Landsknechts: soldiers in individual uniforms

65
Landsknechts: soldiers in individual uniforms
Fragment of the painting "An anachronistic siege of the Battle of Alesia" depicting figures of landsknechts with halberds. Melchior Feselen (1495–1538), 1533 Alte Pinakothek Munich


“... that's right, they found, they share the booty,
one girl, two girls for each warrior,
the multicolored clothes of Sisera received as booty,
multi-colored clothes obtained as booty,
embroidered on both sides, taken from the shoulders of the prisoner.

Book of Judges of Israel, 5:30

History uniforms. We have already talked more than once or twice on the pages of VO about certain types of uniforms, as well as about when the first samples of it began to appear. In relation to the Middle Ages, it was most likely the time of the Hundred Years War. Then, for the first time, large detachments of infantry from commoners appeared on the battlefield. These detachments were recruited by representatives of the nobility, or they were in the service of the king, so it is not surprising that these detachments received uniform-looking clothes that were specially tailored so that people dressed in them could be easily recognized on the battlefield.



The English archers wore white jackets with a red cross in front and behind, but the French foot soldiers wore red jackets with a white cross. The foot soldiers of the Teutonic Order also used similar clothes, wearing white jackets with a black order cross or ... an “unfinished” cross in the form of the letter “T”, depending on their rank.

Many feudal lords also made attempts to dress their soldiers in caftans of the same color. So it would hardly be a mistake to say that it was the wars of the XNUMXth century that paved the way in Europe to a single soldier's uniform.

In the era of the New Age, which began in 1500, it became even easier to identify your own soldiers and the enemy. For example, the famous "black horsemen" - German reiters and pistols, although they often wore armor made for them individually, flaunted in black "armor". Moreover, the “poor” armored men wore armor painted with black paint, and the wealthy also wore black armor, but only initially blued.

Well, who exactly belonged to the “black horsemen” was easily determined by the scarves tied over their shoulders: the Germans at arms had red ones, and the French had white ones. It was hard to make a mistake here, even considering them from afar.

The famous Swiss, even on the battlefield, wore mostly civilian clothes. But at the same time, they differed from all others by a white straight cross sewn on it. I must say that such a cross was sewn not only on outerwear or sleeves, but often even on highways. Or rather, on one of the highways - the one on the left, which is shown by the drawings of that time.

However, it was at the beginning of the XNUMXth century that infantry appeared on the battlefields in Europe, the whole appearance of which was nothing more than a characteristic uniform, and at the same time, none of the costumes of these infantrymen resembled the other, that is, it was strictly individual !

Probably, everyone has already guessed, but it was clear from the name that we will talk about landsknechts - the hired infantry of Emperor Maximilian I, which he started somewhere between 1482 and 1486. against the Swiss infantry. We will not talk about what they were like, what was their organization, salary, and so on, because there is a large and rather detailed article about landsknechts on the Internet.

In this material, it will be told just about what in that material either there was no place at all, or very little was written. In addition, the Wikipedia material in question is, for some reason, very poorly designed in illustrative terms. Although, it would seem, precisely because of the brightness and colorfulness of the clothes of the landsknechts, it should have been accompanied by color illustrations.


Fragment of the painting "Anachronous siege of the battle of Alesia" depicting figures of landsknechts with arquebuses. Melchior Feselen (1495–1538), 1533 Alte Pinakothek Munich

First of all, a few words about their weapons. The Landsknechts, like the Swiss, were armed with lances, but somewhat shorter than the Swiss, 3–4 meters long. At the same time, they held them by the back end to increase the "working length", while the Swiss usually took the pike in the middle and kept it at chest level. Naturally, they acted in this way in a battle with infantry. Moreover, the landsknechts kept the peak low. Their second weapons there was a halberd, which was armed with entire divisions of halberdiers and commanders, in particular, "foremen".

Unlike the Swiss, who did not like firearms, traditionally paying tribute to the crossbow, the landsknechts used it quite widely. Moreover, relatively light and short arquebuses with wick locks were used. Infantrymen with two-handed swords were paid double salaries, as they fought in the front ranks. It is unlikely that they could, as many believe, cut off the tips of the enemy’s peaks, since the Swiss had langets - metal strips running along the shaft. But it was quite possible to push a number of enemy peaks in order to infiltrate his system with a two-handed sword.

But the main thing that was characteristic of Landsknechts was their appearance. And above all - the exceptional brightness and pretentiousness of their outfits, conspicuous from afar. And in terms of identification, they were nothing more than a real uniform, although it would hardly be possible to find at least two soldiers dressed in the same outfit among the landsknechts.

The impression their outfits made is evidenced by the fact that the King of England Henry VIII himself ordered to sew suits in the style of landsknecht clothes and ... did not hesitate to walk around in them.

Moreover, the decoration of clothes in the style of "puffs and cuts", namely, puffs and cuts, the robes of landsknechts differed from all others, became fashionable and became popular not only among men, but also among women. Moreover, it was a very radical solution to the issue of embellishment of the then outerwear. After all, if earlier it was solid, now, thanks to the presence of many cuts on it, the lower one became visible under the outer clothing, and it also had to look exceptionally luxurious.

But, as already noted here, although there are a lot of images of landsknechts, and the most famous artists of the Renaissance, they are mainly black and white engravings in which color was initially absent, and in fact it played a very important role in the clothes of landsknechts.

And here we are all, one might say, lucky. In addition to engraved etchings, color engravings by four Nuremberg artists close to Albrecht Dürer have come down to us. These are Sibald Hans Beham (1500–1550), Erhard Schön (1491–1542), Niklas Stoer (circa 1500–circa 1562) and Peter Flötner (1485–1546). Each of them made a number of engravings, which were collected and printed in 1530 by two publishers Hans Guldenmund and Niklas Meldemann in Nuremberg.

Colored prints were very popular at the time, so it's no surprise that these two gentlemen collected the best of them, signed them with the HG and NM monograms, and published them in the form of an album of 20 prints, all hand-coloured! By the way, on all the engravings, poems by a certain Hans Sachs were placed. The publication ended up in the Boijmans and van Beuningen Museum in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

The series was called "Landsknechts" and differs from others like it, first of all, in that its engravings usually depict one, rarely two characters. On them we see landsknecht pikemen, halberdiers, swordsmen, arquebusiers and even a gunner. Officers are depicted, up to a judge-lawyer and even a military police officer. There are landsknecht policemen, servant boys and ... women who accompanied the detachments of landsknechts on a campaign.

Explanatory texts tell the rank of the depicted characters, their position and the type of weapon they wield. Sometimes even the name of the depicted landsknecht was indicated and who he was before he entered the service, or where he fought. For example, about one of the landsknechts, it is reported that he is a nobleman, that is, a man is not simple, and yet he fights shoulder to shoulder with commoners.

It is interesting that the signatures also emphasize the fact that the command posts among the landsknechts were by no means always occupied by people from the aristocracy. In other words, commanders were promoted on merit, and not on their origin.

So, today we will get acquainted with the engravings from this wonderful album by Hans Guldenmund and Niklas Meldemann.


Sergeant Claes with a halberd, who is known to have taken part in the Battle of Pavia (1525). Illustrator: Erhard Schön


Landsknecht sergeant major in armor and with a two-handed sword. Artist Sibald Beham. Series: Landsknechts. Text: Hans Sachs. Publisher: Hans Guldenmund. Edition: Nuremberg, 1530. Boijmans and Beuningen Museum, Rotterdam, The Netherlands


The judge-lawyer is engaged in demanding money from the woman who accompanied the landsknechts. Most likely, this is a merchant who must pay for the right to trade. Artist: Niklas Stoer


Provost (German profos) is a military police officer. Artist: Erhard Schön. Noteworthy is his outfit with a "skirt". Again, Henry VIII liked this “skirt”, and he began to wear it even with knightly armor! And - pay attention, almost every Landsknecht, regardless of rank and position, has a Katzbalger sword on his belt (German katzbalger "koshkoder"), and he is also a Landsknetta - a short sword used in close combat with a wide blade and a complex guard in the form eights


Landsknecht artilleryman named Jörg. Illustrator: Erhard Schön


Buxenmeister is an arquebus shooter. Artist Sibald Beham. There is no trouser leg on the right leg. It was so specially made, according to fashion. Moreover, the “trouser leg” wrapped around the leg, tied at the back with cords and tied the cords to the upper part of the chausses. And part of the highway below the knee was tied up with ribbons! Exposing a part of the body, especially hairy legs, was considered indecent in public. But Emperor Maximilian I, by a special decree, removed the landsknechts from any laws regarding the wearing of clothes. That is, no matter how they dressed - they were allowed by law!


Two overseers, and one also with a bare thigh. And by no means because of the lack of money "for pants." So it was ... fashionable! Artist: Niklas Stoer


Landsknecht Claes Wintergrün with his son Heinz. Stealing a chicken for papa was in the order of things for the son of a landsknecht! Pay attention to the chain mail cape. Very often it was the only means of protection that they allowed themselves. Artist: Niklas Stoer


An arquebusier of landsknechts in a small metal cap and chain mail mantle. The cut-out decor on his highways required the work of tailors. And the same should be said about the sleeves with slits, which showed the lining. Illustrator: Erhard Schön


Landsknecht-swordsman in miparti clothes, that is, "two colors". It was about him that it was reported that he was a nobleman, but ... this does not in the least prevent him from serving for money along with commoners. Artist: Niklas Stoer
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  1. +11
    22 May 2023
    Thanks to the author for a very interesting historical review, wonderful illustrations and a high culture of presentation !!! Keep the bar high Vyacheslav Olegovich - 5+++!
    1. +8
      22 May 2023
      The pantsless team made me happy!!!
      I join the kind words of Michael!
      Have a nice day, everyone!!!
      1. +13
        22 May 2023
        Thanks to the author for a very interesting historical review, wonderful illustrations
        I agree, the illustrative series is on top!
        The pantsless team made me happy!!!
        You're scaring me..
        Have a nice day, everyone!!!
        Join us!
        1. +4
          22 May 2023
          If a person himself determines what to wear, while his profession is a military man, then it would be logical that he would take care of protection ...
          But logic is not about landsknechts.
      2. +2
        22 May 2023
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        The pantsless team made me happy!!!
        I join the kind words of Michael!

        Similarly!
        PiSi: no, damn it, and it wasn't cold...
        1. +5
          22 May 2023
          Provost (German profos) - military police officer
          When I saw this I immediately remembered
          Don't be afraid, profos, of death,
          Kaput will not come to you.
          Devils will follow you
          And they will take you alive.
      3. +4
        22 May 2023
        The word "Landsknecht" (Landsknecht) - lit. "servant of the earth" - was first used back in 1470 by the court chronicler of Duke Charles of Burgundy, Peter van Hagenbach. According to historians, initially it, apparently, meant a certain agent of the judiciary, something between a gendarme and a bailiff. The first real detachments of professional landsknechts were created by the "knight-emperor" Maximilian I of Habsburg during the war with the Burgundian cities of 1482-1486. Maximilian's goal was to organize professional infantry units capable of competing with Swiss mercenaries. It was the Swiss infantrymen he used as a role model, however, Maximilian I succeeded - something quite original and original. A sort of - "a hired motley motley Cossack freemen, of a German spill." The conditions of state life in Western Europe at that time, the fragmentation of the German lands, aggravated by the religious wars of the Reformation era (since 1517), the lack of the concept of a “single fatherland” made it possible to form armed forces in the German lands only on the terms of mercenarism, which Maximilian successfully took advantage of, creating his own institute of "hired artisans of war".
        Although the landsknechts are considered a "purely German invention", the Scandinavian countries, especially continental Denmark, did not stand aside from them. In Sweden, which was liberated during the Reformation from the power of Copenhagen, landsknecht detachments were first used by King Gustav I Vasa (1523-1560).
        1. +4
          22 May 2023
          An interesting description of the Maximilian landsknechts was given by one of the leaders of the landsknechts, Georg von Frundsberg, "the father of the landsknechts", who left a very curious tactical work.
          The German Landsknecht sold his blood for money to any solvent belligerent state. A Landsknecht Protestant, if he found it profitable, entered the ranks of the Catholic army. The absence of pronounced social interests, the almost complete declassification of mercenaries contributed to the development of a certain “corporate spirit” among them. Ferocious and ruthless, the landsknechts sometimes acted so amicably that they reflected the erroneous opinion that even a certain “order of landsknechts” existed in our midst (c)

          The Battle of Pavia in 1525, which cost the freedom of the French king Francis I, became the "finest hour" of the landsknechts. Planting the color of French chivalry and Swiss infantry on their peaks, they won the most important victory in their history.
          1. +3
            22 May 2023
            On the site https://valhalla.ulver.com/showthread.php?t=20939&page=4 you can read the formation device of landsknecht detachments:
            the person who took over the enterprise formation of the army, entrusted the recruitment of entrepreneurs of a smaller scale - the so-called colonels, who chose 10-18 captains and instructed them to form companies, up to 400 people each. Over all these companies, the colonel made his own regiment - his rule. The best soldiers received double pay. The usual rate of a soldier's salary is 4 guilders per month, the captain - 40 guilders, the colonel - 400 guilders, in addition, the colonel and captain had the right to maintain "drabants - bodyguards" at public expense. The captain, accepting a landsknecht into the company, demanded that he have a weapon, a cloth jacket of bright colors, and even a little money for unforeseen expenses. Subsequently, when the recruiting contingent became very impoverished, the care of their weapons and uniforms fell mainly on the captains, who gave them out on credit to the recruits. Each captain was interested in making the company he recruited look better, which ultimately led to the almost uniform dressing of landsknechts in the companies - becoming a harbinger of the future uniform military uniform (c)

            I’ll add on my own that if there was a delay in the payment of salaries or the campaign developed in such a way that the booty that the landsknechts were counting on eluded them, riots invariably arose. In 1516, Emperor Maximilian I himself was almost killed by landsknechts who rebelled during the Milan campaign.
        2. +2
          22 May 2023
          Good evening Dima!
          A sort of - "a hired motley motley Cossack freemen, of a German spill."

          In a word - gang! drinks
          1. 0
            22 May 2023
            In a word - gang!
            Jazzband!!!)))
            "The Middle Ages are in the yard,
            Obscurantism and jazz! "(C)
      4. +1
        22 May 2023
        The pantsless team made me happy!!!

        Flaunting at that time in the highway with bare thighs was undoubtedly a challenge to both the church and society. It turns out that the landsknechts did not care at all about this?
        Greetings, Vladislav hi
      5. +2
        22 May 2023
        Namesake, good evening. Today, don't you chase mice in the barn?
        "pantless" is not quite right. Do you want to say that they run around bare-assed? Or, they have, like the Tatar warriors. Pants were, but the bottom was naked? I remember Mikado talking about the costume of nomads
      6. +2
        22 May 2023
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        Pantsless team

        Moreover, at
        Landsknecht-swordsman in miparti clothes, that is, "two colors".

        in the right hand is a broken part of the sword without a blade. I wonder what the artist had in mind?
  2. +8
    22 May 2023
    Landsknecht march. (Wir frumben Landsknecht)
    Landsknechts, we are kind, do not be afraid of us,
    We are definitely a camisole expensive to order.
    Hey-ho, hey-ho, hey-hey!
    Infantry with cavalry!
    We fought in many places
    'Cause where we're going, there's fire and fear.
    Hey-ho, hey-ho, hey-hey!
    Infantry with cavalry!
    Above us banners proudly soar,
    Our motley detachment marches forward.
    Hey-ho, hey-ho, hey-hey!
    Infantry with cavalry!
    The drummer beats the alarm
    Who will fight, who will fall to the ground?
    Hey-ho, hey-ho, hey-hey!
    Infantry with cavalry!
    Where is the accommodation for the landsknecht ready for the night,
    In a loop or in a wasteland among the hills?
    Hey-ho, hey-ho, hey-hey!
    Infantry with cavalry!
    But, thank God, another day has passed.
    The straps are down. Good dreams everyone!
    Heiho, heiho, heihei!
    Fussvolk und Reiterei! (With)
    Robert Goetz
    poetic translation by I. Zarnitsyn


    Good day and good week everyone. hi
    1. +13
      22 May 2023
      March of the Musketeers
      Again creaks
      worn saddle,
      And the wind is cold
      Former wound.
      Where are you, sir,
      To hell with it,
      Do you really have peace
      Not affordable.
      It's time-it's time-let's rejoice
      In your lifetime
      Beauty and a cup,
      Lucky blade.
      Bye-bye-shaking
      Feathers on hats
      We whisper to fate more than once
      Mercy to the side.
      Paris needs money -
      Se la vie
      And he needs knights
      Even more so.
      But what is
      Knight without love
      And what is
      Knight without luck.
      1. +4
        22 May 2023
        This song, performed by M Boyarsky, I remember from childhood. We had an ancient "Vega" and often included this record
        1. +4
          22 May 2023
          We had a radiogram: "Serenade", a class lower and "age" older: "Vega"
  3. +8
    22 May 2023
    In the Museum of Boijmans and Beuningen, there are more than one engravings of landsknchts with stolen chickens. The plot, where the mercenary supposedly scolds his servant (son) for continuing to steal poultry, was traditional at that time for the landsknecht theme in graphics.

    Photo 1. Landsknecht Clas Winttergrön with his son Heinz. Artist: Niklas Stoer. Photo 2. Landsknecht and Servant (Bube). Artist: Erhard Schön.
    Such engravings of a satirical nature, apparently, were intended to somehow reconcile the population with the fact that the landsknechts, who were forced to take care of their own food, often did not buy it from local residents, but stole it, especially when they were not paid salaries for a long time. The engravings shifted all the blame on the unreasonable young "son" of the landsknecht. Regarding the engraving “Landsknecht Claes Wintergrün with his son Heinz”, the catalog of the Boijmans and Beuningen Museum says the following:
    “In the text, Claes Wintergrün refers to his “son” Heinz. He wants to grow a landsknecht out of him, like himself. But for the moment, however, the boy is still stealing chickens.”

    In fairness, I’ll add that such “landsknecht sons” robbed not only chickens from the local population, but everything that lay badly.
  4. +13
    22 May 2023
    In relation to the Middle Ages, it was most likely the time of the Hundred Years War.
    Uniformed troops were common in England even before the start of the Hundred Years War. Uniformly dressed were all infantrymen-at-arms from the counties in 1322, a contingent from the lands of Queen Isabella in Holderness in 1327, military engineers in 1333, troops from London in 1334. Accompanying Sir Thomas Uhtred in 1335, 600 London archers were also dressed in "clothing of the same kind." A description of such clothing is provided by invoices 1338 for paying the expenses of the city of London, which sent 40 men-at-arms and 60 archers to the king in France:
    "For the purchase of 346 cubits [15592,5 inches] of red and green cloth, for a dress [as the liveries were sometimes called], 22 pounds, 19 shillings, 9 pence. For the purchase of 70 cubits [3150 inches] of blankets for their hoods, 4 pounds , 7 shillings, 6 pence. For sewing such a dress and hoods ... ".
    And the Centenary, yes, the flowering of the uniform of all the colors of the rainbow.
  5. +9
    22 May 2023
    As for this engraving

    The judge-lawyer is engaged in demanding money from the woman who accompanied the landsknechts. Most likely, this is a merchant who must pay for the right to trade. Artist: Niklas Stoer

    In the profession of this lady, the author seems to be mistaken. In the catalog of the Boijmans and Beuningen Museum, this engraving is described as follows:
    It seems that the “mommy” of the “girls” is depicted here, which, judging by the hat richly decorated with ostrich feathers, had a good income from them. Just the tax from this income requires a judge-appropriate who extended a hand to her in a characteristic gesture.
    transfer: Probably, the “mother” of the convoy “girls” is depicted here, which, judging by the hat richly decorated with ostrich feathers, had a good income from them. Just the tax on this income is required by the judge-lawyer, who extended his hand to her in a characteristic gesture.
    1. +12
      22 May 2023
      And they also had their own uniform, I wonder?
      tax on this income and requires a judge-lawyer
      Here is a bloodsucker, even then the power structures collected tribute from girls of low social responsibility for their hard work. However, today is the same story, nothing has changed since then ..
      1. +6
        22 May 2023
        Probably, the “mother” of the convoy “girls” is depicted here, which, judging by the hat richly decorated with ostrich feathers, had a good income from them.

        There was a good Soviet film "Roads of Anna Firling" about Landsknechts and Markian women. In the title role of "Mother Courage" - Lyudmila Kasatkina. The film starred Emmanuil Vitorgan, Lilita Ozolinya, Zhanna Balashova, Armen Dzhigarkhanyan.
        1. +7
          22 May 2023
          I didn’t even hear about a similar film to Kasatkin, I remember in the films: “we call fire on ourselves, such a beautiful girl Anya Morozova.
          "Mother Mary" and, it seems, "Split". Exactly, she was filming there, but the film didn’t “hook” me and ate remembered Kasatkina
          1. +2
            22 May 2023
            Based on Bertolt Brecht's play Mother Courage and Her Children. Chronicle of the Thirty Years' War" Strong book. Recommend Katya.
    2. +3
      22 May 2023
      Dmitry, greetings. The judge pulls his hand for the length, and the "keeper" of the mobile brothel says:
      - Yeah, now with a club, like I'll give you kumpol. Bush how to offend: "poor and defenseless women."
      You see, what kind of club is he holding?
  6. +12
    22 May 2023
    English archers wore white jackets with a red cross.
    Well, why only archers, on the occasion of an expedition to Scotland (1385), the ordinance of Richard 2 established that
    "any and everyone, whatever his position, state or nation, provided that he is on our side, will carry a large sign from the coat of arms of St. George in front and another (sign) behind."
    By the time of Agincourt, Henry 5 ordered that
    "every person, of any condition and position, future on our side, carried the ribbon of St. George of sufficient width" on his clothes (front and back).
    And the first mention of the red cross of St. George on a white background as a national military insignia is found in the Military Articles of Edward 3, although already the infantry of Edward 1 wore ribbons with the red cross of St. George on their clothes back in the Welsh wars. And in 1295 the militias wore monotonous white jackets.
    1. +10
      22 May 2023
      I wondered what the most ancient item was used as an identification on the battlefield.
      If from memory, then the "scarlet cloaks" of the hoplites of Sparta.
      Although practical judgment says, everything should be much simpler - a ribbon, a bandage and a feather in a headdress!
      1. +1
        24 May 2023
        A feather on a headdress - I see no reason to consider jokes. This can only be imagined if you have never fought in your life. Even in kindergarten.
        Raincoats - tolerable. A rag that is terribly uncomfortable in battle, you have to be a complete psycho or a suicide to leave a cloak on yourself in a landfill, but if you wrap the cloak around your belt and tie it tightly, it is a fairly large and recognizable detail. True, "royal purple" immediately comes to mind - red paint was so rare and expensive that only kings and princes could afford it.
        Ribbon and bandage - great, but this is not a movie, it's difficult to look at the ribbons in battle. I would bet on the shape of the helmets and on the mantles. Unlike fabrics, blacksmiths were quite able to sculpt parts that were very similar in shape, if they were not complex in shape and did not consist of many parts.
  7. +7
    22 May 2023
    It is unlikely that they could, as many believe, cut off the tips of the enemy’s peaks, since the Swiss had langets - metal strips running along the shaft
    That's for sure) They couldn't)) However, they could well bend the pike to the ground, despite the resistance of the pikeman, and simply break it. About the earth. Apparently, this is the reason for the spread of flame-like two-handers - it is much easier to capture an enemy pike with a wave of "flame". No metal strips will help from this, even an all-metal "shaft" of peaks would not help, if there were such in the world. A break of two or three peaks knocked out enough space in the formation to get close to the enemy and beat him with six-bladed and maces.
    1. +5
      22 May 2023
      Quote: Mikhail3
      Flame Two-Handed Spread

      I have a different version - in addition to the best cutting properties, if a wavy blade becomes dull when struck or parried, then only within a part of one wave, at a short length, and the rest will remain sharp. When injected, the wound is wider.
      1. +4
        23 May 2023
        A two-hander is not a saber) What are the cutting properties, why? To precious (in the literal sense of the word) metal mercilessly chipped and crumbled? He works like a cleaver. Have you seen when a sharpened cleaver?))
        The maximum is clumsy sharpening in two planes, and even then it is unlikely.
        1. 0
          24 May 2023
          Quote: Mikhail3
          A two-hander is not a saber) What are the cutting properties, why?

          Do you seriously think that having a blade 3-5 cm wide, a soldier of that time did not seek to sharpen it? If his life depended on the lethal properties of the weapon?
          Yes, the museum samples of the Republic of Kazakhstan do not really have it - it was either corroded, or blunted in the 19th century so that the kids would not be cut. How many penknives I found lost by mushroom pickers - there is also no RK, on ​​carbon it simply disappears in rust.
  8. +2
    22 May 2023
    Many feudal lords also made attempts to dress their soldiers in caftans of the same color. So it is hardly a mistake to say that it was the wars of the XNUMXth century that paved the way in Europe to a single soldier's uniform.

    If we consider the sporadic "attempts of the feudal lords", then we must start at least from the XIII century, when Edward I of England equipped the foot soldiers recruited for the invasion of Scotland in uniform white clothes.
    But before the appearance of standing armies, which did not dissolve at the end of the next campaign, there is no need to talk about military uniforms. This is the middle of the XNUMXth century.
    1. +4
      22 May 2023
      Quote from Frettaskyrandi
      Edward I of England outfitted the foot soldiers recruited for the invasion of Scotland in monotonous white clothes.

      Can you tell me how you dyed the fabric white? Really curious.
      1. +3
        22 May 2023
        How was the fabric dyed white? Really curious.

        Not dyed - bleached. A similar technology is mentioned in workshop documents of the XNUMXth century: To begin with, the finished canvas or threads were put into a cauldron, poured with hot lye (a solution of wood ash in water) and left in a warm place overnight. Then they washed it off from the ashes and left it in a sunny place during the day, so that it would “burn out” better. Then they washed it again, and then they beat it with special wooden rolls or crushed it with their feet - “zorili”. did several times, achieving white. And finally, the canvas (thread) was “zashed” - they put it wet in a barrel, generously sprinkling with ash, poured hot water and boiled
        1. +4
          23 May 2023
          Yeah thanks. So you can really get a very light gray color, actually white. Lye, she is. A couple of problems. First, this treatment severely damages the fabric. Very much. Alkali is very chemically active, and it simply burns thin fibers. On a soldier, this is unlikely to live even a week. Secondly - how to return at least a semblance of white in the field? Clothes get dirty on a hike mercilessly ...
  9. +10
    22 May 2023
    pleasantly pleased with the constant interest, knowledge and tireless search of the author of the article to open the pages of the versatility of history for us.
    The author will live without my praise, but he is a real pathfinder of history...!
    As for the military uniform of the landsknecht, in my opinion, too little time passed from the first military uniforms in the late Middle Ages for the armies to develop a purely army uniform, therefore, the uniform of the landsknecht largely copied the civilian clothing of high societies of the early Renaissance.
    1. 0
      24 May 2023
      Quote: north 2
      too little time passed from the first military uniforms in the late Middle Ages for the armies to develop a purely army uniform

      It was possible to "work out" within a few seconds. Enough to order. Moreover, the need for unconditional identification of friend / foe has always been great, and all commanders perfectly understood this. Not such a hard idea.)
      It's just easy to order. And to execute ... The development of a uniform form was not at all possible in all places, and where it was possible, it was too expensive there. The craft production cycle was completely unsuitable for solving such problems. The production of clothes in general was a creative process, so it took weeks to wait for one rag. And a large batch - for years)
      By the way, the "uniform" of the landsknechts is scraps of rags torn from dead and wounded opponents. Which sleeve was torn off brighter, and this was shpandoril ...
  10. +6
    22 May 2023
    But could not the colorful clothes of the Landsknechts be some kind of forced measure?
    - As far as I know, the clothes of that time were "modular", i.e., the legs were laced one to the other, as well as the sleeves to the "body" of the shirts ... In this case, the clothes could be made up of trophied items that were the least damaged during fight. wink
    1. +2
      22 May 2023
      Quote: saygon66
      clothing could be made up of captured items that were least damaged during the battle

      Quite a reasonable hypothesis.
      1. +1
        22 May 2023
        But could not the colorful clothes of the Landsknechts be some kind of forced measure?

        Quite a reasonable hypothesis.

        Could not. The hypothesis is invalid.
        The fact is that the author makes a fundamental mistake in the article, describing the clothes of landsknechts from the standpoint of uniformology, as a uniform, moreover, as a military uniform, that is, clothes regulated by relevant documents and mandatory for use.
        Landsknecht clothing has nothing to do with the uniform. Landsknecht clothing is a cultural phenomenon called corporate fashion, one of the elements of corporate culture - a form of social regulation and self-regulation of human behavior. That is, in this case, it is necessary to involve not uniformology - a historical discipline, but the sociology of fashion - a field of sociology that studies fashion as a social phenomenon.
        1. +8
          22 May 2023
          There was no mention of uniform... request And corporate fashion does not abolish the opportunity to make a profit at the expense of the vanquished!
          "Their life is short and bleak... Let them wear what they want." (C) Maximilian.
          1. 0
            22 May 2023
            There was no mention of uniform...

            Have you read the article?
            Landsknechts: soldiers in individual uniforms

            This is the title of the article. And further in the text
            However, it was at the beginning of the XNUMXth century that infantry appeared on the battlefields in Europe, the whole appearance of which was nothing more than a characteristic uniform
            1. +7
              22 May 2023
              -Read!
              - And what interested me in the article was by no means a controversial terminology, but a simple question ... A household one, one might say ... Is the colorful clothes of mercenaries the result of the vicissitudes of life in the war? smile
        2. +2
          22 May 2023
          Quote from Frettaskyrandi
          Landsknecht clothing is a cultural phenomenon called corporate fashion.

          I agree.
          But in order to keep yourself "in shape" it was necessary to constantly update the wardrobe. And in this matter, I believe, "mods" could encounter some difficulties associated with the need to constantly change certain parts of their costume - blood, dirt, an abundance of sharp objects around and other inconveniences. Constantly sewing to order is unlikely. But to replace the sleeve or trouser leg with something cleaner and not torn - completely. That is why the "parrot" costumes turned out - bright, colorful and completely tasteless, because whoever found something on the battlefield or in the enemy's convoy, he added it to himself as a sleeve, part of a camisole or trouser leg.
          1. +1
            22 May 2023
            But in order to keep yourself "in shape" it was necessary to constantly update the wardrobe. And in this matter, I believe, "mods" could encounter some difficulties.

            There is sometimes a "reverse version" - that the clothing style of landsknechts - "Zerhauen und zerschnitten nach adeligen Sitten" appeared as a result of the fact that in 1477, after one of the battles, their clothes fell into complete disrepair and had to be patched with anything, and then Mercenaries liked this style. Usually added. that this is a legend, since there is no confirmation of this. In addition, other "varieties" of mercenaries of that time - Brabancons, Armagnacs, Swiss and other warring brethren - also experienced problems with clothing on the battlefield. But Zerhauen und zerschnitten nach adeligen Sitten was worn only by German landsknechts and their Trossfrau.
    2. +5
      22 May 2023
      Quote: saygon66
      clothing could be made up of trophied items that were least damaged during the battle.

      Very interesting thought!
      1. +3
        22 May 2023
        Greetings, Vyacheslav. Thank you for the article.
        I was scrolling through pictures of landsknechts on the Internet and came across this engraving of the 16th century.

        What kind of blades do the landsknechts have in their hands?
        1. +5
          22 May 2023
          Hello Dmitry!
          This "shvordina" is called dussak.
          1. +4
            22 May 2023
            This "shvordina" is called dussak.

            Let me clarify a little - training duessack. "Combat", used as a weapon, looked a little different.

          2. +4
            22 May 2023
            Thanks, Anton. Now I know.
            By the way, there are a lot of old images of landsknechts with "sledgehammers"

            And here, as I understand it, this is a Lucerne mordhau? A type of war hammer that arose in the Swiss canton of Lucerne in the middle of the XNUMXth century?
            Only in the picture it is something painfully short and more massive compared to the usual Lucernehammer

            vintage engraving.Lucernhammer duel
            1. +4
              22 May 2023
              And here, as I understand it, this is a Lucerne mordhau? A type of war hammer that arose in the Swiss canton of Lucerne in the middle of the XNUMXth century?

              No, this is not a Luzerner Hammer, since the landxnecht weapons in your drawing lack their characteristic long spike.



              The weapon of the landsknechts in the figure is called maul - a hammer, very similar to a modern sledgehammer. Appeared around the end of the XIV century in France. In the XV-XVI centuries, archers were armed with it. Convenient - can be used both as a weapon and as a sledgehammer when building a camp or fortifications.
              1. +4
                22 May 2023
                The weapon of the landsknechts in the figure is called maul

                Thank you colleague. Maul had never heard of the hammer before. Now I know hi
            2. +10
              22 May 2023
              Richard, as I understand it: both fighters will be seriously injured. Moreover, the left risks: to die without the omission of sins
              For the right one, everything will depend: blood loss, vitality. Perhaps he can not only confess, but also get on his feet. Fight, more than doubtful
          3. +7
            22 May 2023
            Well, I just took the time to answer...
            1. 0
              22 May 2023
              Well, I just took the time to answer.

              Now, you, sir, will answer for everything - take out your sword (s) smile
    3. 0
      24 May 2023
      Landsknecht, like any other mercenary, wore all his property on himself. And so he was valiant and beautiful, like a demobilization returning to his native village. And here they were also allowed to dress "in a gentleman's way."
  11. +5
    22 May 2023
    Good day everyone. Vyacheslav Olegovich, if landsknechts appeared, they appeared: 1482-1486. So they couldn't have been in 1242? Remember the movie: "Alexander Nevsky"? I always thought that landsknechts were poor mercenaries.
    When I hear: "landsknechts" I remember: the infantry "of the Teftons", or: "Ivanhoe", when he accompanied: Isabella de Croix and aunt, and they were attacked by a gang
    1. +5
      22 May 2023
      Quote from lisikat2
      I always thought that landsknechts were poor mercenaries.

      Mercenaries, yes, but not always poor ... And in the "Nevsky" there are a lot of chronological errors.
    2. +5
      22 May 2023
      Quote from lisikat2
      if landsknechts appeared appeared: 1482-1486. So they couldn't have been in 1242? Remember the movie: "Alexander Nevsky"?

      EMNIP is just "bollards" there.
      And this word has many meanings. Including servant or serf.
  12. +9
    22 May 2023
    I forgot to brag: 1) on Friday I "gave birth" to a 1,5-year-old daughter: * Marusya "(remember, voice prompt), the husband chose this name. There was an accident with my mother. The girl was given to me ..
    She set the conditions: she would be "younger" and all the formalities with the EGRN, their concern.
    2) settled with Vera. It was aerobatics. The mayor sent an assistant to bring her husband to a meeting (the car had not yet been bought), and asked: to give a ride to her friend to work.
    The husband says that everyone has: jaw to the ground. Naturally, she will not write "in connection with the transition".
    I'm smart!
    1. +3
      22 May 2023
      It's good to have such a friend.
      I like this better than "cat fights".
    2. +3
      22 May 2023
      Quote from lisikat2
      I forgot to brag

      What happens... Wow...
  13. +1
    24 May 2023
    Excellent illustrations! It is a pity it is not indicated how old they are depicted.

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