Military Review

Nuclear energy tamer


"First of all, unlimited nuclear energy was directed to the manufacture of weapons. I, like all Soviet scientists, are convinced that common sense will eventually prevail, and that uranium and plutonium will be used for peaceful purposes. ”
I.V. Kurchatov

Igor V. Kurchatov was born on January 12 1903 of the year. His family lived in the city of Sim, near Ufa. His father worked as a surveyor, an assistant to a local forester. Igor had a brother Boris and sister Antonina. In 1909, their family moved to Simbirsk (now Ulyanovsk), and in 1912, larynx tuberculosis was found near Antonina, and the Kurchatovs moved to Simferopol in search of a place with a milder climate. However, it was not possible to save the girl, and the family remained to live in the Crimea.

Among the hobbies of the young Igor can be noted the craving for football and the French wrestling. He read a lot, was engaged in sawing out on a tree. After reading the book by the Italian professor Corbino entitled "The Successes of Modern Technology", Kurchatov began collecting technical literature. Already studying gymnasium, he is determined to become an engineer. Together with his comrades, Igor is engaged in in-depth study of mathematics and geometry. When World War I began, their family income plummeted. To help parents Kurchatov worked in the garden and sawed wood at the cannery. In the evening he managed to process the wood in the mouthpiece workshop. After graduating from the evening craft school, Kurchatov received a specialty locksmith. Despite such high employment, Igor did not cease to read technical and fiction literature of Russian and foreign writers. Books were supplied by one of the best teachers of the Crimea - L.V. Zhiritsky working in the gymnasium as a teacher of literature.

In the gymnasium, Igor studied on only five, as evidenced by the remaining cool magazines and certificates. In 1920, Igor graduated from the gymnasium with honors and a gold medal, and in September he entered the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics of the Simferopol Taurian (later Crimea) University. The university was organized by a group of professors from St. Petersburg and Kiev under the leadership of Academician Vernadsky, who came here to rest and who remained because of the invasion of German troops in Crimea in the 1918 year. With the advent of Professor Usatii in the school, lectures on physics began. Students who have very vague ideas about modern science began to be introduced to molecular physics and thermodynamics.

New knowledge was always easy for Igor Kurchatov, for three years he managed to study a four-year course of study. However, the money was still sorely lacking, at various times he managed to work in a wood-finishing workshop, an orphanage tutor, a night watchman and a preparator in the university physics laboratory. Thin and wiry Kurchatov was well aware that the instrumental base of their laboratory was extremely modest, and he had little time, so for the diploma he chose and successfully defended the theoretical work - “The Theory of the Gravitational Element”. After graduation, young Kurchatov was called to teach physics at the Baku Institute, but he refused and, trying to fill the gaps in his education, went to Leningrad to enter the Polytechnic Institute. In parallel with his studies at the shipbuilding department, he got a job at the magnetic meteorological observatory of the city of Slutsk (now Pavlovsk). Here he first began to engage in serious experiences. He carried out a major scientific study of the radioactivity of snow, which he subjected to rigorous mathematical processing. However, the long way from the Polytechnic Institute to Pavlovsk did its job. Kurchatov often did not have time for classes, he fell behind in school and was expelled in the second semester. But it was at this time that Igor Vasilyevich decided to devote his life exclusively to science.

The unique ability of Kurchatov was the ability, rejecting everything superfluous, focusing on the problem as a whole, seeing it through, changing the course of events in the interests of the goal. On this occasion, you can bring his own words: “Particulars, details can subordinate a person. In any business the main thing is to determine priorities. Otherwise, the secondary, even if necessary, will take all the forces, will not allow to get to the main thing ”.

In 1924, Igor Vasilievich returned to his family in Crimea and immediately got a job at the Hydrometeorological Bureau of the Azov and Black Seas, located in Feodosia. However, old research did not impress him anymore. In the autumn of the same year, after the young scientist received a second invitation from the Azerbaijan Polytechnic Institute, he went to Baku without hesitation. Working there at the Department of Physics, he conducted two major studies on the propagation of electric current in solid dielectrics. Such experiments very closely bordered the works of Ioffe, and Kurchatov was invited to work at the Leningrad Institute of Physics and Technology.

Eyewitnesses recalled that in his youth Kurchatov resembled Mayakovsky. The same broad shoulders and tall. The eyes are lively, defiantly brilliant, the floors of the lab coat fluttering from sudden movements. Always neat and cheerful, despite the fact that it works until late at night, returning home only in the morning.

In Ioffe’s laboratory, Kurchatov’s great talent as an experimental physicist finally flourished. With his knowledge, enthusiasm, efficiency, ability to achieve the goal and interest others, twenty-two Igor Vasilievich quickly gained credibility and joined the team, becoming one of the most valuable employees. This is evidenced by the career growth of the young physicist. Accepted by an assistant, he soon received the position of a research scientist of the first category, and soon a senior engineer-physicist. The institute was then only seven years old since its foundation, and the average age of the staff was about thirty years. Abram Fedorovich Ioffe jokingly called the Physical and Technical Institute "kindergarten", but he cherished his people very much, never restricting their freedoms.

Of course, along with research work, Kurchatov was engaged in teaching activities - he read a course in physics on dielectrics. Here new abilities of Igor opened. He turned out to be a brilliant speaker, mastering the art of capturing the attention of listeners, it is easy to convey the true meaning of the described physical phenomena. And his stories about the results of his latest research allowed everyone in the audience to feel involved in the great discoveries that happened right before their eyes. Needless to say how popular his lectures were with the youth.

Igor V. spent a lot of time in the laboratory of dielectrics, his first job was to study the passage of slow electrons through thin films made of metal. Noticing the slightest inconsistencies and anomalies, Kurchatov moved further and further into officially recognized theories in his research, confirming his discoveries by direct experiments. Later, investigating some deviations in the dielectric parameters of segnevite salt, described in detail before him, Kurchatov subconsciously suspected the presence of some unfamiliar properties in the behavior of the substance in question. He found out that these properties resemble magnetic ones like those of ferromagnets, and identified such dielectrics as ferroelectrics. This name stuck in our country, but the term “ferroelectricity” does not exist abroad. By analogy with ferromagnetism, a similar phenomenon was called ferroelectricity. Kurchatov conducted his experiments very clearly. The results of the experiments were presented by a system of curves showing the dependence of the observed effect on temperature and field strength. The persuasiveness and visibility of the data presented almost did not require an explanation. Thus, Kurchatov created a whole new trend in physics. From ferro salt he and his assistants turned to the study of various solutions and compounds with ferroelectric properties. In these experiments, among others, Kurchatov’s brother, Boris Vasilyevich, also became a talented scientist.

In 1927, Igor Vasilyevich got married. Marina Dmitrievna Sinelnikova, sister of Cyril Sinelnikova, with whom Kurchatov was friends with the gymnasium, became his chosen one. All her life she became his faithful companion and assistant. Unfortunately, this wonderful couple did not have children. Giving the scientist all her attention and care, Marina Dmitrievna completely relieved Kurchatov from household trifles, protected her with the guardianship that everyone felt when they crossed the threshold of their home. It should be noted that Kurchatov devoted all his free home time to the continuation of his institute research. He did not tolerate an empty pastime, so he ate very quickly, communicated with guests always briefly, preferring to leave them alone with his wife.

In 1930, Igor Vasilyevich received another well-deserved promotion, becoming the head of the physics department. At the same time, the scientific interests of the great scientist begin to move from the sphere of dielectrics to the field of nuclear physics. A.Ioffe himself played an important role in this, supporting research in this very unpopular area. His efforts gave the green light to the organization of the department of nuclear physics at the institute. For decency, he personally headed it for half a year, and when the work was adjusted, he transferred all the powers to Kurchatov in 1932. With enthusiasm characteristic of him, Igor Vasilyevich got down to business, and already in 1933, an acceleration tube started to work, accelerating protons to energy in 350 keV. And in 1934, Kurchatov approached the research of neutron physics. The results were not long in coming. The study of the Fermi effect — artificial radioactivity that appears when neutrons bombard nuclei — led to the discovery of the isomerism of artificial atomic nuclei in 1935. Brother Boris Vasilyevich also helped Kurchatov in this work. Further experiments have shown that many nuclei are capable of taking different isomeric states. At the institute's laboratory, Kurchatov staged a series of experiments that showed how the phenomenon of isomerism is associated with metastable excited states inherent in atomic nuclei. The published results greatly influenced the development of views on the model of the atomic nucleus and laid the foundation for new research in many laboratories around the world. However, Kurchatov did not achieve enough success, studying the isomerism he discovered, and he carried out many other experiments in parallel. Thus, investigating the absorption of slow neutrons with Artsimovich, he obtained an unexpected result. In their eyes, the reaction of neutron capture by a proton led to the formation of a deuteron - the nucleus of heavy hydrogen.

In 1937, under Kurchatov's control, the first cyclotron in Europe was launched on the basis of the radium institute, and starting from 1939, Igor Vasilievich focused all his attention on the problem of fission of heavy nuclei. Having understood together with his young collaborators Flerov and Petrzhak in the multiplication of neutrons in different compositions of uranium, he proved the possibility of a nuclear chain reaction in uranium with heavy water. In the 1940 year, a letter from Flerov and Petrzhak about the open phenomenon of spontaneous fission of uranium was published in the American journal Physical Review, which also covered the issues of similar research. However, no response from the United States did not follow, while all work on the atomic nucleus was considered classified. And soon the Soviet Union was embroiled in World War II.

The research program planned by Kurchatov for years to come was interrupted in the most unexpected way, and he himself was forced to leave nuclear physics and focus all his attention on the development of demagnetization systems for warships. This was not a difficult task, but by that time many laboratories were empty, all the staff volunteered for the front, and valuable equipment, books, instruments, and scientific observations were moved to the rear. However, the installation was created as soon as possible and soon protected the domestic ships fleet from fascist magnetic mines. Kurchatov with a group of scientists traveled to the largest seaports of our country, setting up and at the same time training seamen to operate their device. And at the end of 1941, having miraculously avoided contracting typhus, Igor Vasilievich earned a severe pneumonia. Barely recovering from the disease, Kurchatov was appointed head of the laboratory. tank armor. However, in 1942, after a convincing letter from the future academician Flerov personally to Joseph Vissarionovich, research in the field of atomic energy was continued. The main goal of the work of the party leadership was to overcome the atomic superiority of the United States. And Igor Kurchatov was entrusted with leading the research. The armor and mines were over.

In 1946, Stalin signed the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, which clearly described the study of the possibilities of using atomic energy for peaceful purposes. And even responsible scientists are appointed for the development of entire industries. However, L.P. Beria later said that the country does not have the strength to do everything, and therefore it is necessary to concentrate only on weapons.

The work began in the strictest secrecy on the basis of the laboratory of the future Atomic Energy Institute (LIPAN), and in 1946, the whole scientific center KB-11, now known as Arzamas-16 or All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, was built near Arzamas. Such outstanding scientists as Yu.B. Khariton, L.B. Zeldovich, A.D. Sakharov, D.A. Frank-Kamenetsky, I.V. Tamm and many others.

Research volumes expanded rapidly, the number of people and materials involved in the project grew. To carry out experiments on the creation of a uranium-graphite boiler and the separation of isotopes, new buildings were designed and almost immediately built, and a new cyclotron built in just one year was put into operation. Kurchatov, who was in charge of all this, did not lose his head; he was perfectly included in the role of the organizer of a huge, unprecedented project before the war.

His energy seemed inexhaustible, he never showed signs of fatigue, although the people around him often left without sustaining the “Kurchatov” pace of work. Possessing exceptional charm, Igor Vasilyevich rapidly found friends among industry leaders and in the army. At each new direction Kurchatov put an outstanding physicist. For example, Alikhanov was engaged in “heavy water” in him, and Leipunsky was involved in “fast reactors”.

According to the recollections of one employee, the “Kurchatov style” of work could be described as follows: “The most striking features seem to me the following:
• the magnitude of the scientific problems for which he undertook;
• clear, extremely clear work plan;
• extremely high personal responsibility at each stage;
• great demands on subordinates, their strict control, constant awareness of the real state of affairs;
• optimism in all undertakings;
• accessibility to people;
• respect and benevolent attitude towards employees, the ability to praise in time and severely exact for negligence ”.

Various issues were considered at institutes throughout the country, but Kurchatov always took responsibility for making decisions on the most important of them. It is also worth noting that, once in the management environment, Kurchatov never ceased to be a simple experimental physicist. Together with his brother, he took direct part in building a uranium-graphite reactor and received the first portions of plutonium, independently developed methods for the electromagnetic and diffusive separation of uranium isotopes. Kurchatov formed the nuclear industry, not theoretically, not speculative, but with his own hands. He kept in them both graphite, and uranium, and blocks with plutonium, independently carried out a chain reaction. At the same time, he only knew that Fermi did a similar experiment and did not die.

“You can't split an atom in one language!”, Is one of the favorite sayings of I.V. Kurchatov.

When the first Soviet reactor was launched in 1946 in LIPAN, the ultimate goal - the production of weapons of a completely new type - was only a matter of time. Soon, more powerful nuclear reactors began to work and, finally, tests of the Russian atomic bomb took place in 1949. The experiment was scheduled for the morning of August 29. When the creators saw the bright glare and mushroom cloud on the horizon, they realized that they had done their job.

The story of Academician Aleksandrov is well known, according to which Kurchatov made a commitment not to shave off his famous beard, which he owed to his nickname until the atomic bomb was made. During the ceremonial meeting on the occasion of successful trials, Aleksandrov presented Igor Vasilyevich a huge seventy centimeter razor, an equally huge wash basin and soap paste, demanding that Kurchatov immediately shave. However, Kurchatov was already so used to his image that he flatly refused. The razor is still kept in the museum of the legendary scientist.

Four years later, 12 August 1953-th at the site was the explosion of the world's first hydrogen bomb. The atomic monopoly of the United States, as well as the myth of the superiority of American science over domestic science, was destroyed. Soviet scientists fulfilled their obligations to the country's leadership, but, according to Igor Vasilyevich’s deep conviction, this was only a small fraction of the use of atomic energy. Back in 1949, he independently began work on a project for a future nuclear power plant - a herald of the peaceful use of destructive energy. Not having time to deal with this issue for the required amount of time, Kurchatov transferred the project to the Obninsk Institute D.I. Blokhintsevu. All the time Igor Vasilyevich closely followed the execution of his cherished dream and the construction of a power station, checking and helping if necessary. 27 June 1954 of the year the task was successfully completed, Kurchatov exulted.

In the postwar years, actively addressing the problems of atomic energy, Kurchatov always sought to help the development of other branches of science, especially promising in his opinion. In particular, his participation in the struggle of domestic geneticists with ETC is well known. Lysenko. On this occasion, wrote a son-in-law Khrushchev A.I. Ajubey: “Once, Kurchatov came to Khrushchev to the country, whom Nikita greatly appreciated. Their lengthy conversation ended in a quarrel. After leaving the upset Kurchatov, Khrushchev sullenly said: “The beard does not fit into his own business. A physicist, but he came to work for geneticists. After all, they are engaged in nonsense, we need bread, but they breed flies. ” It is worth noting that Khrushchev implicitly believed that the proposed activities of Lysenko would, in the shortest possible time, raise from their knees the domestic agriculture. And not only Igor Vasilyevich, in general, he did not take a single person with reasonable arguments on this issue seriously. However, it was not easy to stop Kurchatov in implementing his plans, he secretly built a room for geneticists in secret from Khrushchev at the Institute of Atomic Energy. An entire generation of scientists who later founded the Institute of Molecular Genetics grew within its walls.

The last years of his life, Igor Vasilyevich devoted a lot of energy to the development of the Soviet program on the use of nuclear potential for peaceful purposes. He often went abroad at international conferences. His performances were characterized there as sensational ones. In 1957, the first nuclear-powered icebreaker Lenin was built. And Kurchatov put all his melting forces into the construction of a power plant on the basis of a controlled thermonuclear reaction. By this time, he had already suffered two heart attacks and, as if anticipating something, called among his friends a new project “dood three” (until the third stroke). According to the Kurchatov schemes, the Ogra thermonuclear installation was created, which became a distant prototype of modern energy machines. However, Kurchatov did not have time to fully implement his last idea.

7 February 1960, after meeting with Kapitsa and Topchiev, Igor Vasilyevich went to the Barvikha sanatorium near Moscow, to visit academician Khariton. They walked around the snow-covered garden for a long time and finally sat down on a bench to rest. During the conversation, an outstanding scientist had a third blow. When Khariton, alarmed by a long silence, turned to him, he found that Kurchatov had already died without making a sound. So ended the life of the greatest scientist of our country.

Igor Kurchatov’s reasoning about the younger generation is interesting: “Why do we no longer have writers equal to Leo Tolstoy, artists like Serov, scientists like Pavlov? Where did the new generation of brilliant people disappear? It seems to me that young scientists in our country lack a culture, a real culture, the very culture that allows a person to argue openly and boldly. After all, the scientist is the first thinker. Not without reason, probably, Heisenberg and Bohr are the same brilliant philosophers as the physicists, and Einstein and Planck were excellent musicians. I was told about Oppenheimer. He is known as an expert on Indian poetry and lectures on physics and literature with equal success.
However, formed scientists should closely contact with each other. Only in such cooperation and possible birth of advanced ideas. These ideas are never born from one person. They are in the air and at the last moment someone most talented or courageous overcomes the last step, formulating a new law. Here, for example, with the theory of relativity. Poincaré, in fact, came close to her, and Einstein took the very last step by introducing the principle of the immutability of the speed of light. And it all changed at once ... ".
Kuzkina mother. Results: "Passion on the atom"


Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site:

Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. patriot2
    patriot2 12 January 2013 12: 53
    "One obscenity - you can't split an atom"!
    Kurchatov said well, this is an expression on a poster in all physics classrooms in schools.
    Eternal memory to Igor Vasilievich Kurchatov!
    1. crazyrom
      crazyrom 12 January 2013 20: 31
      How do we lack such people today ...
      1. Alan
        Alan 13 January 2013 21: 02
        Quote: crazyrom
        How do we lack such people today ...

        I think even now there are such people, we just do not know about them. Now all the news is packed with all sorts of Serdyukovs; and those who move science, develop technologies, really SERVE their country, they can't make a rating on them. I remember in my childhood M. Gallai's book (who is interested in aviation will understand) came across, read it three times. I still love aviation. It all started with books.
        1. Armata
          Armata 14 January 2013 09: 41
          Quote: Alan
          I think, and now there are such people, we just do not know about them; and those who move science, develop technology, really SERVE their country, they are "unformat"
          They would give money, they would move much further. And now we are spinning between commerce (to earn money for the family) and to do something for the Motherland.
    2. vyatom
      vyatom 14 January 2013 12: 53
      I'm reading a book about Kurchatov from the Life of Wonderful People series. Still Soviet. I recommend to everyone. Very informative. The formation of atomic science in our country under his active leadership.
  2. Nagaibak
    Nagaibak 12 January 2013 13: 14
    Igor Vasilievich Kurchatov? -I respect !!! I respect immensely !!!
  3. Was mammoth
    Was mammoth 12 January 2013 17: 01
    "The reasoning of Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov about the growing young generation is interesting ..."
    A scientist, in my opinion, should be versatile in many areas - from technical to humanitarian. Experiments with education in the country and the destruction of the best of the old school at the same time led to a decrease in the overall level of development of science in Russia. It will come back in the future.
  4. Zynaps
    Zynaps 12 January 2013 17: 38
    about genetics - complete crap. In the described period of time, a laboratory of radiation genetics was already created in the USSR, first in the Urals. led her escaped execution for experiments on prisoners in Nazi camps, biologist Timofeev - Resovsky. later, Resovsky was specially transferred to continue work closer to Moscow - in Obninsk. so Kurchatov didn’t have to make secret genetic laboratories. and physically organize such a laboratory secretly Kurchatov could not. their organization required equipment, salaries, and even the delay of some of the institute's topics for the needs of geneticists. it would be a natural adventure. and who the experienced scientist and organizer Kurchatov was not was a tycoon and an adventurer.

    about Lysenko delivered separately. apparently, the author is not aware of the "three hundred letters" - a typical denunciation of the so-called. geneticists against Lysenko, after which the sides threw poop at each other with the intensity of an artillery duel. not to mention the fact that Lysenko was one of the organizers and director of the Institute of Genetics of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

    Thank you very much to Kurchatov for his skilful leadership in creating the "argument" thanks to which our fatherland did not suffer the fate of Yugoslavia, as well as for his native MEPhI, to the foundation of which the academician was directly involved.
  5. alex86
    alex86 12 January 2013 17: 41
    In the photo, Kurchatov with Efim Pavlovich Slavsky, a completely legendary figure of the Ministry of Environment, a long-term minister and one of the founders of the Soviet nuclear industry. I caught a glimpse of him at one of the last meetings in his active work - he himself did not participate in it, but accidentally broke into his youth. For us, he was almost a god, despite the fact that we knew nothing about him except jokes of the elders.
    One of the jokes (they said, real ones): after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, Gorbachev suggested that he retire (Slavsky was 88 years old at that moment) - Yefim Pavlovich replies that it’s not possible, he still needs to feed his mother, will not be able to retire .. .
    There were people (this is serious) ...
  6. Black
    Black 12 January 2013 18: 26
    What I.V. Kurchatov says about the culture of the younger generation needed to be included in the Education Law signed by the President on New Year's Eve.
    The training of "narrow" specialists is a dead-end and extremely harmful paradigm of Soviet education. There is no need to talk about modern higher education.
    And the first thing to start is with pedagogical universities, whose graduates are striking in their narrow thinking and "lack of presence" of any cultural heritage. For all that, the best of them "dissolve", the school sucks.
    1. alex86
      alex86 12 January 2013 18: 56
      I cannot agree that in Soviet education there was training of narrow specialists - rather, on the contrary. But the current level of education in what are called universities - and nowadays more and more "universities" and "academies" - evokes a longing for Soviet education ...
  7. Kir
    Kir 12 January 2013 19: 24
    Alex86, I completely agree with you, the Western and first of all the American system was preparing Uzkikhs, due to economic expediency, especially if we compare such indicators as how many people read books not in their specialty and in the depth of content, then we have this in the USSR the situation was better, but now we are unfortunately trying to apply this. and about the greater "humanization of education", so there will be more likely the opposite effect. but in general there is a feeling that too many verbiage humanitarians prepared, especially since, as nowhere among these, the percentage of liberal scum more than rolls over!
    And with regards to Chechny’s cultural heritage, what do you mean by it? For for the Patriots there are some guidelines, for the Leberales, others are more loyal? Yes, and who enrolled in pedagogical universities for the most part, multiply by the general decrease in education and get what you cost.
  8. aleksandr46
    aleksandr46 12 January 2013 19: 29
    it would be well remembered and there would be no one without the implementation of the project, for example, Beria!
    1. alex86
      alex86 12 January 2013 20: 00
      Being both a patrit and a liberal (and this happens), considering Beria to be one of the outstanding executioners of our people, I cannot but recognize his decisive role (which Kurchatov also noted) in organizing the work on creating the nuclear shield of our Motherland (and referring to Kir - we have it in common, and among the patriots and liberals, who for some reason are denied patriotism - maybe we have different ideas about liberalism)
      1. Kir
        Kir 12 January 2013 20: 48
        With a bias towards Western values ​​as the only true ones, as a clarification, about these liberals. In general, we have a common turnover, what is Culture, Motherland, History? If I agree about the last two, then Culture, if as a general aggregate of "created", then yes, but cultural values, hardly, more than once in the design skirmishes entered about them !!!
        And with regard to individuals, in my opinion there is generally a correct thought (in my own words, but with a reference to the source) that it is better when the state is ruled not by a blessed righteous man, but even to some extent on the contrary - the source "A book with many ambiguities" is my favorite "Shang Jun Shu", but in general the correlation of genius and villainy is not compatible I do not understand and do not accept, I am a supporter of "The end justifies the means," but only with the proviso that if. even a Slightly long path, correct in the sense of morality, But only a little to go by Him! for the rest, the main thing is that the goal is correct! So I acknowledge the merits of L.P. Beria. and at the expense of the executioner, in the name of what sacrifices, if just in the name of ambition is one thing, if the goal is a Strong Power is another! In general, it is interesting to do without sacrifices in at least one Kingdom-State, according to the realities of life and not according to propaganda, and the opinions of the offended, are they all so unjustly punished? Moreover, if many of them were at the helm, those would be driven behind Mozhai. Well, what can they do NOT LUCKY!
      2. Zynaps
        Zynaps 12 January 2013 22: 58
        Quote: alex86
        considering Beria, undoubtedly one of the outstanding executioners of our people

        I am always interested in, on the basis of which homegrown experts have suffered such a harsh opinion, like that of the talking television head Svanidze?
        1. Kir
          Kir 12 January 2013 23: 09
          It's just that power has passed especially to the media, although it is more accurate to call mass disinformation ended up in the hands of the victims, but for some reason, many of my victims, although my paternal grandfather was shot, do not cause compassion, since I already wrote a little higher either they or them , by the way, not a fact, but even greater confidence if the Trotskyists had got the power, then there would have been more repressed, especially among the main groups like the Russians, Turks and Finougorsk peoples, and there would have been more kulaks and others, along with the Cossacks! And considering how the first Bolsheviks (though not all of them !!!) were also robbed, as they say, retribution according to merit !!!, by the way, there are enough among the victims, although they are trying to prove that in pure politics, it was in economics, and thundered , and not for the theft of one spikelet !!! And with regards to the so-called ethno cleansing, it is so interesting that among those who cleaned them that we had that in Germany there was plenty !!! By the way, with "VO" there was a reference to an uninterested author, about how many of them served in Nazi Germany, although I think that not everyone was registered, and we have a similar situation!
        2. alex86
          alex86 13 January 2013 19: 40
          Quote: Zynaps
          homegrown experts

          Since, apparently, considerations of a more general order will not be taken into account by you, it will be purely personal: the person who was shot in Kuibyshev prison as an enemy of the people, grandfather (for disbelief in the forces of the socialist homeland) and father, forced to change his name to enter the university. Beria, if you are not in the know, just led the government agencies responsible for these areas of activity.
          The degree of homegrownness, I hope, is the same for us, otherwise sad conclusions are obtained that I would not like to discuss.
          1. Misantrop
            Misantrop 13 January 2013 19: 58
            Quote: alex86
            father forced to enter a university to change his last name

            A deep and unexpected move, which the NKVD (KGB) could not calculate winked
            1. alex86
              alex86 13 January 2013 20: 19
              Quote: Misantrop
              could not count
              So the task is not to prevent admission, but to make them scared and abandon their father - and this should have affected all CSIR.
              1. Zynaps
                Zynaps 13 January 2013 21: 07
                Beria personally forced your relatives to recant, etc.?
          2. Zynaps
            Zynaps 13 January 2013 21: 05
            Quote: alex86
            The degree of homegrownness, I hope, is the same for us, otherwise sad conclusions are obtained that I would not like to discuss.

            not exactly the same. but there are a number of small questions:

            1) did you personally have to read the grandfather's case, or which of the relatives "for reasons" told?
            2) is there a decision on the rehabilitation of the grandfather and - most importantly - the year of rehabilitation (this is important).
            3) how is it known that the father had to change his last name because of his grandfather?
            4) even if there was a miscarriage of justice, then why is Beria guilty of it, and not a specific zealous investigator?

            I would like to remind the experts that Beria was not involved in the most massive repressions of the 37th. this is the "iron people's commissar" Yezhov worked. Beria came to the NKVD after Yezhov and began his activities with the massive rehabilitation of illegally repressed people. During the war, the same Beria showed himself to be a completely competent organizer in terms of state security, and since 1943, after the well-known government decree, he was completely occupied with the atomic project, and Abakumov and Merkulov worked on the state security line. after Stalin's death, Beria acted as the most liberal statesman of the entire Stalinist entourage, rejecting many of the attitudes of the mobilization period that remained under Stalin. in fact, in the Beria case, two cases are not very clear, which have not yet been declassified - the so-called. "The Leningrad case" and the "Doctors' case", in which two ministers of state security were arrested on the denunciation of a petty MGB investigator.

            therefore, with sad conclusions in relation to myself, I would not rush. especially not having reliable information.
            1. alex86
              alex86 14 January 2013 19: 18
              I will try to answer: 1 the father read with a subscription about (approximately) not applying revenge to the scammer, it was the one whom the father supposed (who I don’t know)
              2. There is a decision on rehabilitation, I don’t know for a year (maybe I heard, but we don’t discuss all this)
              3. The father was told at the institute's OK after successful passing the exams that we could not accept the son of the enemy of the people, if only ... And the next year he did (especially since the grandfather was taken away when his father was three years old, he did not remember him )
              4. Ie your logic is back to fascist - there they carried out a criminal order, but here the criminals were on the ground, and the leaders were "not in the know"?
              For this, I'm sorry, I’ll stop communicating, it would be unpleasant for me and with the paid agents of the VChK-NKVD-MGB-KGB to talk, and I just disdain with ideological supporters ...
              Sorry again if offended "not in the business"
      3. Misantrop
        Misantrop 13 January 2013 19: 56
        Quote: alex86
        considering Beria, undoubtedly one of the outstanding executioners of our people

        It’s interesting, even to the utmost the biased and liberal Wikipedia at the same time writes for some reason:
        Since January 17, 1938, Beria was a member of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR [3]. On August 22 of the same year, he was appointed First Deputy People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR N.I. Yezhov, at the same time M.P. Frinovsky was the first deputy commissar [1]. On September 18, Frinovsky was appointed People's Commissar of the Navy of the USSR, and resigned as 8st Deputy People's Commissar and head of the 1st Directorate of the NKVD of the USSR [18], on the same day Beria was appointed as the head of the 29st Directorate of the NKVD of the USSR (on September 1938th 11) [11]. On September 1, L.P. Beria was awarded the title of Commissioner of State Security of the 3st rank [29], and on September 11 he took the post of head of the Main Directorate of State Security of the NKVD of the USSR [17] (held the position until December 1938, 25). November 1938, 3 was appointed People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR [XNUMX].

        With the advent of L.P. Beria to the post of head of the NKVD, the scale of repression sharply decreasedThe Great Terror ended. [19] In 1939, 2,6 thousand people were sentenced to capital punishment on charges of counter-revolutionary crimes, 1940 thousand in 1,6 [19]. In 1939-1940 the vast majority of those not convicted in 1937-1938 were released; also some of the convicts and sent to camps were released. The MSU Expert Commission estimates the number of people released in 1939-1940. in 150-200 thousand people [20]. “Since then, he has had a reputation in certain circles of society as a person who restored“ socialist legitimacy ”at the very end of the 30s,” notes Yakov Etinger [21].

        Strange, right?
        1. alex86
          alex86 13 January 2013 20: 28
          It is strange to quote Wikipedia if you know how it is composed. And it is strange to consider unreliable figures of the repressed as a rehabilitating factor for the head of the repressive department. It is as if it turns out that Chikatilo killed not 53 people, but only 25, then this excuses him.
          1. Kir
            Kir 13 January 2013 21: 03
            As for Vicki, one hundred percent, But again, But, consider the LPB an executioner, forgive me shiz, the executioner is only an executor of court decisions, and nothing more! And about what figures are reliable, look I already wrote a little higher that there was a referral from VO, now from a personal biography, the one who denounced my grandfather followed him, but in fact the denunciations were written not by Beria himself, but by people, that's just interesting for what reasons, by the way, it is not uncommon for cases when from the inner circle, and if they say that in the mass because of fear for and relatives life, I will say nonsense, although they were, but more often those who themselves were smeared with something, but voluntarily or voluntarily-forcibly knocked, another question. By the way, to say that among those who most of all yelp there are many well-attached, who in their loudest shouted "Crucify", and now their consciences suddenly woke up? No, because they simply never had it! But there was opportunism.
            But in general it is interesting to me to know that we are so special, only repressions were us? And like the tear of a baby and other morals, it has always been like this and, unfortunately, it will happen that some of them will suffer as if unintentionally.
            And with regards to what condemns, then in the name of what and why they cleaned it. And besides, there were honest, persistent people who, if they believed that they had planted someone for nothing, then sought a new examination, I won’t go for examples; take part in the fate of Korolyov, the red academician Usachev — my two-mother maternal grandfather, even risking not only a career, but also something more, and not all, the system broke, the same friend of my grandfather passed this Hell, but he was released, maybe he was lucky with the investigator, maybe something else, so he’s in there was no claim to IVS! And the claims were to those who dashed off, and to others who immediately did not figure it out properly
  9. slava.iwasenko
    slava.iwasenko 12 January 2013 20: 01
    Great man, great are his deeds !!!
  10. LAO
    LAO 12 January 2013 20: 49
    For more such articles !!!
    Articles about how to work, and not about who gets in the way!
  11. predator.3
    predator.3 12 January 2013 22: 54
    Tear me apart with a grenade! Today is my birthday too -45 banged!
    And I didn’t know that Kurchatov was born on this day! good
    1. Armata
      Armata 14 January 2013 09: 46
      Quote: predator.3
      Tear me apart with a grenade! Today is my birthday too -45 banged!
      And I didn’t know that Kurchatov was born on this day!
      Predator. Happy Birthday drinks 45 is normal age. I just fucked 42. Health to you and more money, but you can buy everything that you’ve gotten yourself.
    2. Vito
      Vito 14 January 2013 10: 00
      predator.3 (1) Let me congratulate you on a full bloom! drinks
      Mechanic . And with you, Friend, we come out of the weather !!! hi
      Hello my FRIENDS! Glad to see you!!!
      Beyond the peace of course!
    3. Apollo
      Apollo 14 January 2013 18: 37
      Quote: predator.3
      Today is my birthday too -45 banged

      I heartily congratulate my colleague + and of course drinks drinks drinks
  12. polly
    polly 14 January 2013 00: 28
    predator, happy birthday! And on my birthday, Chernobyl fluttered ... belay
    1. Armata
      Armata 14 January 2013 09: 43
      Quote: polly
      predator, happy birthday! And on my birthday, Chernobyl fluttered ...
      Happy Day Cooker drinks . Polly nifiga ordered a salute for his birthday laughing
      1. Vito
        Vito 14 January 2013 10: 03
        Quote: Mechanic
        Polly nifiga ordered a salute for his birthday

        It’s immediately obvious that HUMAN has a taste !!! fellow
        But I would add more sturgeon guys!
  13. predator.3
    predator.3 14 January 2013 19: 18
    Thank you men for congratulations! hi drinks For you !