"It's not for nothing that the whole of Russia remembers ..."

25
"It's not for nothing that the whole of Russia remembers ..."

We remember these words about "Borodin's Day" from childhood. But what kind of day was it, sung by Lermontov and sacredly kept in the memory of our people?

It was a day of unprecedented ferocity of a battle, a day of bloody funeral feast, in which the fate of our army, Moscow and Russia itself was decided; the day of the last breath.



Yes, this was not just a battle that could be placed among other battles of this or another war - it was an act of spiritual confrontation and self-sacrifice, in which the “arrogant will” of a foreign conqueror, who gathered “the twelve languages ​​of Europe” under his banners and accustomed to victories, she challenged Russia for her honor and dignity and was defeated by the undaunted steadfastness and intrepid courage of the Russian army, which had won the laurels of invincibility here.

But to understand why the Battle of Borodino meant so much to us, and how it happened that so much was decided for us in this one battle, we will have to go back to the beginning of the war.

In 1812 the war began with the retreat of our armies. This retreat was proposed in advance and was in accordance with the plan adopted by Emperor Alexander on the eve of the war. In Russian historiography, this plan was called the “plan of Fuhl,” a Prussian general who served as a military adviser to Emperor Alexander.

The plan itself was kept in deep secrecy and was not brought to the attention of the commanders-in-chief of the armies - at least, Bagration, the commander-in-chief of the 2nd Army, did not know anything about it. This circumstance from the very beginning deprived the actions of our armies of a coordinated reaction to the enemy's invasion. Bagration lingered on the border, counting on the offensive actions of his army and failed to retreat in time, while Napoleon sent the 70th corps of Marshal Davout between the armies of Barclay and Bagration, which crashed between them and no longer allowed our armies to connect.

On June 19, i.e., a week after the start of the campaign, Napoleon confidently declared to General Balashov, who came to him in Vilna with “peaceful suggestions” from Emperor Alexander:

“Your two main armies will never see each other again.”

So from the very beginning, things in the theater of war took an unfavorable turn for us.

But on the 19th, in the "Northern Post", the government newspaper of that time, a statement of the sovereign appeared, which encouraged the public:

"I won't put weaponsuntil not a single enemy warrior remains in my kingdom.

News from the army headquarters published in newspapers also maintained an optimistic mood. They reported that “the experiences of past battles and the position of our borders encourage us to prefer a defensive war to an offensive one, due to the great means prepared by the enemy on the banks of the Vistula”; that the sovereign, who was at that time with the 1st Army, “ordered his troops to unite” and that “the points of connection should be at some distance from the border, and especially when it has a considerable extent”; that “all the corps that were in front should turn to occupying the places assigned to them in advance; and this movement is now taking place”; that "there were some clashes in which the guards Cossacks distinguished themselves", and that, finally, it was decided "to avoid the main battle until Prince Bagration approaches the first army."

However, it was already difficult for Bagration to fulfill this - pressed from the flank by Davout's corps, and from the rear by the troops of the Westphalian king, he everywhere had superior enemy forces against him and, following the highest command "to avoid decisive battles with the strongest enemy", had to use all his military leadership to break free from the vise laid by Napoleon.

In affairs under Mir and under Romanov, he finally had the opportunity to satisfy his thirst for battle - the Cossacks of Ataman Platov, who were in the rearguard of Bagration’s army, inflicted a severe defeat on the Polish cavalry from the vanguard of the Westphalian king.

“Fate has preserved our innate superiority over the Poles; the Cossacks were the first to give the honor to renew this feeling in their hearts,

Yermolov responded to those events. Here our soldiers saw the first prisoners of Napoleon's army, who were escorted past their bivouacs.

“Proud and arrogant, they informed us that the goal of their campaign was Moscow; as if there is no force that could resist their onslaught, delay their victorious march,”

- writes a participant in those events.

The retreat of the 1st Army was also accompanied by a number of encouraging news from the main apartment, which notified the public that “in one of the light battles, Count Orlov-Denisov took many in full, among whom is Count Octavius ​​Segur”; that “seven squadrons of French cavalry with cannons were hotly repelled by the rearguard of the first army”; that “we captured the lieutenant colonel of the Wirtemberg service, Prince Hohenlohe Kirchberg, and thirty privates,” and “Major General Kulnev with a detachment of cavalry attacked part of the French cavalry and destroyed two regiments of it, capturing more than 100 people and a brigadier general.”

The public was expecting a quick battle and was encouraged by the news that all the corps of the 1st Army had finally reached the goal of their retreat - they had entered a fortified camp on the Dvina near Drissa, and now their “boiling courage”, held back by a “temporary and necessary retreat”, was ready to “stop daring step of the enemy. From here, according to the “Ful Plan,” our troops were supposed to take active action against the enemy and even give him a “decisive battle.”

The highest order for the troops, issued on June 27, the anniversary of the Battle of Poltava, recalled the glorious victory of their ancestors and called on them to follow their example. But these hopes were not destined to come true. In Drissa, “everyone’s eyes were opened that the army’s position was in the greatest danger,” because Bagration’s army was unable to break through to join the 1st Army, and, consequently, tactical interaction with it, on which the “Ful plan” and which was the only way to hope for the success of our actions against the enemy was now impossible.

On July 1, in a landowner's house near Drissa, Emperor Alexander assembled a military council, which recognized that the army's continued presence in the Drissa camp did not correspond to the current situation; it was decided to leave it and look for connections with Bagration in the direction of Polotsk and Vitebsk. The retreat continued out of necessity. To cover the roads to St. Petersburg, Wittgenstein’s corps was left between Drissa and Druya.

And here a circumstance is revealed that, it seems, was not immediately recognized in our main apartment - with the abandonment of the Drissky fortified camp, the battle with the enemy becomes, both in the eyes of the public and in the eyes of the army itself, an increasing necessity, the only one capable of justifying our retreat. Already on July 4, the sovereign wrote to the Chairman of the State Council and the Committee of Ministers, Count N.I. Saltykov:

“Until now, thanks to the Almighty, all our armies are completely intact, but all the more wise and delicate all our steps become. One false movement can ruin everything, against an enemy with forces superior to us, one can safely say, at all points. Against our 1st Army, composed of 12 divisions, he has 16 or 17 of them, except for three sent to Courland and Riga. Against Bagration, who has 6 divisions, the enemy has 11 of them. Against Tormasov alone, the forces are quite equal.
Deciding on a general battle is just as delicate as refusing it. In both cases, you can easily open the road to St. Petersburg, but having lost the battle, it will be difficult to recover to continue the campaign.
We cannot even hope for negotiations, because Napoleon is looking for our destruction and expecting good from him is an empty dream. The only way to hope to overcome it is by continuing the war.”

It can be noted that Emperor Alexander at this time fears more for St. Petersburg than for Moscow - information reached him that by the end of August Napoleon was threatening to be in St. Petersburg and take from there to Paris a statue of Peter the Great as a trophy, just as he already entered with the hat and sword of Frederick the Great, a bronze chariot from the Brandenburg Gate and a bronze quadriga from St. Mark's Basilica in Venice. But the strategic thought of Emperor Alexander is already recognized:

“Our whole goal should be to gain time and wage a war as long as possible,” he writes to Bagration on July 5. “This method alone can give us the opportunity to overcome such a strong enemy, drawing with it the army of the whole of Europe.”

This task puts the emperor Alexander before the need to "take care of the collection of new forces to help the active troops." On July 5, he instructs General Miloradovich to form a reserve corps of troops in Kaluga, which "should serve as the basis for the formation of a common large military militia."

The next day in Polotsk, the sovereign issues two manifestos - “Appeal to Moscow” and “On the gathering of new forces within the state against the enemy (the zemstvo militia).” This was already a turn towards the organization of a people’s war, that is, a war by forces not only of troops, but of the entire people with the arrival of the enemy:

“May he find at every step the faithful sons of Russia, striking him with all means and strength, not heeding any of his cunning and deceit. May he meet Pozharsky in every nobleman, in every spiritual Palitsyn, in every citizen of Minin.

In Polotsk, the sovereign leaves the army and goes to Moscow in order to, with his personal presence in “the heart of the empire, inspire minds and prepare them for new donations” in the name of saving the Fatherland. As he leaves, he says to Barclay:

“I entrust my army to you; don’t forget that I don’t have a second one: this thought should not leave you.”

Barclay will remain faithful to this covenant to the end.

Moscow


So in history Moscow enters the Patriotic War of 1812, and the ancient Russian capital itself, along with the active army, becomes a place of attraction for the thoughts and feelings of all of Russia.

It was from Moscow at the beginning of the war that words of encouragement were heard from Emperor Alexander:

“Your empire has two powerful defenders in its vastness and climate. Sixteen million people profess the same faith, speak the same language, they have not been touched by a razor, and beards will be the stronghold of Russia. The blood shed by the soldiers will give rise to heroes to replace them, and even if unfortunate circumstances forced you to decide to retreat before a victorious enemy, in this case the Emperor of Russia will always be formidable in Moscow, terrible in Kazan and invincible in Tobolsk.”

This was written by Count F. V. Rostopchin on June 11, 1812, that is, literally on the eve of the enemy invasion of Russia, and one cannot but be surprised at the prophetic meaning of his words. As the military governor of Moscow, he “saw very well that Moscow was setting an example for all of Russia, and tried with all his might to gain both the trust and love of its inhabitants. She should have served as a regulator, a beacon, a source of electric current. So he looked at his activities as the Moscow mayor - as a mission that he had to fulfill.

Emperor Alexander could not have made a better choice when appointing the mayor of Moscow, which in the plans of our command was called upon to “serve as the main repository from which methods and forces valid for war flow.” But Moscow itself was still far from realizing its sacrificial role.

Pyotr Andreevich Vyazemsky says:

“The arrival of Emperor Alexander I to Moscow from the army on July 12, 1812 was an unforgettable event and belongs to history. Until now, the war, although it broke into the bowels of Russia, seemed in general to be an ordinary war, similar to the previous wars, to which Napoleon's ambition forced us. No one in Muscovite society could honestly explain to himself the reasons for and necessity of this war; Moreover, no one could foresee its outcome. Only later did the thought of the world become inaccessible to the Russian popular feeling.

At the beginning of the war, there were its supporters in society, but there were also opponents. It can be said in general that the opinion of the majority was neither greatly shocked nor frightened by this war, which mysteriously concealed within itself both those events and those historical destinies with which it later marked itself. In societies and in the English Club (I’m only talking about Moscow, where I lived) there were, of course, discussions, debates, rumors, arguments about what was happening, about our clashes with the enemy, about the constant retreat of our troops inside Russia. But all this did not leave the circle of ordinary conversations, due to similar circumstances.

There were even people who did not want or were not able to recognize the importance of what was happening almost in their eyes. I remember that to the soothing speeches of such gentlemen, one young man - it seems Matsnev - usually answered amusingly in Dmitriev's verse: "But no matter how you argue, Milovzor is already there."

But no one, and probably Matsnev himself, foresaw that this Milovzor-Napoleon would soon be here, that is, in Moscow. The thought of surrendering Moscow did not enter anyone’s head or heart at that time.

From the arrival of the sovereign in Moscow, the war took on the character of a people's war. All hesitation, all perplexity disappeared; everything, so to speak, has hardened, hardened and animated in one conviction, in one holy feeling, that it is necessary to defend Russia and save it from enemy invasion.”

The culmination of Emperor Alexander I's stay in Moscow was his meeting on July 15 with the Moscow nobility and merchants in the Slobodsky Palace. The Emperor found here such warm support, such a unanimous response to his “call of one and all to defend the Fatherland against the enemy,” which even exceeded his expectations. The Moscow nobility “decided to gather in the Moscow province for the internal militia from 100 souls of 10 people, arming them if possible and providing them with clothing and provisions,” which in the end was supposed to amount to “80 thousand soldiers, uniformed and armed.”

In turn, the Moscow merchants,

“driven by the spirit of general competition, she immediately proposed to make a monetary collection from all guilds, calculating it according to capital, for the costs necessary for the undertaken militia; but, not content with this, the noble part of the merchants insistently expressed their desire for private, in addition to the general collection, on behalf of each donation, and everyone asked that they be allowed to proceed to the subscription hopelessly. It was immediately started by them, and in less than two hours the amount of the subscription amounted to one and a half million rubles.

The Emperor was so pleased with the result of his stay in Moscow that on the same day he wrote to the Chairman of the Committee of Ministers, Count N. I. Saltykov:

“My arrival in Moscow was of real benefit. In Smolensk, the nobility offered me 20 thousand people for service, which I immediately began to do. In Moscow, this province alone gives me a tenth from each estate, which will amount to 80 thousand, except for those who willingly come from the bourgeoisie and commoners. Nobles donate up to 3 million [million] of money; the merchant class is more than 16.
In a word, one cannot help but be moved to tears, seeing the spirit that animates everyone, and the zeal and readiness of everyone to contribute to the common good.”

But, in addition to the material side of the matter, there was something else here that Prince P. A. Vyazemsky was able to notice and express:

“Our main attention is drawn to the spiritual and popular side of this event, and not to the material. It was not a fleeting flash of excited patriotism, not the most subservient pleasing to the will and requirements of the sovereign. No, it was a manifestation of conscious sympathy between the sovereign and the people. It continued in all its strength and development not only until the enemy was expelled from Russia, but also until the very end of the war, which had already been transferred far beyond the native border. With each step forward, the need to comb and put an end to Napoleon, not only in Russia, but wherever he was, was more clearly indicated. The first step on this path was Alexander's entry into the Sloboda Palace. Here, invisible, unknown to the actors themselves, Providence outlined its plan: its beginning was in the Sloboda Palace, and the end in the Tuileries.

“The history of all peoples,” writes D.P. Buturlin, “does not provide many examples of such a noble and sincere union of the sovereign with his subjects.”

And indeed, the patriotic movement, which began in Moscow, spread to all the provinces of Central Russia. Donations poured in. There turned out to be so many of them that even “after the expenses incurred from them on collecting, moving, uniforming and maintaining temporary militias: Moscow, Tver, Yaroslavl, Vladimir, Ryazan, Tula, Kaluga and Smolensk, which made up the Moscow military force, there remained by December 30 1812 RUB 2 355½ kopecks.”

Completely satisfied with the result of his visit to Moscow, Emperor Alexander left the ancient capital on the night of July 18-19 and returned to St. Petersburg on July 22. He told the Empress Mother about the enthusiasm of Moscow and how Muscovites told him that if the French come, then “we take our images and leave, and are even ready to burn our houses.” But it is unlikely that, talking about this with enthusiasm, the sovereign could have imagined that the course of events would actually culminate in the burning of Moscow!

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  1. -2
    5 September 2023
    The Romanovs were not up to the memory of the Victory in the Patriotic War of 1812. Because just thirteen years after that Victory they already received the Decembrists, and a couple of decades later they received Herzen and his ilk. By the way, the Decembrists and Herzen were forced to remember the Soviet era more often than the war and the Heroes of 1812 and the Russian Victory in that war. The streets and squares were named after the Decembrists and the name of Herzen, starting from the most provincial town, ending with the streets in Moscow and Leningrad. Well, the Romanovs "forgot" about that Victory, this is understandable. And why did the Soviet leaders and ideologists forget about that victory?
    1. +3
      5 September 2023

      IN MEMORY OF HERZEN
      (BALLAD OF HISTORICAL LACK OF SLEEP)
      Love for Goodness to the sons of nobles burned a heart in dreams,
      And Herzen slept, unaware of evil...
      But the Decembrists woke Herzen.
      He did not sleep enough. From here everything went.

      And freaking out of their daring deed,
      He picked up a terrible world chime.
      What accidentally woke Chernyshevsky,
      Not knowing himself what he did.

      And that one from sleep, having weak nerves,
      He began to call Russia to the ax, -
      What disturbed Zhelyabov’s sound sleep,
      And that Perovskaya did not let him sleep.

      And I wanted to fight with him right away,
      Go to the people and not be afraid of rearing.
      So the conspiracy was born in Russia:
      The big deal is a long lack of sleep.

      The king was killed, but the world did not heal again.
      Zhelyabov fell, fell asleep unsweetened.
      But before that he prompted Plekhanov,
      So that he went a completely different way.

      Everything could get by with the passage of time.
      Russian life could be drawn into order ...
      Which woke Lenin?
      Who bothered that the baby was sleeping?

      There is no exact answer to that question.
      Which year we are looking for him in vain ...
      Three components - three sources
      They don’t clarify anything here.

      He began to look for the guilty - but will there be? -
      And being awake is terribly angry
      He immediately made a revolution for everyone,
      So that not one of the punishment left.

      And with the song they went to Calvary under the banners
      Fathers behind him - as in a sweet life ...
      May the half-sleepy faces be forgiven us,
      We are the children of those who have not slept.

      We want to sleep... And we can't go anywhere
      From the thirst for sleep and the thirst to judge everyone ...
      Ah, the Decembrists! . Don't wake up Herzen! .
      You can’t wake anyone in Russia.
      1. 0
        5 September 2023
        We defeated and destroyed Napoleon's Eurofascists, who killed Russian prisoners and civilians.
        We will destroy Biden's Eurofascists. am good
      2. +2
        7 September 2023
        finished with this Herzen, all these heaped and similar mankurts, ready to sell their homeland for foreign grandmothers, went from him!
    2. 0
      5 September 2023
      Romanov had no time for the memory of Victory in the Patriotic War of 1812


      What are you ?!
      For the Romanovs, this was their most important victory.
      It was on the constant exaltation of the significance of this victory that all official patriotism in the empire was built.
      To commemorate the victory in the War of 1812, a great many monuments were erected in the empire. Triumphal Gates in St. Petersburg and Moscow, the CSU, the Borodino monument, a museum, a diorama, etc. And how magnificently the Romanovs celebrated the anniversary of their victory in 1912!

      And most importantly, the holiday of the Nativity of Christ from 1814 until 1917 was celebrated annually in the empire as national Victory Day!
  2. +6
    5 September 2023
    "It's not for nothing that the whole of Russia remembers ..."
    Don't forget, there have already been so many articles on VO, about the Battle of Borodino ...
    1. +6
      5 September 2023
      New people come, and it’s not a fact that they know well, in any case, it’s not a sin to remind!
  3. +9
    5 September 2023
    bloody feast day

    Author what is it? Where did you get it?
    Trizna - a set of pagan funeral rites among the Eastern Slavs or part of them, consisting of songs, dances, feasts and military competitions in honor of the deceased. Trizna was performed near the burial place after the burning of the deceased. Later, this term was used as a synonym for the rite of "commemoration".
  4. +4
    5 September 2023
    So many quotes from Vyazemsky, one gets the impression that he is the main one who wrote about the war of 1812.
  5. +9
    5 September 2023
    The Borodino field is full of memorable signs. By the 100th anniversary of the battle, they were installed by Russian regiments to their brother-soldiers. And I come for a walk on Chernomorsky Boulevard in Moscow and feel great satisfaction every time I read on a memorial stone that here on this place on October 5, 1812, 2 regiments of Russian cavalry cut down 8 thousand French infantry.
    Visit the Borodino field! There is a wonderful museum not far from the grave of Bagration, in which Napoleon's trophy folding bed and Kutuzov's cart are small, just a little taller than a man. I was perplexed by its size until I passed the house of Mikhail Illarionovich on Kutuzovskaya Embankment in St. Petersburg and saw the size of the carriage arch leading to the courtyard. The puzzle has been completed. Look in the museum at the portrait of Vorontsov, 28 years old, the richest man in Russia, who miraculously survived in this field. He, stabbed with bayonets, was pulled out from under a pile of dead bodies. Later in his life it was the Crimea, the governorship and the cultivation of winemaking.
    Visit the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Monastery on the Borodino field. Go to the cell of its founder - the widow of General Tuchkov-Fourth, read copies of her letters to Alexander the First, this is a noble appeal to the king on "you".
    What wonderful ancestors are behind us! It is a pity that nobility and stamina are not inherited. Everyone needs to prove their existence on their own.
    1. +11
      5 September 2023
      Quote: Galleon
      portrait of Vorontsov, aged 28, the richest man in Russia, who miraculously survived in this field. He, stabbed with bayonets, was pulled out from under a pile of dead bodies. It was later in his life that Crimea, the governorship and the cultivation of winemaking.

      Here you can rightly say: "Not like the current tribe. Bogatyrs - not you!" The current elite does not appear on the battlefields, they need Russia only as a cash cow. They won't fight for it.
      1. +5
        5 September 2023
        Here you can rightly say: "Not like the current tribe. Bogatyrs - not you!" The current elite does not appear on the battlefields, they need Russia only as a cash cow. They won't fight for it.

        Shut up, sadness. Be quiet. sad drinks
  6. +1
    5 September 2023
    Vyazemsky's view of Napoleon's invasion and the battle of Borodino? Then this is a subjective opinion, there are too many Vyazemsky's quotes in the article.
  7. -2
    5 September 2023
    Thanks for the article, we are waiting for the continuation.
    P.S. Such events should be reminded
  8. +5
    5 September 2023
    The article is kind of illiterate, solid blunders
    It was a day of unprecedented ferocity of battle, a day of bloody funeral feast.

    Trizna is a funeral rite of the ancient Slavs, accompanied by songs, dances and praise of the deceased. There's no way he could be bloody
    But on the 19th, in the Northern Mail, the government newspaper of that time, a statement from the sovereign appeared, which encouraged public

    Encouraged the subjects (population) - the public is in theaters and circuses
    to break out from the viseplaced by Napoleon.

    They place not a vise, but nets or traps. Clamped in a vice.
    The public was expecting a quick battle... with the abandonment of the Drissky fortified camp, the battle with the enemy becomes in the eyes of the public...
    again the public fool
    This is how Moscow enters the history of the Patriotic War of 1812, and the ancient Russian capital itself...
    ... Emperor Alexander left the ancient capital on the night of July 18-19 ...

    For that time, it would be more correct to say “the first Russian capital” or “the old capital”, because the ancient Russian capital was Kyiv, and St. Petersburg became the new one

    In short, a C
  9. +1
    5 September 2023
    on the Borodino field, after a whole week, the wounded died without assistance sad
  10. +3
    5 September 2023
    In Soviet times, didn’t they remember the Heroes of the War of 1812?
    I wonder what country the author lives in?
    And the question is, what did the current Russian “nobility” and “merchants” sacrifice for the Northern Military District?
  11. +1
    5 September 2023
    On the Borodino field, the Russian Empire held its most important test of maturity. After the Battle of Borodino, over 100 years in the wars waged by Russia there was no epic and large-scale battle of such strength and spirit.
    The Battle of Borodino is the eternal Glory and Pride of Russia!
    1. +4
      5 September 2023
      Quote: Nik2002
      On the Borodino field, the Russian Empire held its most important test of maturity. After the Battle of Borodino, over 100 years in the wars waged by Russia there was no epic and large-scale battle of such strength and spirit.
      The Battle of Borodino is the eternal Glory and Pride of Russia!

      But what about the defense of Sevastopol?
      in just forty years
      there are three times as many dead on both sides sad
  12. -1
    5 September 2023
    Quote: Nik2002
    On the Borodino field, the Russian Empire held its most important test of maturity.
    And then, out of naivete, I thought that the Republic of Ingushetia held and passed its most important maturity exams under Peter I request
  13. For general information: Sreznevsky gives the following interpretation of the funeral feast - “struggle, competition; suffering, feat; reward; commemoration". (I.I. Sreznevsky. Materials for the dictionary of the Old Russian language. T. 3. Part 2. St. Petersburg, 1893. P. 995-996.)
    1. +1
      6 September 2023
      It is very necessary to be careful with the terms of the 19th century. And sometimes the authors need to make footnotes what the word meant in that era. For example, “excursion” in V. Potto’s multi-volume book “The Caucasian War in individual essays, episodes, legends and biographies”, 1887, came to Russia in the XNUMXth century and initially meant “running out, military raid”, then - “sally, trip”
  14. -1
    5 September 2023
    And whenever we talk about that war, we have to remember that we had no reason to fight Napoleon. That he wanted to force Alexander to peace - mutually beneficial! And we fought for the interests of England. And not for the last time.
  15. +1
    5 September 2023
    The author, if you quote in paragraphs, so at least indicate it. Or do you think that all readers of the tree and do not distinguish the style of the 19th century from the style of the 21st century?

    And the Battle of Borodino itself is remarkable for the heroism of both sides (yes, the French too - after all, the offensive requires no less courage than the defense), but not the art of generalship. Combat management in both armies simply fell apart. Suffice it to say that both the Russians and the French had rather large forces managed not to be at all or almost not to be in action. Communications and staff work of those times simply were not developed enough to normally lead such forces over such a vast area. Even during the war of Louis 14 with the Great Coalition, it became clear that hundreds of thousands of armies were uncontrollable. And here, in addition, when energy and maximum physical endurance were required from the commanders, one was decrepit, and the second was sick. As a result, the battle turned out to be a repetition of Preussisch-Eylau: a bloody gore without a decisive result. But no one called Bennigsen a great commander.
  16. +1
    6 September 2023
    Quote: Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Khlestkin
    For general information: Sreznevsky gives the following interpretation of the feast - “struggle, competition; suffering, feat; reward; commemoration"
    This is not an interpretation, but divination.
    As far as I am aware, most Russian historians were inclined to assume that the Slavs called TRIZNA a funeral custom, according to the modern WAKE, when a third of the deceased's inheritance was given "for drinking" during the commemoration.
    Hence the name

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