrain, pledges (from the word - lie down) or secrets were formed from the foot Cossacks. Deposits (secrets) usually lay in dense thickets, at crossings (fords), narrow paths (roads) in other secluded places along the enemy’s penetration routes into the protected territory.

            По состоянию на 1748 год Оренбургское войско насчитывало порядка 35 крепостей: Бердская, Борская, Бузулуцкая, Верхнеозерная, Губерлинская, Елшанская, Еткульская, Красногорская, Красноуфимская, Миасская, Нагайбацкая, Новосергиевская, Орская, Переволоцкая, Сорочинская, Татищевская, Тоцкая, Чебаркульская, Челябинская, Chernorechinskaya, etc. Which housed more than 4 people.

            Naslednitskaya fortress, modern Berdinsky district of Chelyabinsk region
            By 1764, the Orenburg Line consisted of 22 fortresses, 25 redoubts and 78 outposts. In peacetime, the border (line) was guarded by: more than 1200 Cossacks, about 1000 dragoons, 300 baptized Kalmyks, about 2000 Bashkirs and serving Tatars, etc. with a total number of 45 people with 000 guns. The population of the fortresses was considered to be in reserve and, in addition to the fortress guards, was involved in traveling. Additionally, the Cossacks served in herds and in parties pursuing the enemy.

            The Orenburg line suffered greatly during the Pugachev rebellion (1773-1775) when the villages were burned out and the fortresses were destroyed.

            In 1796, 141 families (about 580 people) were resettled to the Orenburg region from the Don Army, who resisted moving to the Caucasian line. Those who arrived were placed in 15 linear fortresses (from Verkhneozernaya to Zverinogolovskaya).

            On the territory of the modern Orenburg Cossack army, two fortresses have been preserved in the Chelyabinsk region: Nikolaevskaya (the village of Nikolaevka, Varnensky district) and Naslednitskaya (the village of Naslednitsky, Berdinsky district).[quote]
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              1. Tim
                +4
                6 March 2024 15: 37
                Vereshchagin's painting!!! Will it work?
                1. -4
                  6 March 2024 15: 40
                  what the peoples were called in those days, there are relevant documents and throwing around words is what I already told you, stick to the topic.
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          3. +4
            6 March 2024 15: 59
            I gave a link there to REAL documents of those years

            You should familiarize yourself with what you offer others to familiarize themselves with.
            Read the document, which is assigned the number 105, and you will see the words “Among the local Kara-Kirghiz there are those who have strayed from their Kazakhs Dzharkent district..."
            And if you also read the footnote, then you will be completely happy - the entire nomadic population of Central Asia in pre-revolutionary historiography was called the Kyrgyz, but at the same time, the Kyrgyz-Kaisaks (Kazakhs) and the Kara-Kirghiz (Kyrgyz) stood out
            1. -3
              6 March 2024 16: 09
              There are HUNDREDS of mentions of Kyrgyz and very few of Kazakh, can you find another mention in the documents? In addition, the conversation was about the Issykul region, where are the Kazakhs from? Is this good gentleman Shkapsky confused?
              1. +3
                6 March 2024 16: 17
                There are HUNDREDS of mentions - Kyrgyz and very little - Kazakh

                Even one is enough. Or do you think someone decided to use words in documents that do not exist? wassat
                1. -5
                  6 March 2024 16: 20
                  the story is false, and one in a hundred is a mathematical/statistical error.
                  No, not enough.
                  In addition, the ethnonym “Kazakh” has a completely different origin and has nothing to do with the Kyrgyz.
                  1. +4
                    6 March 2024 16: 24
                    history of Izolgan

                    Wait, I used the source you yourself suggested. Not me, you. And as soon as it was pointed out to you that your theses did not correspond to the contents of this source, did it stop suiting you?
                    No, not enough.

                    Why? Just because it makes your theses untenable?
                    Again - Do you think someone decided to use words in documents that do not exist?
                    1. -2
                      6 March 2024 16: 44
                      when a people suddenly, out of the blue, changes its name or even its language, as in the Norwegian people who had a new language, by the way, also by this time, this does not mean that the subject himself wanted it that way, but it means that someone needed it , apparently this Shkapovsky was one of those who invented a new history with new peoples. He started working in the Republic of Ingushetia, finished under the Bolsheviks.
                      History of the Kazakh people.
                      In 1922 a new state of the USSR was formed, which included
                      KAZAKSTAN with its capital in Kyzylorda and this republic existed until 1936. That is, these were the lands of the COSSACKS, and not any fictional Kazakhs. And the fact that the Kyrgyz wandered/grazed cattle here once a year in these spaces does not mean that it was their land. The Bolsheviks brazenly violated the history of the Cossacks, took Russian lands and gave them to non-Russians.
                      Now they have started to openly lie that the Kyrgyz SSR was part of the USSR, but this is already a lie of our days.
                      1. +4
                        6 March 2024 17: 00
                        Apparently this Shkapovsky was one of those who invented a new history with new peoples.

                        Or everything is simpler, and the Kazakhs existed. When nationalism does not obscure the eyes, everything becomes much easier to understand.
                        included
                        KAZAKSTAN with its capital in Kyzylorda and this republic existed until 1936. That is, these were the lands of the COSSACKS, and not any fictional Kazakhs.

                        It will probably be a discovery for you, but in pre-revolutionary Russia the word Cossack was used for the Kazakhs, since it was a more familiar word (for example, potato and potato). Here is an excerpt from a page from Miropiev’s book “On the Situation of Russian Foreigners,” published in St. Petersburg in 1901 (and censored). You can see for yourself that the Kazakhs (Kyrgyz, that’s what all nomadic tribes were called) are called Cossacks.
                      2. -3
                        6 March 2024 18: 30
                        the word Kazakh has no etymology/origin, was created artificially and originates from
                        - Cossack - handsome - handsome
                        The substrate of the Cossacks and the Kyrgyz was similar until some time, here is “The Journey of Afanasy Nikitin across the Three Seas”, when Nikitin switched from Russian to Turkic, or “the journey of priest Lukyanov to the Holy Land”, when he wrote that the Turks in Constantinople understand everything in Russians and many speak Russian. There is an example from Tolstoy’s “Sevastopol Stories”, where he writes that the Cossacks freely babbled in Tatar.
                        - ataman-leader of the Cossacks
                        -ata (tyurs) -father
                        -horde/yurt is an administrative formation among the Cossacks and the Kyrgyz.
                        -horde-erde (German, English) - earth
                        BUT ! Foreigners were not fully accepted into the Cossacks. Maybe they were accepted in wartime, when the loss of life due to the war was great. But the Kyrgyz were never commanders and atamans of the Cossack troops and were never relatives of the Cossacks, there was always a distance between the Cossacks themselves and the Kyrgyz, there are Bashkirs on their own.
                        The fact that you find examples here that the Kyrgyz are Cossacks/Kazakhs is some kind of assumption. Yes, perhaps in some battles the Kyrgyz fought together and were part of the Cossack army, but neither genetically nor culturally these geneticists mixed.
                        In the Republic of Ingushetia and in Europe, new peoples were created and these peoples were given a name, culture, and history.
                        -komuz-music, the word music was cut in half and handed to the Kyrgyz people as a musical instrument, as an element of culture.
                        -Ukraine was a marginal land, but the word was given a different meaning, the meaning of the state, and here you are, a new people hostile to the true Russian people.
                        All these processes originated in the Republic of Ingushetia, but they received formalization under the Bolsheviks, for this the Bolsheviks were created in order to raise new peoples who would NEVER be friendly and fraternal, as history has already shown.
                        Clear?
                      3. Tim
                        +3
                        7 March 2024 21: 28
                        [/quote]BUT! foreigners were not fully accepted into the Cossacks. Maybe they were accepted in wartime, when the loss due to the war was great. But the Kyrgyz were never commanders and atamans of the Cossack troops and were never relatives of the Cossacks, there was always a distance between the Cossacks themselves and the Kyrgyz, there the Bashkirs are on their own.[quote]


                        The Bashkirs themselves))))) made you laugh, read the history of the Orenburg Cossacks!!!6. Cossack population
                        In the 40s of the XIX century. There has been an increase in the Cossack population.
                        At their own request, in 1841, 11568 people became Orenburg Cossacks: peasants of the Chelyabinsk and Orenburg districts, the entire Dolgoderevenskaya and Studenikinskaya volosts, the Iletsk district, parts of the Kundravinskaya and Uvelskaya
                        volosts In 1842, the OKW included the
                        81position and the Stavropol Kalmyk army abolished in connection with this: 777 families were settled between the old and new lines, forming 32 villages52. In 1843, state-owned peasants in linear districts - Orenburg, Chelyabinsk and Troitsky 53 were included in the OKW and swore an oath of allegiance to the service, and on March 16, 1844, the OKW became part of Bashkir-Meshcheryak army. As noted in the memorandum of the commander of the Separate Orenburg Corps, this “measure is beneficial for the entire Bashkir-Meshcheryak people for their present situation and for the future structure”54. As a result, the population of the OKW increased sharply from 56,1 thousand in 1825 to 160,6 thousand in 1846, i.e. behind
                        20 years almost 3 times.

                        In 1866, the military territory of the OKW was divided into three military districts, which in 1868 were renamed military departments. Orenburg Cossack
                        army (OKW), formed on the initiative of the government in the middle of the 18th century,
                        by the end of the 19th - beginning of the 20th centuries. turned into one of the largest Cossack
                        units. At the beginning of the 20th century. its population is over half a million

                        people - second only to the Don and Kuban Cossack troops55.
                      4. -1
                        8 March 2024 09: 30
                        In order to become a Cossack, your own desire is not enough, you need the full approval of the Cossack circle, this time,
                        - second, to become a Cossack you need long-term training in Cossack warfare techniques and complete mastery of Cossack culture
                        - thirdly, to become a Cossack you need to have a horse and full equipment - equipment for a warrior and all this at your own cost, and this is already a big expense. If the Cossack troops grew in number as peasants, then this means that the peasant population lived in complete prosperity at that time and didn't need it.

                        It’s not clear that you are giving me these facts, did I dispute this?

                        The Stavropol Kalmyk army, abolished in connection with this:


                        but about the Kalmyks and Kalmyk-Cossacks, this is an interesting fact and intersects with the fact of the same Sart people and the national policy of the Republic of Ingushetia at that time.
                        This is what the Kalmyks were like at that time, as we see the Kalmyks are completely white people and do not look like Mongoloids at all, so questions arise, where did the real Kalmyks disappear to and how is it that some Mongoloids were called Kalmyks?
      2. +3
        6 March 2024 17: 52
        Quote: Trinitrotoluene
        Dad took this whole family - 3 girls and one guy with his wife (they left a horse and cart) to Pishpek, where they found it difficult to get a job. This is about the question of who oppressed whom.
        Even more divinely, when they were dispossessed and exiled.... request
        1. +1
          6 March 2024 18: 40
          They were starving at that time so much that they cursed the Bolsheviks as best they could.
          1. 0
            7 March 2024 13: 42
            Quote: Trinitrotoluene
            They were so hungry at that time that they cursed the Bolsheviks at all costs.

            I know, grandma told me... hi Bolsheviks are loved by idealists for everything good... request
  2. -1
    6 March 2024 05: 40
    Quote: Alexander Samsonov
    Moreover, at the suggestion of interested foreign “partners” of Russia - Turkey, Germany and Britain
    Why the hell did they drag Britain here, it was our ally in the Entente wink
    1. +3
      7 March 2024 10: 58
      Quote: Dutchman Michel
      Quote: Alexander Samsonov
      Moreover, at the suggestion of interested foreign “partners” of Russia - Turkey, Germany and Britain
      Why the hell did they drag Britain here, it was our ally in the Entente wink

      This ally completely muddied the waters in Turkmenistan during this period - Afghanistan and India were worth it
      1. 0
        7 March 2024 10: 59
        Quote: your1970
        This ally completely muddied the waters in Turkmenistan during this period - Afghanistan and India were worth it

        Before the war, I agree. And even more after. My allies and I could barely hold the front. To weaken it is like death
        1. -2
          7 March 2024 11: 24
          "My allies and I could barely hold the front."
          What front was the “allies” barely holding then?
          1. +2
            7 March 2024 11: 26
            Quote: ZloyKot
            What front was the “allies” barely holding then?
            Who did the Entente fight with?
            1. -2
              7 March 2024 11: 28
              "Who did the Entente fight with?"
              how about with whom? with Russia laughing
              1. +3
                7 March 2024 11: 30
                Quote: ZloyKot
                "Who did the Entente fight with?"
                how about with whom? with Russia

                Your “knowledge” about the First WWII is off the charts wink wink
                1. -2
                  7 March 2024 11: 37
                  “Your “knowledge” about WWI is off the charts”
                  Of course! I even know who it fought against laughing
  3. -9
    6 March 2024 05: 45
    I wanted to read with interest about little-known pages of history, but as soon as I reached the lines about “higher civilizations,” I immediately moved on to the comments. This thesis means only one thing - the author professes the ideas of tribalism, one of the foundations of racism. And based on this, I conclude that this article was not originally written to establish historical truth.
    1. +10
      6 March 2024 07: 00
      Quote: Yuras_Belarus
      got to the lines about “higher civilizations”

      This meant the level of culture and education. This level is really different everywhere.
      1. +9
        6 March 2024 07: 21
        I would correct it a little... A completely different “cultural code” and a different perception, a different breed of people. Even now, at the present time, this is one of the most pressing issues, and even then...
      2. -3
        6 March 2024 07: 54
        As the Circassians with lower education who moved to Turkey became writers, ministers, generals, and Russian citizens who fled abroad after the revolution achieved less success.
        1. +9
          6 March 2024 08: 31
          How the lower-educated Circassians who moved to Turkey became writers, ministers, and generals
          More details from this point, please. With specific examples.
        2. +3
          6 March 2024 09: 01
          Quote from Deon59
          As the more “low” education Circassians moved to

          I re-read your comment several times, but still don’t understand: what are you talking about?
        3. +6
          6 March 2024 09: 02
          "How the Circassians with lower education who moved to Turkey became writers, ministers, generals"
          are you talking about someone? or did all Circassians become them? Also, keep in mind that they “en masses” were illiterate, and Turkey had more than enough of its own writers, ministers and generals?
          1. -10
            6 March 2024 09: 16
            And that at that time in Russia everyone was literate. I understand that the Russian people are great. But besides the Russian people there are other peoples no less great. Now, at the moment, the Russian Federation is called, not as the Russian army, but as the Russian one, well, not as the Russians, but as the Russian ones.
            1. +3
              6 March 2024 12: 59
              “And that at that time in Russia everyone was literate”
              I asked about the Circassians, so answer for them.
              "not like the Russian army, but Russian, well, not Russian, but Russian"
              Russians, no matter how much you wish it were different. what percentage do Russians occupy in the Russian army, and even in Russia as a whole? in Russian science, culture, industry? in anything else?
              1. -1
                6 March 2024 14: 33
                K. M. Basili, the first Russian orientalist, ... noted the very high representation of Circassians in the officer corps of the Ottoman army: He calls the Caucasus “a breeding ground for pashas.” In a special work - “Syria and Palestine under the Turkish Government” (Odessa, 1861-1862; 2nd ed. 1875) he noted the importance of the Circassian element, its alienation from the general mass of Turks in cultural and linguistic terms
                The Circassian diaspora of Jordan is known throughout the world, largely due to the fact that the capital of this country, Amman, was founded in 1878 by representatives of the Shapsug tribe.[12] Circassians played an important role in the formation of the Transjordan Emirate.[13] Circassians occupy high positions in the government, armed forces and police
                1. 0
                  7 March 2024 10: 30
                  "was founded in 1878 by representatives of the Shapsug tribe. [12] Circassian .... etc."
                  these legends were sung from generation to generation by illiterate akyns orally, because such a “great” people did not have a written language, and they did not have many things, starting with the state
                  1. 0
                    7 March 2024 11: 09
                    At that time, the languages ​​used were Arabic and Turkish.
                    1. 0
                      7 March 2024 11: 22
                      "Arabic and Turkish"
                      that is, they were Arabs and Turks? As far as I know, the spoken Circassian language is different from Turkish, and even more so from Arabic. but they didn’t have a written language, until the Soviet regime, when these tribes began to civilize for some reason
                      1. 0
                        7 March 2024 11: 29
                        What language is the Koran written in? And that Circassians in Turkey communicated in Chinese, or communicated with Russians in Vietnamese.
                      2. 0
                        7 March 2024 11: 36
                        "What language is the Koran written in"
                        in Circassian? and therefore even the mullahs learned the sounds of words by heart, without knowing the language, let alone ordinary Circassians
                        "And that Circassians in Turkey spoke Chinese"
                        and on which one? pidzhinturkish, or Arabic, which neither the Turks nor the Circassians knew?
                        "or communicated with Russians in Vietnamese."
                        with Russians - only in Russian, to the best of one’s ability, since neither Arabic, nor Turkish, nor Circassian is used in Russia
        4. +2
          6 March 2024 09: 24
          I agree with you... After the return of the real Kazakhs from China (Oralmans)... the Kazakhs themselves began to understand with horror what a mental gap there was between them, and in total 100 years had passed between those who left in 1916 and the present ones, who were under the yoke of Russian civilization ...
          1. 0
            6 March 2024 11: 15
            Quote: Guryev
            After the return of real Kazakhs from China (Oralmans)... the Kazakhs themselves began to understand with horror what a mental gap there was between them, and only 100 years had passed
            You won’t recognize the Russians who emigrated to America either, although only some 30 years have passed.
            1. -1
              6 March 2024 16: 54
              You won’t recognize the Russians who emigrated to America either, although only some 30 years have passed.

              ... the example, in my opinion, is incorrect... the cultural development of people is different... for example, those migrants coming to Russia have already received an “inoculation of Russian culture” even though they are wild to us... and they consider oralmans to be people from the Middle Ages... ..
  4. +15
    6 March 2024 06: 34
    The same thing can happen again only now in Russia. After all, the number of migrants is off the charts. A serious mine has already been laid. And the pawnbrokers are definitely not communists.
  5. +12
    6 March 2024 07: 05
    Carnage, violence, expulsion, looting and robbery. Lies about the Soviet army when it belatedly began to restore order.
    All of us, 20 million Russians, after the collapse of the Union, found ourselves hostage to the nationalists. The situation now is no better than in 1991.
  6. +3
    6 March 2024 07: 39
    The facts are the same, but interpretation depends on beliefs. There was a revolt, but what to call it - a national liberation struggle or a revolt of bandits - this is an ideology, not history.

    By the way, guerilla is also a rebellion of the Middle Ages against, whatever, a more developed civilization. It's even funnier about the Indians.
    1. +1
      6 March 2024 13: 07
      "what should we call it - a national liberation struggle or a revolt of bandits"
      at that time all the Russian men were at the front, old men, women and children remained there. and it was on them, in national liberation, that these Papuans turned their attention. if anything happens, if something like this happens again there, in the same way these Papuans will take advantage of Russian old people, women and children, under the slogan of fighting the invaders, but no one will save them, like Tokayev’s Putin
  7. +2
    6 March 2024 09: 17
    Everything in the world has its own cycle of development of civilization... And only the empire on which the sun sets works for a long time... for decades... and patiently waits for the Slavs, Turks, Chinese, after cyclical fatty times, to fall from the same cyclical civil wars... It’s just that every nation has its own CYCLE....
  8. Des
    +10
    6 March 2024 10: 15
    From the author’s (this courage should already be rewarded here)), articles on VO “Defenseless courtyards were robbed and vandalized, residents were killed, captured, women were raped.”..."The Russians found themselves defenseless in the face of brutal gangs of fanatics." Further even more terrible details.
    And all these facts, events, horror are no different from the exodus of Russian speakers from Turkestan after the collapse of the USSR. And now it’s too late to blame the officials of the Russian Federation for allowing people who hate us to break into the state.
    All republics of the USSR are unpunished for the genocide of Russian speakers.
    1. +2
      6 March 2024 10: 37
      .... I’m afraid that in some 20 years they will again invite Russians to Central Asia to help the “brotherly peoples” .... fellow
  9. +3
    6 March 2024 10: 39
    Russians and Cossacks tried to fight back
    ... I mean... are Russians and Cossacks different peoples? ... wassat wassat Or is the author confusing the concepts of “class” with nations and nationality? Or is it intentionally divisive?
  10. +1
    6 March 2024 11: 07
    It’s interesting that such articles are published in Great Britain? They say we brought culture and civilization to the wild, backward Harappans, gathered one big country from many principalities and called it British India, taught them a normal language, built the first university, railway. To be honest, sometimes there were small excesses on the ground, which led to an attack by local nationalist sepoys on civilians, to which a response was given by the British army, but basically this was greatly exaggerated by the enemies of England, such as the Russian agent Vereshchagin. But seriously, we rewrite our history every 40- 50 years for the sake of the current political moment, and even more often, after the death of another beloved leader, we also demand that our neighbors rewrite theirs, first looking back at Moscow to find out whether Nicholas 2 is still a bloody or already a saint, Stalin is a leader of peoples or a merciless tyrant, Gorbachev with Yeltsin, the heroes of democracy, who raised the Iron Curtain or the bastards who destroyed a great country. All this causes wild irritation, sometimes even to their own detriment, among the political elites and the common people of former sisters in the union and okay Samsonov, but in our country both the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the top leadership sometimes bear something that creates problems out of the blue.
  11. +11
    6 March 2024 11: 48
    “At the same time, before the uprising in 1915, Russian settlers in Semirechye were disarmed. Thousands of Berdan rifles were sent to arsenals.”

    That's the main problem. American farmers in the Wild West were well armed and, even with a small number of federal soldiers, could resist the Indians. Colt became a symbol of the Wild West. In any case, as far as is known, there was no such massacre of white settlers as in Turkestan in the United States. They didn’t let themselves be offended.
    Also, the Boers mastered the savannah of southern Africa during the Great Trek era and, being fully armed, successfully fought off the professional Zulu warriors. The truth is here too - guns against arrows and spears.

    In Russia, apparently, in 1915 there was a shortage of rifles at the front, and even Berdan guns had to be taken away from the settlers. I am sure that several dozen ordinary men-combatants, but with rifles, defending their homes and families, were able to repel the attacking gang of brutal wild rabble. A few shot people usually immediately bring the rest of the horsemen, who are undaunted against women and children, to their senses.

    In the USA, it has always been easier with any firearm, which is why the results are different... “You can always achieve more with a kind word and a gun than with a kind word alone...”
    1. +2
      6 March 2024 15: 02
      Quote: Timofey Charuta
      There was no such massacre of white settlers as in Turkestan in the USA
      It all depends on the mentality of the local population
  12. +3
    6 March 2024 17: 42
    The difference between the events of 1916 and the perestroika-post-Soviet years is very indicative: in the first case, we are faced with a consolidated society, supported by its state, its bureaucracy, its law, and its army; in the second - the people are fragmented, stolen and abandoned. The break with national tradition and the destruction of the verticals and horizontals of institutions is not only about subtle matters, but also about quite mundane things like survival, as it turned out. Without the mossy archaism of the medieval prison of nations, life turned out to be unpleasant and short, the real world is extremely demanding.
    And this is also another reason to think about the origin or even the individual past of people to whom we must certainly give our last shirt, wallet, house and wife.
  13. +7
    6 March 2024 19: 03
    Do you remember how the Kyrgyz committed atrocities in 1916? And why not at the same time tell us about the vile behavior of Uzbeks and Tajiks in the early 90s...? How they shouted: “Russians! We don’t want to see your faces on our land! Suitcase, station, Russia!”.. The degree of meanness in relation to Russians differed somewhat in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan... In Uzbekistan at least there were no massacres of Russians ! And they were in Tajikistan! And what happened then? When the Russians, who were able to stay alive, left Tu4mekictan, it turned out that without the Russians and Russia, the “Uzbek-Tajiks” had nothing to eat! And so the Uzbeks and Tajiks, who did not want to see “Russian faces” on their land, fled to Russian soil (to Russia), without a twinge of conscience and without asking the Russians if they wanted to see tu4mekckie faces!? But to the liberals from the “fifth column” this seemed not enough! Taking advantage of the fact that Russia did not have and does not have an adequate migration policy from the word “finally...”, the liberals began to introduce their own bastard “migration” policy! As a result, “migrants” of all kinds, “sensing the “roof” of the liberals from the 5th column, began to behave on Russian soil like occupiers (!), even declaring that now there is no Russian land (!), that now it is their land, and They will throw the Russians out of this land, just as they threw them out of Central Asia! And all this with the direct connivance of the bureaucratic “apparatus” of the current regime of power, not excluding the so-called “law enforcement” agencies! And the Russians, in “turn”, found themselves in the position of second-class citizens who do not even have the right to protect their honor and dignity from attacks by “migrants”! And this is the situation that has developed under the current regime of power!
  14. -1
    6 March 2024 21: 01
    these are ordinary bandits and Basmachi who carried out a massacre of the Russian and Christian population of Turkestan. Moreover, at the suggestion of interested foreign “partners” of Russia - Turkey, Germany and Britain.


    The whole trouble is that Russia does not avenge its citizens who died at the hands of bandits, therefore these jackals are not afraid to attack Russians, this was the case during the revolution and civil war, this was the case in the late 80s and early 90s, when Russians were slaughtered in entire villages in Central Asia and the Caucasus
  15. +2
    7 March 2024 10: 21
    I read it and didn’t see anything new or interesting, but I had two questions for the author!
    Mr. Skomorokhov, whose mill are you pouring water into? And the second question...myths, so who was at the origins of these myths? Who created these myths??
    Well, for one thing, could you write an article about the Russian genocide in the regions you mentioned at the turn of the 30s of the last century?
  16. 0
    7 March 2024 11: 39
    Unfortunately, Soviet historiography often supported such myths, to the detriment of the superethnos of the Rus-Russians.


    Unfortunately, the modern Russian leadership also fully supports this myth. For example, Mr. Putin, during his visit to Kyrgyzstan on October 12, 2023, laid flowers at the monument to these bandits - https://ria.ru/20231012/venok-1902214917.html
  17. 0
    7 March 2024 22: 03
    Russian diplomat S.V. Chirkin spoke positively about his activities during this period: “The appointment of A.N. Kuropatkin as the chief commander of the Turkestan region could not but be considered extremely timely and successful. ... Less than two months after arriving in Tashkent a number of easy measures with the help of influential natives loyal to him, he achieved not only what was caused by the above orders unrest among the population stopped, but even in a timely manner, without any grumbling, stage rear work detachments were formed and sent to the front.”

    Dear author, you yourself described the obscene horrors of these “fermentations” and the grave, bloody consequences of the retaliatory “series of light measures”! Why, without any assessment, do you insert into the article this outright lie by Chirkin about the results of Kuropatkin’s activities?
  18. 0
    8 March 2024 13: 36
    “Luck cannot wait for the rebels. Otherwise, they will be called differently.” Now this case has come.

    And when they ruined the USSR in 1991, what did they expect? Then everything went well and without a riot. And in October 1993, Yeltsin’s rebellion was a success and this decided everything that happened next. Although in March 1996 the State Duma still officially called the rebellion a rebellion.

    Yes, with such recent history, there would be no need to mention uprisings and rebellions at all. I wish I could put it off for a hundred years... .. Who knows what else....
  19. 0
    9 March 2024 07: 53
    Throw aside all the "imperial" slogans.
    We must not allow the “national question” to begin to smolder. And the measures must be radical. And the current Reality proves it.....
    Remember Yarmolov's EXPERIENCE!!!!! The Chechens, after him, stuck their tongues up their ass for more than a hundred years.
    “An unfinished snake will still remain a snake. And if the opportunity arises, it will definitely bite...”
    1. +4
      9 March 2024 11: 22
      Initially, in December 1991, the Union was ruined not by the Chechens or the Kyrgyz. And three representatives of the “three united people” at night in a Belarusian forest under a Christmas tree. Instead of bringing order to the country.
      1. 0
        10 March 2024 09: 07
        The article is not about those three Morons.
        The question is raised about interethnic relations in the United State.
        No ethnic enclaves, no diasporas.
        BURN with a hot iron.
        The Nazis are at the logging site.
        Labor made a man out of a monkey.
        1. 0
          9 May 2024 07: 23
          So get busy. And then we’ll see what you did and what those you propose to “burn out” will do to you.Just don’t go to the point of delirium.

          This is the trick of our time, that the Asian and the Caucasian and the Jew have a lot from the fact that they were born that way.

          But a Russian has nothing......from the fact that he is Russian.

          Have you at least understood this homespun truth in your life? These are traditions, the result of thousands of years of development of Russians and even 70 years of the USSR has nothing to do with it. Stolypin also spoke on the topic of the weak national self-awareness of Russians....


          That is why it is wiser for a Russian not to bang his head against the concrete wall of his own traditions, but to be an internationalist. This is how it was in the USSR. And for the Russians themselves it was better. While they are from a powerful foolishness that is alien to them - nationalist (or imposed by someone? laughing ) together with the Ukrainians themselves did not ruin their USSR.

          And if THIS most important thing is not mentioned in the article, then the author “didn’t notice the elephant”, but stupidly dances around secondary consequences...
  20. +2
    10 March 2024 21: 16
    Oh, the fifth column has started publishing here!)
    And I wondered where she would push her colonial agenda and sow national hatred.
    There is no desire to comment on the Tsereushniks.
    For those who want to understand, I recommend the aforementioned General Kupoptkin, who served there for half his life. http://militera.lib.ru/h/1/all/k/b55091/index.html#books
  21. +2
    10 March 2024 21: 23
    “superethnos of Rus-Russians” and
    "nationalities and tribes")
    According to the author, Article 282 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation is crying, but it is obvious that he is covered with a certificate from the fool.
  22. +2
    17 March 2024 07: 25
    The author writes ....."The number of victims of the suppression of the uprising among the indigenous population is unknown and varies widely from 4 thousand dead (plus 12 thousand died during the stampede to neighboring China)" This is a blatant distortion of statistics. In fact, 90% of the Kyrgyz population fled to China. Up to 40% of the Kyrgyz died at the hands of the tsarist punitive forces, from hunger and cold on mountain passes during the flight to China. And the main reason for the uprising was not being sent to the rear, but the confiscation of the lands of nomads in favor of settlers from the central part of Russia. All non-Russians were officially called inorodtsy - are they not subjects of the tsar, are they second-class people? Residents of Semirechye were not taken into the army. What we sowed is what we reaped. By the way, Kuropatkin, when he received the investigation report on the uprising, reacted that it would damage the prestige of the Russian people. There is information on the Internet, read it.