Organization of the defense of Crimea during the Great Patriotic War

Organization of the defense of Crimea during the Great Patriotic War

In Russian historiography, many events of the defense of the Crimea during the Great Patriotic War are mythologized to a great extent. Historians practically did not consider the role of the Black Sea fleet.

On August 14, 1941, the Danube flotilla left Nikolaev and retreated to Ochakov, where defense was organized. The front line was still at a sufficient distance from the Crimea. On the same day, a directive from the Headquarters of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief on organizing the defense of the Crimean Peninsula was issued. Among the obvious tasks aimed at preventing the enemy from entering the Crimea, the document also contained orders related to preventing enemy landings on the coast of the Crimea and the Caucasus, to destroy enemy troops at sea, preventing them from breaking through the Bosphorus from the Mediterranean Sea. Items relating to the coast of the Caucasus and a possible breakthrough through the Bosporus were crossed out by Stalin. The forces of the 51st Army were entirely focused on the defense of the Crimea.

The 51st Army consisted of 11 divisions, of which two were regular, two more were formed during the first wave of mobilization, three divisions consisted of cavalry regiments, and four divisions were to be formed on the spot from the conscripts of the second wave, i.e. of citizens whose age was 35-45 years. The total strength of the army was 95 servicemen. Initially, these 11 divisions accounted for only 6 artillery regiments.

Taking into account the fact that the battles for the Crimea began already in September 1941, the heavy weapons and equipment arriving from the mainland could not contribute to the formation of new units, given the need to replenish the units that suffered heavy losses in battle during the first stage of the battles on Perekop.

The Black Sea Fleet was also transferred to the operational subordination of the 51st Army, which, in turn, was subordinate to the Primorsky Army, which at that moment was defending Odessa. Two stationary batteries, three anti-aircraft artillery battalions were advanced to the region of the Crimean isthmuses, covering railway junction stations and large settlements on Perekop, and Freidorf aviation group, which included 9 squadrons.

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    1. -1
      April 29 2023 14: 14
      To be honest, the defense of the Crimea in the Second World War did not work out very well - in 1941, Manstein easily entered the Crimea.
      1. +2
        April 29 2023 14: 21
        Only now, as far as Sevastopol, he never made it. stop
    2. 0
      April 29 2023 14: 41
      The more you learn about the Second World War, the more you are convinced of Stalin's military leadership abilities. I often watch this YouTube channel with Timin.
    3. +1
      April 29 2023 16: 27
      Miroslav Morozov is the most authoritative historian !! His cycle about the Baltic Fleet was excellent! Meticulous work with archaic documents, excellent knowledge and presentation of the material. I really liked his statement about the memoirs of Soviet military leaders, whom you shouldn’t really read if you still want to know the real truth about the events of the Second World War! Although he sometimes tells a rather unpleasant truth about the events both in the Fleets and in the Fronts, you really realize what the price of victory was! And what heroism the Soviet wars showed, despite all the mistakes, mistakes, indecision of the Soviet military leaders!
    4. +2
      April 30 2023 06: 09
      In general, I am surprised when reviewing the Second World War from a one-sided point of view. As if the results of the war were decided only on the battlefields. And it turns out that the military leaders were uneducated. And the people won the war. Such a point of view is being introduced into consciousness. But without a strong rear there would be no victories. Organizational the abilities of the government are still admired. The organization of partisan detachments, the organization of many thousands of prisoners, the organization of the labor regime in the rear. In addition, the sanitary protection of the population was also at its best. Even after the war, the rapid restoration of the country and the creation of the country's nuclear shield were not created from scratch, but as a result of proper organization.

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