Military Review

Julian the Apostate. Way from Christ

48
Julian the Apostate. Way from Christ
A. Brusilovsky. Illustration for D. Merezhkovsky's novel "Julian the Apostate" ("Death of the Gods")



Emperor Julian II, who entered history nicknamed the Apostate - a very complex and ambiguous figure. He was the nephew of the Holy and Equal-to-the-Apostles Emperor Constantine, received a good education and was brought up as a Christian from childhood. He was personally acquainted with the young "students", who would later be recognized as the Great Fathers of the Church and become known as Basil the Great (Caesarea) and Gregory the Theologian - he studied with them in Athens with the same teachers.


Saint Basil the Great, Archbishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia. Fresco of Hagia Sophia in Ohrid, Macedonia. 1040s It is believed that it was Basil of Caesarea who invented the iconostasis


Saint Gregory the Theologian, Archbishop of Constantinople. Fresco of the Church of the Holy Trinity in Sopocany Monastery, Serbia. About 1265

Julian's choice in favor of paganism was not easy, but conscious and well thought out. At the same time, Julian personally was not “famous” for his particular cruelty towards church hierarchs or ordinary believers. Some excesses that took place on the ground were an initiative from below, and not the fulfillment of orders issued from above. None other than Saint Jerome called the anti-Christian activities of Emperor Julian II

"A gentle persecution that beckoned rather than forced to sacrifice."

Paul Orosius, a disciple of Blessed Augustine, says the same thing:

“Pursuing the Christian religion by cunning rather than open violence, he tried to induce people more with rewards to reject Christ and accept the cult of idols, rather than force them by torture.”

But these people still remembered something from real history. But who lived in the second half of the XVII - early XVIII centuries. Bishop Dimitry of Rostov, author of four books of the Lives of the Saints, calls Julian "great persecutor and destroyer of orthodox Christians". However, the “color of time” had already changed, and it was no longer Christians, but pagans who were persecuted in the Roman Empire. The “persecutors” were precisely the supporters of the new faith, who did not demonstrate either Christian mercy or elementary tolerance. The captures of pagan temples, the destruction of altars and statues (which is why so few of them have survived to our time) were quite commonplace. Quite typical can be considered the story of Socrates Scholasticus about how in Alexandria

“Theophilus used everything to cover the pagan sacraments with infamy: he tore down the temple of Mithria, destroyed the temple of Serapis.”

And in 415, the famous Alexandrian Library suffered greatly from a crowd of Christian fanatics who, not limited to the destruction of books, killed one of the first female scientists - Hypatia, the daughter of the mathematician Theon, the last keeper of the library.

So, today we will talk about Julian II, his childhood and youth full of anxiety and danger, the short reign of the Roman Empire and death from wounds received during the campaign against Persia.


Julian II, statue in the Paris Cluny Museum

Julian's childhood


The full name of the hero of today's article is Flavius ​​Claudius Julian. He was born in 331 and was the third son in the family of Julius Constantius, the nephew of the Holy and Equal-to-the-Apostles Constantine, the grandson of Emperor Constantius Chlorus. His mother Vasilina (Basilina), a Greek from Asia Minor, died almost immediately after giving birth, and at the age of 6, Julian also lost his father, who was killed during the so-called "massacre of 337". The fact is that Constantine the Great before his death divided the empire into 4 parts between his sons and nephews. However, this caused displeasure among the direct descendants of Constantine and their supporters, who accused their relatives of poisoning the emperor. As a result, two brothers of Constantine the Great (Julius Constantius and Dalmatius the Elder) and six nephews were killed during a riot by the soldiers of the Constantinople garrison. The sons of Constantine and his three nephews survived - Julian (the hero of the article), his half-brother (from another mother) Constantius Gallus and cousin Nepotian. This rebellion led to the division of the empire between the sons of Constantine the Great, who took the titles of Augusts - Constantius, Constans and Constantine.

Already in 340, Constantine died during a campaign against Constans. In 350, Constans was killed as a result of a conspiracy between the master of offices, Marcellinus, and the popular commander of Frankish origin, Flavius ​​Magnentius, whom the troops proclaimed emperor.


Coin Magna Magnentia

One of the surviving nephews of Constantine the Great, Nepotian, also declared his claims to power. In July 350, he briefly captured Rome, and with the help of a detachment of gladiators, but was defeated by Marcellinus. Eutropius says:

“On the 28th day, captured by the commanders of Magnentius, he (Nepotian) suffered punishment. His head was carried on a spear throughout the city.

The civil war between Constantius II and Magnentius continued until 353 - until the usurper committed suicide.


Constantius II, depicted in the Chronograph of 354


Constantius II on a bronze coin

Years of study of the future emperor


All this time, the orphaned Julian and his older brother Constantius Gallus were under strict supervision, and sometimes their lives literally hung in the balance. Nevertheless, the future emperor received a good education, and a versatile one. One of his teachers was Bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia, who had previously been a friend of the heresiarch Arius. In 337, Eusebius was one of the false witnesses who accused the victims of the "massacre" of poisoning Constantine the Great.

An Arian of extreme views was another teacher of Julian, Aetius of Antioch, who had a "talking" nickname "Atheist". He had such an influence on the student that, having become emperor, Julian brought him closer to himself - the only one of the Christians.

No less interesting is the third teacher - the eunuch Mardonius, who is called a baptized Scythian and a great connoisseur of classical pagan philosophy. The Hellenophiles of young Julian stretched so far that he knew Greek much better than Latin.

Julian was greatly impressed by his acquaintance in Ephesus with the neoplatonist Maxim, who was also a magician, and, according to his contemporaries, made the statues move and smile, and also lit torches in their hands.

Meanwhile, Emperor Constantius did not approve of Julian's enthusiasm for Hellenic philosophy, to put it mildly, and therefore this prince learned from a young age to hide his thoughts. Wishing to pass himself off as a zealous Christian, he cut his hair short and shaved his chin (long hair and a beard at that time were attributes of pagan philosophy admirers), led an ascetic life (which was considered an indicator of adherence to the Christian faith).

Meanwhile, Flavius ​​Claudius Constantius Gallus, Julian's elder brother, was unexpectedly approached in 351 by Constantius II, who married his sister to him and, with the title of Caesar (junior co-ruler), sent him to manage the eastern part of the empire. His seat was Antioch.


Territory transferred to the administration of Caesar Constantius Gallus


Constantius Gallus, depicted in the Chronograph of 354


Coin of Caesar Constantius Gallus

Here he fought with the Persians, repulsed the raid of the Isaurians, crushed the uprising in Judea. But in 354, Constantius II summoned him to the city of Pola (Pula, Croatia), where he ordered his execution. Julian was then transferred to Mediolan (Milan), where for 7 months he was actually under house arrest. Nothing reprehensible could be found in Julian's behavior, but they did not execute him then, apparently, only because he was the only male relative of the emperor - his cousin. Constance's wife, Eusebius, advised him to allow Julian to continue his studies, this time in Athens. In this city, Julian, among others, met the future Great Fathers of the Church, who are now known as Basil the Great and Gregory the Theologian. And here, as many believe, he was initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries, which can be seen as an act of renunciation of Christianity.

A biased description of Julian's appearance, left by Gregory the Theologian, has been preserved:

“The neck is not firm; shoulders moving and leveling; eyes quick, insolent and ferocious; legs not standing firm, but bending; a nose expressing insolence and contempt; facial features are funny and expressive of the same; laughter is loud and immoderate; tilting and throwing back the head for no reason; speech is slow and broken; questions are chaotic and incoherent; the answers are not the best, mixed with one another, unstable, not subject to the rules ... Then, as I saw this, I said: “What evil the Roman Empire brings up!” - and, predicting, he wanted to be a false soothsayer.

It seems that if Julian had gone down in history as a pious Christian emperor, Gregory's characterization would have been completely different. But the Roman historian Ammian Marcellinus, who served in the army of Emperor Julian and took part in his last campaign, gives a completely different and, perhaps, more objective description:

"Medium height; the hair on the head is very smooth, fine and soft; thick, wedge-trimmed beard; very pleasant eyes, full of fire and betraying a subtle mind; beautifully curved eyebrows; straight nose; the mouth is somewhat large, with a drooping lower lip; thick and steep neck; strong broad shoulders; from the head to the heels, the addition is quite proportional, which is why he was strong and fast in running.

And here is what Marcellinus writes about the character of this emperor:

“By nature, Julian was a frivolous person, but he had a good habit that mitigated this shortcoming, namely: he allowed himself to be corrected when he embarked on a false path. He talked a lot and was too rarely silent; in his propensity to look for omens he went too far, so that in this respect he could be compared with the emperor Hadrian. More superstitious than accurate in the performance of sacred rites, he sacrificed animals without any measure, and it was feared that there would not be enough bulls if he returned from Persia. The applause of the crowd gave him great joy; excessively overcome his desire for praise for the most insignificant deeds.

About six months later, Constantius II again called Julian to him. On the way from Athens, Julian turned to Asia Minor to see the places of the wars of the Achaeans and the Trojans. Here he met Bishop Pigasius, who demonstrated an amazing and uncharacteristic tolerance for Christians of that time. He did not even spit or whistle, like others, entering the temples of the Roman and Greek gods. Speaking with Julian, he said:

"Why don't the Gentiles offer sacrifices? After all, we also honor the martyrs, as they honor the heroes.

Julian remembered Pigasius and, upon accession to the throne, he appointed him one of the high priests.

Caesar Julian


So, six months later, Constantius II recalled Julian from Athens, married his sister Elena, granted him the title of Caesar and appointed him his governor in Gaul (not forgetting to appoint his people as spies as assistants to him). It is said that, as he set out on his journey, Julian said:

“It’s none of my business, they put a saddle on a cow!”

Some believe that these words were addressed mainly to Constance, in whose eyes he, remembering the fate of his brother, wanted to look like a miserable and inexperienced schoolboy. By the way, he chose Lutetia Parisiev as his residence, in the future - Paris.


Coin of Caesar Julian

And Gaul at that time was actually captured by the Germans, who were recently called for help by the warring Flavius ​​Magnentius and Constantius II. They were also called Alemanni (literally, "all people"). Even the Colony of Agrippina (present-day Cologne) was captured and destroyed by the barbarians.

Julian gave the first serious battle to the Germans at Brotomag (Brumat). Pushing forward the flanks, so that the formation of his troops became like a crescent moon, he defeated the enemy troops, taking quite a few prisoners. Then he managed to push back the Germans who attacked Lugdun (Lyon). Finally, it's time for offensive action. The Germans, who were camped on the Rhine Islands, did not expect an attack, because they knew that the Romans did not have ships or enough boats. However, in the summer the river became very shallow, and the soldiers, led by the military tribune of Bainobavd, were able to cross it where they wade, where they swam. Their unexpected appearance led to panic among the Germans. Many of the Alemanni were killed, but the Romans, according to sources, did not lose a single warrior. The Germans withdrew to the right bank of the Rhine, and Julian ordered the restoration of the old and the construction of new coastal fortifications. But his opponents were not broken. Seven tribal leaders concluded an agreement on joint actions, and Chonodomarius, who had experience in fighting against the Romans and had previously won several victories, stood at the head of the new army, numbering up to 35 thousand people. Having crossed the Rhine, the Alemanni approached Argentorat (Strasbourg). From here, their leaders sent ambassadors to Julian, who handed over a letter demanding "liberate the lands they have acquired with their courage and strength weapons". The Germans also referred to the letter of Constantius II, who really promised them (in exchange for military assistance) the right to settle in the Gallic lands.

Barbation's detachment was ambushed, lost many soldiers, part of the convoy, and retired to winter quarters before the agreed time. Julian's army now numbered only about 13 soldiers. Nevertheless, he moved his troops forward and, having traveled 30 km, attacked the positions of the Alemanni. Roman horsemen overturned the enemy cavalry. Julian's foot soldiers, thanks to training and discipline, also successfully acted against the numerically superior Germans. They say that the Alemanni lost up to 6 thousand people killed and the same number of prisoners, among whom was Chonodomarius (he was sent to Constantius II - to Mediolan).

After that, Julian transferred hostilities to the right bank of the Rhine. In the summer of 358, he defeated the Salic Franks, who occupied the lands between the Meuse and the Scheldt. Then the Hamavas, who had settled on Roman territory without permission, were expelled. In 359, Julian again crossed the Rhine, but the Germans no longer dared to fight his army, and most of the tribal leaders expressed their obedience.

The next article will tell about how Caesar Julian became Augustus Julian II, about his attempts to revive pagan cults and the tragic death of the apostate emperor.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 5 December 2022 05: 55
    +11
    And in 415, the famous Library of Alexandria suffered greatly from a crowd of Christian fanatics who, not limited to the destruction of books, killed one of the first female scientists, Hypatia.
    ... Yes, not fanatics, but debtors to the library, i.e. who took the books and did not return, Hypatia demanded .. smile
    1. Lech from Android.
      Lech from Android. 5 December 2022 06: 14
      +2
      Quote: parusnik
      Yes, not fanatics, but debtors to the library, i.e. who took the books and did not return, Hypatia demanded ..

      Careless of her...
      the history of the Byzantine Empire is a continuous series of bloodshed for absolute power in the empire ... a wagon and a small cart are shed human blood in it.
      I would not like to live there at this time.
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 December 2022 06: 18
      +9
      Alexey smiled! Thank you!
      Sincere gratitude and Valery unexpectedly-expected work about Julian! Chuyka said that he definitely would not pass by this milestone in history. Unexpectedly so fast!
      1. ee2100
        ee2100 5 December 2022 06: 54
        +6
        "Many Knowledge, Much Sorrow"
        1. Lech from Android.
          Lech from Android. 5 December 2022 06: 59
          +3
          Quote: ee2100
          "Many Knowledge, Much Sorrow"

          It's right...
          In the Soviet school, he taught the history of Byzantium, imagined it as a shining city on a hill ... a solid paradise smile.
          I read the trilogy "Original Rus'" ... sadness appeared ... crying plunged into the real world of the struggle for survival.
          1. Luminman
            Luminman 5 December 2022 08: 00
            +8
            In the Soviet school, he taught the history of Byzantium, imagined it as a shining city on a hill ... a solid paradise

            A similar idea of ​​Byzantium is only among the ROC.
            There was nothing like this at school.
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 5 December 2022 06: 53
    +6
    Thank you, Valery!

    "You won, Galieyalin!" (With). famous phrase. Knows how to ask life questions. And Merezhkovsky in his talented trilogy found its key points.

    A film about Hypatia came across.

    But now more and more manifestations of paganism are beginning to appear - far from harmless. And the question is how consciously.
    1. VLR
      5 December 2022 07: 06
      +8
      "You won, Galieyalin!" (With). famous phrase.

      Probably legendary, most likely it was invented by Blessed Theodoret of Cyrus, who was born at best 60 years after the Battle of Marange. Marcellinus, who participated in the battle and describes in detail the circumstances of the death of the emperor, does not know about it. There are many other legends, we will talk about this in the second article.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 5 December 2022 07: 09
        +4
        Even if so. She certainly went down in history.
        1. VLR
          5 December 2022 07: 18
          +6
          Yes, a good phrase, I remember it and became a "meme" smile
          A man with literary talent wrote.
          By the way, it's not unique. For example:
          “Wake me up in a hundred years and ask what is being done in Russia now. And I will answer - they drink and steal"

          This is a reworked impromptu by A. Rosenbaum (!), who in October 2000, in an interview with the anti-Soviet Sobesednik, said:
          Either Karamzin or Saltykov-Shchedrin said: “What will happen in 200 years? They will drink and steal!
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 5 December 2022 07: 28
            +3
            Didn't Saltykov-Shchedrin say that? Well, if so.

            What the writer had in mind is easier to check - to read.

            However, a lot also depends on the edition.
            1. VLR
              5 December 2022 07: 33
              +9
              It is claimed that neither Karamzin nor Saltykov-Shchedrin recorded this phrase. Perhaps she "walked" in a liberal environment for a long time, and Rosenbaum "privatized" her - like Chernomyrdin's phrase "We wanted the best ..." - I remember it from the 80s, a student saying.
              1. know
                know 5 December 2022 08: 32
                +3
                They say that the phrase "let them eat cakes if there is no bread" was attributed to Marie Antoinette, but from such phrases, hungry people, who, of course, were available in large numbers, have a real desire to build barricades.
                1. VLR
                  5 December 2022 08: 54
                  +6
                  Yes, words are powerful. E. Vinokurov is good about this:
                  "Aurora" volley!
                  They get up with the dracole of the village.
                  But it started in that minute,
                  When Radishchev with a camisole sleeve
                  Wiped a tear
                  seeing an orphan.

                  And Catherine was so frightened of Radishchevsky's Journey precisely because he wrote the truth. If there had been this slanderous book, there would not have been such a harsh reaction. However, Radishchev hooked everyone so much that even Pushkin tried to write a refutation - "Journey from Moscow to St. Petersburg", which they bashfully tried not to notice especially, because there is a continuous loyal firs and an apology for serfdom.
                  But the word must be spoken at the right time. Because if the people lived well under Louis 16, this biting phrase attributed to Marie Antoinette would have been applauded - here, they say, the author gives: how the queen "sands" - and they would have forgotten in a few days.
                  1. VLR
                    5 December 2022 09: 03
                    +5
                    By the way, try to guess what Vinokurov writes about in the same poem:
                    There is no greater power!
                    And the forces are more merciless than the people,
                    Knower ...! He grabs a pitchfork
                    Save the unfortunate!
                    He takes an axe.
                    Who ... painful drink
                    At least once drank - already to that
                    Not afraid of the revelation of terrible torture,
                    Will go to hard labor
                    will go to jail.

                    What word is missing?
                    1. Fat
                      Fat 5 December 2022 20: 52
                      +1
                      hi Valeri.
                      O compassion! There is no stronger force
                      And the forces are more merciless than the people,
                      Knower a pity! He grabs
                      forks -
                      Save the unfortunate!
                      He takes an axe.
                      Who pity painful drink
                      At least once drank - already to that
                      Not scary revelation of terrible
                      torture.
                      Will go to hard labor
                      will go to jail.
                      "Aurora" volley!
                      They get up with the dracole of the village.
                      But it started in that minute,
                      When Radishchev cuffed a camisole
                      Wiped a tear
                      seeing an orphan.
                      1959

                      Amazing poet...
                      So that the cheerful flame in me does not go out,
                      So that the surf of inspiration does not sleep,
                      Like a blacksmith, I forged my spirit day and night,
                      I held a strict judgment on myself.
                      I only want the truth. Take it out yeah
                      put!
                      I live, the truth is dear to me.
                      I know that lies are just as pernicious on the lips,
                      As on a clean weapon rust.
                2. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 5 December 2022 10: 28
                  +6
                  It is authentically known that this phrase belongs to the literary character Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Everything else is historical speculation.
                  1. know
                    know 5 December 2022 11: 28
                    +4
                    And there was
                    "I'm tired. I'm a flycat"

                    from Yeltsin. But it is claimed that he said:
                    "Today, on the last day of the passing century, I retire."

                    Although I clearly remember what he said exactly
                    "I'm tired, I'm leaving"

                    And everyone is also for this option. But I won't argue.
              2. ArchiPhil
                ArchiPhil 5 December 2022 13: 43
                +3
                Quote: VlR
                for a long time "walked" in a liberal environment, and Rosenbaum "privatized" it

                Well, he wasn't the first. bully I just repeated, read Zoshchenko's phrase to the masses.
            2. Catfish
              Catfish 5 December 2022 15: 44
              +4
              Hello, Sergey! smile

              Regarding "our" drunkenness, only the lazy did not go through. Someone, in my opinion, Pikul, wrote this in Moonsund: "Captain First Rank Pekarsky firmly believed in the all-destroying power of Russian drunkenness." I can’t vouch for the accuracy of the quote, I read it a long time ago.
              1. ArchiPhil
                ArchiPhil 5 December 2022 15: 57
                +4
                Quote: Sea Cat
                "our" drunkenness

                Yes, damn it, the same stereotype as about the atrocities of Ivan the Terrible. All over the world they drank and drink, and in their opinion the Russians are always to blame! bully
                Glad for your *amnesty*!!! Eh, not everyone is lucky. fellow But of course you need to drink less. This is me, a slob. recourse
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 5 December 2022 17: 02
                  +2
                  But of course you need to drink less. This is me, a slob. recourse


                  Yes, I’ve been in the eyeballs for almost a year now, the doctors don’t tell me, and the farther, the less desire I myself have. smile
                  And you're right about stereotypes, but it's hard to get rid of them.
              2. Korsar4
                Korsar4 5 December 2022 18: 32
                +2
                Hi Constantine!

                The main thing is a sense of proportion. And as the sailors said, the heroes of Stanyukovich's works are "in proportion." Only slightly distorted pronunciation.
                1. VLR
                  5 December 2022 18: 37
                  +5
                  Endless one-liners, from Soviet times to our time
                  "Vodka is alcohol!" Charles de Gaulle warned.
                  "There is a vitamin in vodka," said Ho Chi Minh.
                  "Come on, pour it," said Zhou Enlai.
                  "Let's drink everything that is poured," suggested Broz Tito.
                  "You need to drink in moderation," said Jivaharlal Nehru.
                  "And we drink our fill," Nikita Khrushchev said.
                  "After vodka, I'm d ... cancer," Obama admitted Barack.
                  "The horses die from water," Berlusconi warned.
                  “The complexion fades from vodka,” said Frau Merkel.
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 5 December 2022 21: 20
                    +2
                    And further:

                    After whiskey in the body tone,” said George Washington.
                    “And I read sushenka,” Dad said to Lukashenko.
                    “And I'm drowning out nerves with vodka,” Peter I suddenly shouted
                    “And I'm nervous without vodka,” Ivan the Terrible barked.
                    “My wife and I are all in the ointment,” Kolya Sarkozy giggled.
                    “Drinking a lot of sake is a pit,” Hatoyama said.
                    “Alcohol is only good,” they heard from Charles.
                    “We’re not joking with vodka,” said Vova Putin.
                    “And I drink without extreme sports,” said Dima Medvedev.
                2. Catfish
                  Catfish 5 December 2022 19: 08
                  +4
                  Only slightly distorted pronunciation.

                  Yes, I seem to remember, they said something like "pleportion". But this can be understood in different ways. smile


                  From the old Crocodile. smile
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 5 December 2022 21: 16
                    +2
                    Yes, that's what they said. But I did not want to correct the checker on the road.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 5 December 2022 21: 26
                      +2
                      A lot of people react extremely aggressively when they are pointed out to their illiteracy - "The smartest one, huh ?!" request
  3. Luminman
    Luminman 5 December 2022 08: 07
    +7
    Julian transferred hostilities to the right bank of the Rhine

    I've heard this expression for a long time: everything to the right of the Rhine and above the Danube is barbarism. I ran this idea in my head - but it's true!
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 5 December 2022 08: 22
      +8
      Lucky phrase. Nothing, a lot of words. And the eastern "Scythians" will choose something suitable for themselves.
  4. kor1vet1974
    kor1vet1974 5 December 2022 08: 11
    +5
    [B]
    Julian was made acquainted in Ephesus with the Neoplatonist Maxim, who was also a magician, and, according to contemporaries, made the statues move and smile, and also lit torches in their hands.
    / b] Here is how these miracles of Maxim of Ephesus are described by Eunapius of Sardis: "Recently, he called us to the temple of Hecate and showed many evidence of his talent there. When we entered the temple and bowed to the goddess, Maxim said: Sit down, my beloved friends, look, what will happen, and you will see how much I surpass the rest. After Maxim said this, and we sat down, he burned a grain of incense and began to recite some kind of hymn to himself. His actions were so successful that the statue of the goddess at first began to smile, and then, it seemed, she laughed. We were all frightened by this spectacle, but Maxim said: Let none of you feel fear from this phenomenon, because after it the lamps that the goddess carries in her hands will light up. Maxim had not yet finished speaking when the lamps really flared up with light. We left the temple, delighted with this miracle worker, who acted as if in a theater. But you should not trust any of these phenomena, just as I do not trust them."
    1. VLR
      5 December 2022 08: 25
      +6
      But you must not trust any of these phenomena, just as I do not trust them.


      Typical behavior of religious and other fanatics: "I believe, because it's absurd", and "I don't believe, even though I saw it with my own eyes."
      1. kor1vet1974
        kor1vet1974 5 December 2022 09: 02
        +4
        "I don't believe it, even though I saw it with my own eyes"
        Yeah, I believe in David Copperfield because I saw everything with my own eyes, as well as in Hakobyan, Kio .. laughing
        1. VLR
          5 December 2022 09: 06
          +4
          Well, these do not claim that wizards are miracle workers: they say "sleight of hand and no fraud." Copperfield, of course, was the most impudent of them, because he called himself a "magician", but he did it as if in jest.
          1. kor1vet1974
            kor1vet1974 5 December 2022 09: 10
            +4
            So Eunapius of Sardis does not assert anything. He understands that somewhere he was deceived, but he does not understand how, so he writes about it ..
            1. VLR
              5 December 2022 09: 48
              +5
              Arius, by the way, got burned, was declared a heretic, on attempts to rationally and logically interpret the Gospels. In Flaubert, in The Temptation of Saint Anthony, he says:
              Fools who oppose me undertake to interpret nonsense; to shame them to the end, I composed songs so funny that they are known by heart in mills, in taverns and in harbors.

              A thousand times no! The Son is not contemporaneous with the Father and is not consubstantial! Otherwise, he would not have uttered the words: “Father, let this cup pass from me! - Why do you call me good? No one is good, only one god! - I'm going to my god and your god!> and other words testifying that he was created. All of its names indicate that.
              1. kor1vet1974
                kor1vet1974 5 December 2022 10: 24
                +1
                Arius, by the way, got burned, was declared a heretic, on attempts to rationally and logically interpret the Gospels.
                Arius, unlike Maxim of Ephesus, did not practice palmistry. "Spark with your finger, swallow forks" .. (c)
    2. know
      know 5 December 2022 08: 30
      +3
      Magician Maxim, apparently, was a strong hypnotist.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 December 2022 21: 11
        +1
        Quote: vet
        Magician Maxim, apparently, was a strong hypnotist.

        Perhaps the grass harvest was successful !!! laughing
  5. bober1982
    bober1982 5 December 2022 08: 38
    +2
    Julian was not only an apostate from Christianity, but also from paganism, including.
    In a way, the emperor is a reformer, of everything and everyone. And he turned everyone against himself, including the pagans.
  6. Cure72
    Cure72 5 December 2022 11: 42
    +4
    Greetings to Valery from sunny Moldova! Thanks for another great article.
    P.s. The sun hasn't really been out for a couple of weeks.
    But writing "from cloudy Moldova" is somehow not very)))
    1. kor1vet1974
      kor1vet1974 5 December 2022 11: 48
      +3
      Now it is "cloudy" all over the world, even where the sun is, heaps .. hi smile
      1. Cure72
        Cure72 5 December 2022 12: 58
        +2
        Don't care.
        Disappointing is the last thing.
        You need to look for pluses everywhere, even in the negative
        There would be no evil, there would be no good
        The glass must be full. Even if it's half
  7. deddem
    deddem 5 December 2022 12: 01
    +3
    Quote: Lech from Android.
    Quote: ee2100
    "Many Knowledge, Much Sorrow"

    It's right...
    In the Soviet school, he taught the history of Byzantium, imagined it as a shining city on a hill ... a solid paradise smile.
    I read the trilogy "Original Rus'" ... sadness appeared ... crying plunged into the real world of the struggle for survival.


    A complete disappointment, as with Renaissance Italy, which was so unevenly breathed.
    But in fact - "blood on gilding"
  8. Ivan Onya
    Ivan Onya 5 December 2022 14: 05
    +3
    Conclusion from reading: Comrade. Julian is the first tax evader in the world. I explain: a comparative analysis of the differences between Christianity and paganism revealed one single innovation - they replaced a voluntary donation (I want it, I will bring so much to the altar) for a mandatory shared bribe. That is why the pagans commemorated the heroes, and then the Christians began to idolize the martyrs - people already had to part with their hard-earned property with the bitterness of a grievous loss. Actually, I’m surprised that they didn’t push anywhere that the religion of Christ is essentially the world’s first system of forced taxation, and that is why they began to adopt it later in Rus' - any owner needs stable revenues to the treasury. Well, then they got rid of the pagans precisely as deviators, so that others could have a good example.
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  10. Catfish
    Catfish 5 December 2022 19: 50
    +3
    And in 415, the famous Alexandrian Library suffered greatly from a crowd of Christian fanatics who, not limited to the destruction of books, killed one of the first female scientists - Hypatia, the daughter of the mathematician Theon, the last keeper of the library.


  11. faterdom
    faterdom 6 December 2022 13: 08
    0
    That still "apostate" turned out to be. In relation to the Germans, he is more like an attacker, few people have poured them so thickly since the time of Caesar, who switched to more important tasks for him, and after the defeat of the three legions of Varus under Augustus.
    And before the ready and shameful defeat, and even more so before the Huns of Atilla, there is still a hundred years - a bright future, so to speak ...
  12. Ivan Onya
    Ivan Onya 9 December 2022 10: 35
    0
    Ancient Rome fans are very similar to Harry Potter or Lord of the Rings fans. The only difference is that in their works, ancient science fiction writers, such as P. Bracholini, composed stories about the past they invented, and, say, in the American space opera created by George Lucas, similar events are described, only in a distant, distant galaxy