Military Review

9 January 1792 was concluded Yasskogo peace treaty

9 January 1792 was concluded Yasskogo peace treaty

9 January 1792 in the city of Iasi in the Moldavian principality between Russia and the Ottoman Empire a peace treaty was concluded that put an end to the Russian-Turkish war 1787 — 1791.

Negotiations from the Russian side were led by the Most High Prince Grigory Potemkin, after his death, Count Alexander Bezborodko, and from the Ottoman side, the Grand Vizier Yusuf Pasha. The agreement was signed on behalf of the Russian Empire by Lieutenant-General Alexander Samoilov, Major General Joseph de Ribas, State Councilor Sergey Lashkaryov, on behalf of the brilliant Porta with an Efendi flight (Foreign Minister) Abdulla Efendi, Ibrahim Ismet Bey and Mehmed Efendi.

Short history of the agreement

After the Russian-Turkish war 1768 — 1774, a shaky peace was established between the two states. However, it could not be long due to a number of fundamental contradictions between the two great powers. In 1783, the Crimea and the Kuban were annexed in Russia, the longtime enemy of Russia - the Crimean Khanate was finally eliminated. In the same year the Treaty of St. George was concluded. Eastern Georgia passed under the protectorate of the Russian Empire, the position of the Turks in the Transcaucasus was weakened. The government of Catherine II was waiting for an opportunity for the implementation of large-scale designs that could lead to a significant expansion of the territory of Russia, the liberation of Constantinople and the Balkan peoples, and the restoration of Byzantium under the hand of St. Petersburg. In turn, the Ottomans, only temporarily reconciled with the Kyuchuk-Kaynardzhiysky Treaty of 1774, did not intend to put up with the loss of the Crimea, were preparing to resume the struggle with Russia to restore their dominance in the Black Sea basin. The trip of Empress Catherine II to Tavria and her meeting with the Austrian Emperor Joseph II in the summer of 1787 of the year was perceived by the Turkish government as a threatening demonstration from St. Petersburg. The Ottomans, counting on the support of Britain, France and Prussia, who were pushing Turkey to war with Russia, in the middle of August 1787 presented an ultimatum to St. Petersburg demanding the return of the Crimean Peninsula and the restoration of Georgia’s vassalism. Turkey also demanded the right to inspect the Russian ships that passed through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles.

Russian Ambassador Yakov Bulgakov refused to satisfy the claims of the Turkish government. He was arrested and put in the Seven Castle castle. In fact, it was a declaration of war. Both sides began to actively prepare for the start of hostilities. In winter, Petersburg strengthened its allied relations with Vienna and in February 1788, the Austrian emperor Joseph II, fearing that Russia would receive all the fruits of the victory over the Turks, declared war on the Ottoman Empire.

Initially, the hostilities between Russia and Turkey were limited, since both powers did not have prepared in advance shock forces. Russian troops in Ukraine, although it was enough to defend this edge of the empire, but not enough for an active offensive. The Turkish command in October 1787 of the year tried to land a landing at Kinburn, but it was destroyed by a detachment of Alexander Suvorov. After entering the war on the Russian side of Austria, the Turkish command decided to initially strike at the Austrians, whom they hoped to cope with more easily. The fleet had to act against the Russians to support Ochakov and the attack on Kherson and reinforced the garrisons of the Danube fortresses. Russia faced a threat from the north. The British saw the strengthening of Russia's position on the Black Sea and the Caucasus, as well as the possibility of the Russians entering the Mediterranean as a threat to their interests in the Middle East and India. London was able to induce the Swedish king Gustav III to declare war on the Russian Empire in June 1788. The Russian-Swedish war of 1788 — 1790 began. The British sponsored the Swedes in this war. London did not limit itself to setting Turkey and Sweden against Russia; in April and June, England entered into allied agreements with Holland and Prussia. Thus, the Triple Alliance, directed against the Russian Empire, was formed. The Prussian government, in turn, concluded a secret union treaty with the Ottoman Empire and the Commonwealth (January and March of 1790) directed against Russia and Austria. As a result, the process of creating a broad coalition directed against Russia was under way in Europe.

The government of Catherine II took countermeasures and planned to attract France and Spain to the Russian-Austrian union, which had tense relations with England. This was supposed to neutralize London. However, the plans of St. Petersburg were destroyed by the French revolution 1789, Paris was temporarily excluded from the Great Game. In February, 1790 died Austrian sovereign Joseph II. His successor, Leopold II, under political pressure from Prussia and England, and because of the failures of the Austrian army at the front, made peace with the Ottomans. Russia is left alone. True, 3 (14) August 1790, Russia and Sweden signed the Wereli Peace Treaty. The Swedes were unable to achieve victory on land and at sea, and were forced to sign peace. Russia was busy with the war with Turkey, and therefore agreed to preserve the pre-war borders. The government of Catherine II had to withstand the pressure of England and Prussia, who wanted to act as intermediaries in Russian-Turkish relations and impose peace on the basis of the status quo on Russia. The government of William Pitt the Younger was going to compel Catherine II to make concessions with the threat of military intervention. However, his plans were thwarted by the internal opposition led by Fox. Attached to this hand and the Russian ambassador in London, S. R. Vorontsov. The proposals of the British Prime Minister Pitt about casting credits for the war with Russia met with serious resistance in parliament and society, which ultimately led the British government to slow down. Prussian king Frederick William II, left alone (without English gold), did not dare to take active steps. So, the coalition threatening Russia has broken up. Russia was able to triumphantly end the war with Turkey.

During the military campaign, the Russian army under the command of Alexander Golitsyn occupied Iasi and Khotin. In 1788, the Black Sea Fleet under the command of M. I. Voinovich and F. F. Ushakov defeated the Turkish squadron from Fidonisi, and the Russian army, under the command of G. Potemkin, took Ochakov. In 1789, the troops of Peter Rumyantsev inflicted a threefold defeat on the Turks: April 7 at Barlad, 10 at Maximien and 20 at Galati. July 21 and September 11 Alexander Suvorov scored two brilliant victories - with Focsani and Rymnik. Haji Bey, Akkerman and Bender were captured. During the 1790 campaign of the year, Russian troops captured Kilya, Tulcha, Isakchau, and Ishmael. In the Caucasus, General Ivan Herman broke the corps of the Turkish Batal Pasha corps. The Russian fleet won victories in the Kerch Strait and at Tendra. In 1791, Turkey’s capabilities and determination were exhausted: 3 (22) June 1791, General Ivan Gudovich’s troops seized the powerful Turkish fortress of Anapa; June 28 (July 9) The Russian army under the command of Nikolay Repnin defeated Macha’s enemy grouping; On July 31 (August 11), the Russian fleet under the command of Fyodor Ushakov defeated the Turkish fleet under Kaliakria.

After the defeat of the Turkish troops under Machin, the Russian commander N. V. Repnin signed preliminary peace conditions with the Grand Vizier Yusuf Pasha in Galati. In October, peace negotiations began in Iasi, which were initially headed by Prince G. A. Potemkin, and then Count A. A. Bezborodko. The Russian side, aware through its agents in the Ottoman delegation, of all the intentions of the Turkish commissioners, knowing that they were ordered to end the peace talks, took a firm stand and, with the obstinacy of the Turks, threatened to interrupt the truce. The Turkish side, deprived of the support of London and Berlin, was forced to make concessions. The Turks even agreed to pay a contribution to 1791 million piastres (12 million rubles). True, Bezborodko, on behalf of the Empress, generously refused to be remunerated, since the Port was in great financial difficulty.

The Yassy peace treaty confirmed the terms of the agreement of 1774 of the year, the transfer of Crimea and Kuban to Russia. A new border with the Ottoman Empire was established along the Dniester, the land between the Southern Bug and the Dniester was transferred to Russia, since St. Petersburg was assigned the entire Northern Black Sea region. In the Caucasus, the border was established along the Kuban River, the Turks abandoned all claims against Georgia and pledged not to take hostile actions against Georgian territories. The Turkish side pledged to deter the Caucasian peoples under its control from raids on Russian lands. Turkey pledged to pay damages to the Russian merchants who were attacked by Algerian, Tunisian and Tripolitan corsairs.

Yassky peace was concluded on the terms far from the extensive plans of the government of Catherine II, but, nevertheless, it was very important for the Russian Empire, securing for Russia the Northern Black Sea region and the Crimea, acquisitions made in the second half of the 18 century. With this, Russia has made a big step towards ensuring the security of its southern borders. The victory in this war solved a number of military-strategic and economic tasks important for Russia.

Application. Treaty of Jassy between Russia and the Ottoman Empire (Treatise of eternal peace and friendship signed between the Empire Russian and the Ottoman Porte in Iasi in 29 day of December 1791-year through assigned to both sides of Plenipotentiary and confirmed mutual gosudarskie ratification razmenennymi between mutual Plenipotentiary in Iasi on 29 the day of the General Day 1792 of the year.) The text is given in modern spelling.

In the Name of the Lord Almighty
Her Imperial Majesty
Most Gracious and Most High Great Empress
The Empress and the Autocrat All-Russian, and His Majesty
The Most Beautiful and Most Great Great Sovereign
Ottoman Emperor,

having a sincere mutual intention, so that the ongoing real war between the two States would be stopped, peace, friendship and good harmony would be firmly restored, they would consider the good and saving work to be delegated to the efforts and leadership of those authorized to do this, namely, from Her Imperial Majesty the Autocrat All-Russian, Radiant Count Alexander Andreevich Bezborod, Highly Exquisite G. Actually Tainago Counselor and Orders of Her Majesty Cavalier, and from His Sultanov Majesty You, the Radiant and Highly Superior G. Verkhovna Vizier of the brilliant Port of Ottoman Yusuf Pasha, so that, for the resolution, conclusion and signing of the peace treaty, they are chosen, appointed and subject to full power of attorney from both sides were provided with a worthy person: as a result of which from the side of the Russian Imperial and are authorized by the Superior and Honorable Gg. Alexander Samoilov, from the Army of Her Imperial Majesty, General-Poruchik, Acting Chamberlain, Ruler of the Chancellery of the Supreme Council of Her Council and various orders of the Cavalier; Joseph de Ribas, from the Army Major General, rowing commander fleet and various orders of the Cavalier; and Sergey Lashkarev, State Counselor and Cavalier; from the brilliant Ports of Ottoman, Superior Gg. Flight Effendi Esseid Abdullag Biri, Horde of Kadisa, and Title Istanbul Effendia vested; Jesseid Ibrahim Ismet Bey, and Ruznameji Evel Mugamed Durri Effendi; who, having gathered in the city of Iasi, decided and made for the eternal peace between the Empires the following article:

St. I

Between Her Imperial Majesty, the Autocrat of All-Russian and His Sultan Majesty, Their Heirs and Successors of the Thrones, also between Their loyal States, from now and forever, will all hostile actions and enmity be eliminated and destroyed; Contrary to this, yes, eternal peace, constant friendship and unshakable good agreement, accompanied by sincere, most important and accurate execution of the currently resolved articles of the peace treaty, will be restored and preserved on solid land and waters, so that from now on both sides will stand alone against one another , nor explicitly of any act of hostility or deed to the treatises of the opposing; by virtue of renewed assertion of sincere friendship, both sides allow mutual Amnesty and common forgiveness to all those subjects without distinction, however, who have committed any crime against the one or the other, freeing them on the galleys or in the dungeons, allowing the expelled and reference, and promising after the world to return, ony, all the honor and estates that they previously used, without doing and not allowing others to do them some kind of curse, impunity, loss or resentment, under whatever pretext and it was; but so that each of them could live under the protection and patronage of the laws and customs of their land on a par with their counterparts.

St. II

Tract of the World 1774 of the Year of July 10, and Aegir 1188 of the Year 14 of the Day of the Moon Dzhemaziel Evel the explanatory convention 1779 of the year Martha 10, and the Aegirus 1193 of the year 20 of the day of Jemaziel-Ahyr; 10’s 1783 trade treatise, 1197 Aegir, 21 Rejab, and an act explaining the annexation of Crimea and Taman to the Russian Empire, and that the border is the Kuban River, 1783, December 28 of the Day, Safar, this peace force is confirmed by all their articles, excluding those only that with this treatise or the same in one after another, have been canceled, and both High Contracting Parties undertake to keep them faithfully and inviolably, and to fulfill them with good faith and accuracy.


In consequence of the fact that in the preliminary second article it is assumed that the Dniester River forever has to be the border between both Empires, so that from now on the limits of the All-Russian Empire have to reach the mentioned river, and now both negotiating Empires agreed with each other and decided that between the Empire and All-Russia The port of the Ottoman will be the border of the Dniester River, so that all the lands on the left bank of the recalled river have to remain forever in the perfect and unobstructed ownership of the All-Russian Empire, and on the right bank The river bore down and all lands, upon their return from the All-Russian Empire, have to remain forever in the perfect and unimpeded possession of the Ports of the Ottomans.

St. IV

According to this, between the two empires of frontiers, the decree issued, and the strength of the fourth article of the preliminary, which says: How were all the other frontiers before the real war of both empires, thus remain now; nevertheless, the lands of the Russian Court, the troops in the present war, the fortresses conquered and existing in the fortunes, in what condition they are now, the Porto of the Ottoman, the Russian Imperial Palace will return. The brilliant Porte, conquered by the besm Besarabia with the fortresses of Bender, Akkerman, Kiliye and Izmail, with all towns, settlements, villages, and all the rest that they contain in themselves; equally returns to the Brilliant Port of the Principality of Moldavia with all the cities, villages and all the other things that the Province has in itself; and the Port of Ottoman, accepting the provinces on the following conditions, promises to solemnly and piously observe: 1. all that has been written in favor of the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, the above-mentioned 2 article resumed, in the concluded peace treatise on July 1774, July 10, and Aegiera 1188, on Jemijel-Yevvel of the Day 14; in the decreed interpretative convention 1779 of the 10 of March of Aegir, 1193 of the year of Xomum of the Day of 20 and in the act of the Supreme Visary named Ottoman Ports of this 1783, Aegir of 1198 of the 15 of Safar is sacred, inviolably contain and accurately execute. 2. Not to require any money or other amount from the Principality of Moldavia for old bills, whatever they may be. 3. Not to demand any contribution or payment for all wartime, but for many sufferings and strife during the whole war they undergo, to dismiss the Moldavian Principality and for two years from any tribute and burden, considering the period of this dismissal from the date of the exchange of ratifications . 4. Surnames willing to leave their homeland and move to other places, allow free departure with all their property; and that these names could have enough time to leave their estates to their relatives, Ottoman Ports subjects, or to whom they entrust from their subjects, and according to the custom of selling Ports to the land, and in general for disposing of their affairs for this free migration from the Fatherland, It is given to them by the term 14 of months, considering it from the date of the exchange of ratification.

St. V

As proof between both the negotiating empires of sincerity and friendship, who are not content with the one now restoring peace and goodness, they are looking for agreement and for future times to approve it in a solid way, averting with every possible reason all the reasons that could give rise to disputes and cool, brilliant Porta promises to confirm with the newly published firman this before, so that the Akhaltsyk Governor, the frontier commanders and others henceforth, from now on, neither secretly, nor explicitly, under any circumstances, insulted or disturbed the land s and residents vladeemyh king of Kartli, and what to send to the aforementioned Ahaltsykskomu Governor, to the border captains and others with strict rebuke and confirmation of orders.

St. VI

According to the article of this second peace treaty, among other treatises, the 28 act of December 1783 was decided on Taman, before joining the Empire of the All-Russian Crimea, and defining the border on the side between the two contracting parties to the Kuban River, the Brilliant Port of Ottoman, in a statement, between the two parties to the Kuban River, the marvelous Port of Ottoman, in a statement between the two parties to the Kuban River, the marvelous Port of Ottoman, in a statement between the two parties to the Kuban River, the marvelous Port of Ottoman, in a statement between the two parties to the Kuban River, the marvelous Port of Ottoman, in withdrawal she wishes to postpone for the time of future everything that peace, silence and good agreement between both Powers can anger, promises and undertakes to solemnly use all power and methods to curb and abstain Arodes, on the left bank of the Kuban River living at its borders, so that they did not repair raids on the borders of the All-Russian Empire, no offense, hishnichestva and ruin did not happen to Russian-Imperial citizens and their villages, dwellings and lands, either secretly or openly, or under what kind of people were not captured in bondage; about which, from the side of the Brilliant, the ports of the strictest rejection, on pain of cruel and inevitable punishment, should be given, and in those places after the exchange of ratifications for a real peace treaty are made public, there must be no doubt: if such an order is issued in seven treatises and punished to similar people blessing, dare any one of them inflict a foray into the borders of the All-Russian Empire, and there will be harm of losses or ruin, or cattle, or something else they will steal, or take away, or Russian people will be captured in bondage, In case of lodging a complaint, it was more likely to be delivered without delay, returning the robbed or stolen, most certainly not applicable and no reservation was confirmed by finding and freeing the Russian people of the damages inflicted, and the approximate punishment on the border of those guilty in the presence of the commissars the border guards of the Russian authorities are appointed; However, more than any aspirations, such satisfaction in half a year from bringing a complaint would not have been delivered, the Brilliant Port undertakes to pay all losses from the Treasury itself per month when filing a complaint from the Minister of the Russian-Imperial Rule, moreover, that the penalty for violation of the limits of borders is higher The neighbors will surely and accurately be executed without delay.


In the argument that trade is a pledge and the strongest knot of mutual goodness, the resplendent Port thus renewing peace and friendship with the All-Russian Empire, in an expression of sincerity with which it desires, so that profitable and safe trade between the subjects of the Empire would flourish, promises this article to observe and execute a 61 article with the Russian Empire, a trade treatise relating to the Corgers of Algiers, Tuniscas and Tripoli cantons, and that is: what if The ddan will meet Algerian, Tunisian and Tripoli corsers with their remembrance, and they will be taken prisoner, or they will take the ship or the property of the Russian merchants, in this case, the Blessed Port will use its power over the cantons, so that the Russians, who are made like slaves, release , the taking of their vessels and the stolen goods and belongings to the owners to return, and the resulting damages and damages to recover; if, upon receipt of the news, it is verified that the designated cantons of Algiers, Tunisia and Tripoli are given by the Glorious Ports of the firms are not executed, then by filing a complaint from the Russian Envoy or the trusted in the 2 month, or as soon as possible, believing of the day of the complaint, the Brilliant Port of the Imperial Treasury undertakes to inflict patch and satisfaction on it.

St. Viii

All prisoners of war and slaves of male or female kind, no matter what dignity or degree, are found in both empires, excluding those who from Magometan in the Russian Empire voluntarily adopted the Christian law, and Christians who in the Ottoman Empire voluntarily had the same Mohammedan law, in exchange for ratifying this the treatise, directly and without any pretext, should mutually be released, returned and entrusted without any redemption or payment; as all other Christians, that is, Poles, Moldovans, Volokhs, Peloponesses, Ostrovsky residents and Georgians, all without bondage, must be released, evenly, without redemption, or payment. Equally, all those Russian subjects who, on any occasion after the conclusion of this blissful world, would fall into captivity and were found in the Ottoman Empire, should be returned and entrusted, and the Russian Empire against the Ottoman Ports and its subjects promise to repair themselves.

St. Ix

Although calming weapons on the occasion of the safely negotiated peaceful negotiation of any kind, no misunderstandings can arise regarding hostile actions; upon signing, however, the present peace treaty, as the Russian-Imperial General Commissioner for this case, the Actual Privy Councilor will immediately inform the Chief of the Army and the fleets of Her Imperial Majesty, the Ottoman High Ports will equally know that there is peace and friendship between the two High Ottoman Empires restored completely.

St. X

In order that peace and true friendship between the two Empires be confirmed to a greater degree, extraordinary Ambassadors will be sent from both sides solemnly at that time, which will be appointed with the consent of the General Yards. Both Ambassadors will equally meet at the borders and will be accepted and honored by the same rites that are used at mutual embassies of the Russian Empire and the Port of Ottoman between the European Powers most respectful of them: with the Ambassadors of friendship, gifts are sent, with dignity of both Empires are similar.

St. Xi

Upon the conclusion of a peace treaty between the two empires and the exchange of mutual state ratifications for this, the Russian-Imperial troops and the rowing fleet have to proceed to exit the Ottoman ports; and, as a matter of fact, the withdrawal of troops and fleet should be considered convenient at that time; Then both High Contracting Parties agreed and decided to appoint the old style 15 of May of the next 1792 year, at which time all the troops of Her Imperial Majesty on the left bank of the Dniester should be crossed, and the fleet without a balance from the mouths of the Danube should be completely withdrawn. As long as the Russian Imperial troops will remain in the Ottoman Port that was conquered and under a peace treaty, they are given back fortresses and provinces, their rule and order remain as accurate as they are now under possession of, and the Port at that time and until the withdrawal of all troops To intervene in this has not. Until the last day of their performance in these lands, the Russian troops will receive all sorts of things and supply them with nutrients and other supplies, as well as now and then delivered to them.

St. Xii

Chief Commissioner from Her Imperial Majesty, the Autocrat of All-Russia, the Actual Privy Counselor and the Ports of the Ottoman Verhovny Vizier, after signing by the mutual Plenipotentiaries of this peace treaty, in two weeks, or rather, it will be possible to exchange mutual acts in Yassy through the same Plenipotentiary acts confirming the accomplishment of this blessing and saving work.


This Treaty of Eternal Peace by Her Imperial Majesty and by His Sultanov Majesty has to be approved and ratified by solemn Ratifications, signed by their own Majesties, which are exchanged must be mutual Authorized in the same place where this very contract was made in five weeks or, if possible, from the state of this act, which the aforementioned mutual
The plenipotentiaries signed with their hands,
stamps approved
and between themselves exchanged in Iasi
December 1791 of the day 29.

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  1. Nagaibak
    Nagaibak 9 January 2013 11: 21
    Great ancestors did! Glory to them!
  2. valokordin
    valokordin 9 January 2013 11: 33
    For this, thousands of Russian soldiers shed their blood and sacrificed their lives, but the maize gave everything.
  3. Yoshkin Kot
    Yoshkin Kot 9 January 2013 15: 05
    eh at 17 could take Constantinople, thanks to the Bolsheviks
    1. gribnik777
      gribnik777 9 January 2013 20: 33
      Quote: Yoshkin Cat
      could pick up Constantinople

      Monk Abel the Prophetic said about the future of Russia to Emperor Pavel Petrovich:
      - The hopes of the Russians will come true. On Sofia, in Constantinople, the Orthodox Cross will shine, the smoke of incense and prayers will fill Holy Russia and prosper, like the heavenly krin ...
    2. Beltar
      Beltar 10 January 2013 02: 16
      We learn materiel and do not write nonsense.
  4. knn54
    knn54 9 January 2013 17: 54
    Catherine 2 did not spare money - most advisers to the Crimean Khan and Sultan were bought on the vine. In the East, they respect strength and love money very much. It seems that they remembered this simple truth.
    And in 1917, the British (as before) would not allow Russia to capture the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles.
  5. asf32wesdg
    asf32wesdg 10 January 2013 18: 38
    It just can't be !!! The FSB has created this database about any resident of Russia, Ukraine and other CIS countries. Really was really scared
    there are a lot of interesting things about me (addresses, phone numbers, even my photos of a different nature) - I wonder where they dug up this. In general, there are good sides - this
    Information can be deleted from the site.
    I advise you to hurry, you never know how to fumble there ...