Military Review

BRICS countries: responding to the challenge of global governance

38
I. “Not ideology, but pragmatism”

In the BRICS countries lives 43 The percentage of the world's inhabitants who create 20-25% of global GDP, totaling 13,7 trillion. dollars. Gold reserves of five countries are 4,4 trillion. dollars. Only in 2012, the share of foreign direct investment attributable to BRICS amounted to 11% in the world.

October 17 at a meeting of the commission on military-technical cooperation of Russia with foreign countries Vladimir Putin сказалthat military-technical cooperation of Russia with the BRICS countries and Vietnam should reach a qualitatively new level:

"Given the growing technological, industrial, scientific potential of all the countries listed, military-technical cooperation with these states can and should reach a qualitatively new level."


The president had in mind not only a trade partnership. It was about industrial cooperation, joint research and development, the creation of efficient service and after-sales service systems, and finally, the general entry of the BRICS countries into the markets of third countries. As a final example, the president cited Russian cooperation with India:

“In cooperation with India, as you know, we are not limited to the supply of finished Russian armaments. Conducting joint R & D and licensed production, including for the supply of equipment to other, third countries, is gaining ever greater weight. ”


Co-production would reduce the costs of production, introduce new technologies, rationally build technology transfer from the defense to the civilian sphere.

In the context of the development of relations, BRICS should be reminded that the 2015 year is scheduled for the holding of a BRICS summit in Ufa. On the preparation in this city of two summits - BRICS and SCO - is planned spend 60 billion rubles.

The next BRICS summit, the fifth, will be held in South Africa 27 in March 2013. October 29 in the Russian press reported that the Republic of South Africa intends to offer the heads of five states to locate the headquarters of the planned Development Bank Group in their country. Deputy Minister of International Relations and Cooperation of South Africa Mr. Ibrahim said ITAR-TASS correspondent:

“If the decision to create a bank is made at the summit, then of course, its location will be determined by the leaders of five countries. But I can tell you that we will offer to place this bank in our country. ”


The creation of the BRICS Development Bank, proposed by India, will be the main theme of the forthcoming fifth group summit in Durban. Now preparing a feasibility study of the bank, which will be presented to the leaders of the five countries. The main goal of the bank is to stimulate trade between the BRICS countries. Credits this bank will provide in national currency.

The fifth summit will also discuss the proposal of South African President Jacob Zuma that it is necessary to connect the member countries of the BRICS submarine cable communication system. South Africa has already begun to purchase equipment for laying a submarine cable across the Atlantic Ocean to Brazil. The project is impressive: cable length - 9900 kilometers.

Head of the telecommunications company "eFive" Ros Thomas said:

"The system will provide high-speed communication with the West, and then with the East, with the result that South Africa will become the central hub of this network."


South African analysts Catherine Grant and Peter Draper (Mail and Guardian) declare in this connection: South Africa deserves its place in the group of five countries, and the concept of Mr. J. O'Neill, who invented the four-letter acronym (BRIC) and did not consider that South Africa is economically worthy of joining the "block" . Today, experts note (Draper is a senior researcher, and Catherine Grant is the head of the economic program at the South African Institute of International Affairs), South Africa is a country with a fast-growing economy, a developed middle class, and the country in general is a very promising market. Moreover, South Africa is about to catch up with the notorious developed countries from “G7” - well, or not about that, by the year of 2040. Experts write that South Africa does not yet correspond to this level - well, let's admit that it is moving forward. Consequently, the concept of BRIC as an association of the four countries "must end."

South African analysts do not believe that democratic approaches other than those of G7 may make it difficult for BRICS countries to realize their economic interests. Democracy, according to the authors of the article, is not the basis of economic diplomacy; here the first violin is played by cold economic calculation. And G7 itself was created to manage economic conflicts in the global economy.

For the BRICS countries, the three components of cooperation are particularly relevant.

First, they must take into account different approaches to economic development, including the balance of capitalist forces in relation to the state. Each country can learn lessons, in particular, from the problems of implementing market reforms and from the selected priorities of economic development. At the same time, countries can find out in which areas they can cooperate internationally and determine where they will be able to perform on the international solo market and where in the quintet.

Secondly, they should pay significant attention to trade facilitation. Their respective business communities and forums should use their influence to accelerate trade and investment transactions. At the same time, experts note that five countries do not have long-standing traditional infrastructure links. Therefore, discussion of the overall activities of BRICS in the framework of the upcoming summit and other meetings should focus on eliminating a variety of trade and investment barriers that hinder the strengthening of business ties between the five countries.

Thirdly, member states should continue negotiations on financial cooperation, for example, by means of settlements in national currencies and linking stock exchanges (where this makes sense).

Along with this, South Africa must continue to develop its relations with the rest of the African continent.

As for the “external agenda”, the BRICS countries should continue to firmly focus on global economic governance. In other cases, it is useful to unite with some of the G7 countries, if this will help promote national interests. In other words, pragmatism should be a guideline, not ideology.

Ii. “The challenge of global governance”

Analyst Mario Burkun believesthat the BRICS block is "one of the most influential in today's world." Not without reason, at the G20 summit held in Los Cabos, it was the representatives of BRICS who proposed a new strategy for global economic development, in accordance with which the member countries are restructuring the international financial system.

The first step of the BRICS is to displace the “world jury” associated with the main financial groups of the world. The members of this “jury”, the journalist believes, “arrogated to themselves the role of risk assessors”. It is not surprising, the author writes, that they get the most benefit from exciting reports that can raise or bring down the economies of entire countries. After all, other credit-rating organizations can make subjective decisions that are unconditionally accepted as absolute economic truth.

Once the views of Federal Reserve Chairs - Paul Volcker, Alan Greenspan, Ben Bernanke - encouraged speculative investments, but these people lost credibility after the 2008 crisis of the year and the recession that started in 2010.

When now Standard & Poor's, Fitch group, or Moody's once again compare the bond yield of any country with a certain “benchmark in a certain sphere of influence”, a completely man-made economic catastrophe can break out. In itself, a completely objective comparison of bond yields in crisis Greece, Spain and Italy with the indicator of successful Germany already perfectly illustrates this statement.

After all, these reports are in fact based on discriminatory parameters regarding consumption rates, protectionism policies or financial contributions of individual regions, corporations and investors. However, they are taken for the truth.

As for Russia, which recently joined the WTO, the author points out that it is the 9-I largest economy in the world.

“After the exorbitant requirements for membership in the WTO were satisfied, the Russian economy was“ classified ”by current rating organizations as unstable. This is because this estimate did not take into account the expected increase in the price of oil and gas in the medium and long term. Russia's GDP is growing, and there are all signs that this growth will be sustainable. The country's accumulated reserves far exceed the national debt. ”


That is why, in order not to be a “participant” in any man-made financial catastrophe, the BRICS countries need to create their own risk assessment organizations and apply more objective criteria. Own assessments will also allow

“A positive impact on the psychology of private investors due to taking into account a wide range of criteria, in contrast to the practice of creating panic and compulsive behavior in relation to liquid assets with high volatility”.


The BRICS international risk assessment organization, the draft of which will be discussed at the upcoming summit in South Africa, will be able to work out, M. Burkun, a unified opinion that adequately reflects the economic reality. Encouraging productive investments and regulated risks will help avoid sudden changes in expectations in financial markets, which are often sources of recessions and recessions.

In essence, this is nothing more than a challenge to global governance. Exactly считает Aurobindo Mahapatra, author of the article "BRICS lays the foundations for a fair world order."

A fair and honest international order is necessary, according to an Indian expert. Indeed, until other world players begin to orient actions and work towards a multipolar world, diving into chaos will continue. However, it is hoped that the intractability of some powers in this matter will soon be eliminated. This is the “challenge of global governance of the 21st century”. The challenge to which, quite according to Toynbee, must be answered.

Aurobindo Mahapatra singles out the following event as part of the “response”: the meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the BRICS countries on September 25 on the sidelines of the UN General Assembly, which discussed the issue of UN reform and the expansion of the Security Council. Comrade Lavrov reaffirmed Russia's position in supporting the candidacy of India, a member of the BRICS, as a permanent member of the Security Council.

The Charter of the United Nations, the author writes, is based on the normative aspects of international politics and proclaims the equality of all peoples. However, reality proves the opposite: the UN is seen as a chamber where its members express their extreme positions -

"As if they were standing alone on the pedestal of truth, or as on a duel field, where the rivals quarrel with each other."


At the same time, although almost all countries of the world have UN membership, decision making is the privilege of a few. It is here that the line of divergence “between the lofty ideals of this magnificent organization and its real work” passes.

In a changing world, decentralization is important, including economic. Today, BRICS is in favor of expanding power at the global level and is advocating the reform of international organizations such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. It has long been necessary not only political decentralization of power, but also economic - at the global level.

Global problems, be it climate change, religious extremism, financial crises that exceed the competence of any single country, can be solved at the international level. But in the absence of agreement among the UN members, the problems mentioned will become more and more frightening every day.

Iii. Half versus third

In order to predict the collapse of the economies of the BRICS countries, in the West they even invented a special economic term: recession. The decline in the annual GDP growth rate, say, on 1 pp gives American and European “experts” a reason for joy. They shout, “Hooray! BRICS is in trouble! ”

Among the reasons for the near catastrophe of the five countries by the critics are called following:

1. BRICS countries are disconnected from the influence of Western economies.

2. All five countries are corroded by corruption, and therefore their political systems are not legitimate.

3. Among the five equal there is one who is "more equal" than others - China. But even there everything is unstable: Bo Xilai is judged, the decisive party congress is approaching, the economy is not growing as fast as before, because in Western Europe there is a recession. Are wages rising in Chinese factories? And this is bad - for Chinese competitiveness.

4. Brazilian growth is particularly fast: in 2010, it exceeded 7,5%, and this year the Brazilian economy is likely to grow by less than 2%.

5. In India, "clinical depression." The growth that exceeded 9% before the financial crisis is now slightly higher than 5%.

6. In Russia - their own problems. Worst of all, Putin returned to the Kremlin: this immediately aroused mass protests in Moscow. And the shale gas revolution in the US? All this is a disaster for Russia: after all, the world price of gas will fall. The Putin system will not have money.

So says Gideon Rackman, columnist Financial Times.

Meanwhile, American financial expert Kim Hayward is much more cautious in his statements - and speaks much more about economics than politics. AT Financial Times blog he explicitly indicates that now

“Two-thirds of financial directors are planning foreign expansion in the BRIC countries, the USA, the UK and Germany. And when it comes to BRICS, almost half of the surveyed financial directors are already investing or planning to enter these markets - compared to only three out of ten in the 2011 year. ”


The data was obtained by an expert based on a survey of more than 1000 financial directors from medium-sized companies operating in the 14 markets.

Comments are superfluous.

* * *


Thus, no matter how frightened investors are, other analysts are returning the living dead to comrade Putin's Kremlin or mass protests, no matter how persuaded them to turn away from Russia, India or Brazil, and turn somewhere to the countries MIST, managers of financial companies prefer to think not of the “swamp opposition” or the sad fate of Bo Xilai, but of their own benefit. And capitalist interests lead them to the BRICS countries. By the way, if any analyst is not satisfied with India’s GDP growth of "only" five percent, then what will he say about estimated US GDP growth by the end of this year, only two percent? “Disconnection” from the influence of Western economies - simultaneously with the growth of influence in international institutions, including the UN, - says just about the strength of BRICS, and not about weakness.

Observed and translated by Oleg Chuvakin
- especially for topwar.ru
38 comments
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  1. Averias
    Averias 1 November 2012 09: 23
    +7
    Quote: Gold reserves of the five countries are 4,4 trillion. dollars. And the US debt is equal to 16 trillion dollars. Feel the difference:)))
    1. sanych
      sanych 1 November 2012 10: 29
      +5
      Quote: Averias
      Gold reserves of five countries amount to 4,4 trillion. dollars. And US debt is equal to 16 trillion dollars. Feel the difference:)))

      The difference is that the above countries have in their treasury these 4,4 trillion., And the United States 16 trillion. SHOULD! And the states simply cannot physically repay such a debt. The country is bankrupt !!! negative
      1. MG42
        MG42 1 November 2012 16: 29
        +4
        If the US goes bankrupt, the global financial system will collapse, as US dollar - the main reserve currency of the world.
        They will be able to give, if you print in three shifts (a joke).
        Also, the United States has a policy so that the dollars that they export by Boeing and to Russia, including not returning, as this can really negatively affect the prices of goods on the US domestic market.
        Perhaps, of course, rumors about a new currency "amero" and there is a way out for the United States.
        "To whom I owe - I forgive everyone."
      2. crazyrom
        crazyrom 1 November 2012 22: 15
        +1
        Quote: sanych
        the above countries HAVE in their treasury these 4,4 trillion

        Unfortunately they do not. When discussing the size of gold reserves, it’s actually a simple sum of all the tribute that this country has already paid to the Americans. If this seems strange to you, see the explanations of the State Duma Deputy Evgeny Fedorov: efedorov.ru
    2. crazyrom
      crazyrom 1 November 2012 22: 14
      0
      Quote: Averias
      Gold reserves of five countries amount to 4,4 trillion. dollars. And US debt is equal to 16 trillion dollars. Feel the difference:)))


      It’s not the difference. These figures should be perceived as follows: the USA borrowed from the whole world (and forever, without repayment!), 16 trillion. Of these 16, 4.4 are taken from the BRICS countries.
  2. Forget
    Forget 1 November 2012 09: 29
    +3
    "Financial executives prefer to think not about the 'swamp opposition' or the sad fate of Bo Xilai, but about their own benefit."

    well said smile
  3. borisst64
    borisst64 1 November 2012 09: 36
    +2
    After Vladivostok, grandiose construction sites will come to Ufa. Summits are a serious thing!
    1. Alexander Romanov
      Alexander Romanov 1 November 2012 09: 41
      +2
      Quote: borisst64
      Summits are a serious thing!

      No longer, well, the heads of the big 8s met, drank tea and decided nothing. Rather, a tribute to tradition, at personal meetings of heads of state, decisions and documents are signed much more. The world has changed
    2. predator.2
      predator.2 1 November 2012 10: 20
      -2
      borisst64,
      Quote: borisst64
      After Vladivostok, grandiose construction sites will come to Ufa. Summits are a serious thing!

      With a construction site guest workers will come!
      1. ImpKonstantin
        ImpKonstantin 1 November 2012 12: 17
        +2
        Be that as it may, the trend is positive: to hold international summits in the provinces. 60 billion rubles - the money is not comic and will not become superfluous for the development of regions. In addition, the summit will include not only groups from the governments of the participating countries, but prominent businessmen and entrepreneurs, for whom presentations will be made on the prospects for investment in the region, where the summit is held in Russia as a whole. In general, the path to direct investment.
        1. Brother Sarych
          Brother Sarych 1 November 2012 15: 25
          -1
          The APEC summit, in addition to the bounty, on the thieves of the state budget did not bring any benefit ...
  4. Hippopotamus
    Hippopotamus 1 November 2012 10: 36
    +6
    You give BRICS to everyone who is with us along the way! The main thing is to do it wisely, and we will punish them! The West writhes, feeling the approach of agony, and no rating agencies will help here ... smile The future is for Russia those who are used to living in good conscience.
    1. WW3
      WW3 1 November 2012 22: 30
      +1
      Quote: Hippo
      The future is for Russia those who are used to living in good conscience.

      Word Russia did you accidentally cross out or was it intended to be?
  5. Brother Sarych
    Brother Sarych 1 November 2012 10: 54
    -9
    These countries are united by nothing but a loud abbreviation!
    No collapse of the economies is yet to be expected, but you should not expect much success ...
    The author in this case raves - such issues that he is trying to consider were not and are not on the agenda ...
    1. dmitrich
      dmitrich 1 November 2012 15: 15
      +1
      and you are enraged by this article.
      1. Brother Sarych
        Brother Sarych 1 November 2012 15: 23
        -1
        Pisses me off? Why all of a sudden?
        It infuriates me that the overwhelming majority of those working here cannot understand the simple thing - well, Russia, China, Brazil, India and South Africa have nothing in common! There are some common economic interests, but there is NO common and cannot be, in principle, because these countries are largely COMPETITORS! Common economic interests can be found in any pair of countries, you can cooperate with anyone if this solves the interests of your country ...
        Therefore, I am for economic cooperation with such large players, it can bring a lot of benefits, but I still would not count on any political benefits ...
        1. Andrey_K
          Andrey_K 1 November 2012 17: 38
          +1
          There is just one thing in common - in the absence of prejudice in relations.
          If the United States and Europe, when concluding any more or less large contract, first of all thinks: "but won't that country get too much benefit?"
          May disrupt the deal for political reasons.
          Those. All these countries of the "old economy" are amazed by protectionism of mutual responsibility and collusion (as well as by the master-servant relationship), then the BRICS are practically free of all this.
          Freedom of choice - this is what they have in common.
          These countries are truly free, or at least try to be.
          And the "old world" is like a parasite - having sucked it does not want to let go of its victims.
          1. Brother Sarych
            Brother Sarych 1 November 2012 21: 21
            0
            You are raving along the way - well, you can’t be like that in adulthood ...
            It’s necessary to think sometimes ...
            1. Andrey_K
              Andrey_K 1 November 2012 22: 52
              0
              What's the matter?
              Can you comment, for example, an attempt to purchase an Opel plant?
              ...
              Or Mistrals (no matter how anyone relates to this deal) - how much stench there was and pressure on France - not because these Mistrals are such a wunderwaffle, but because a "precedent".
              Russia is not included in the list of countries with which France has the right to conclude such agreements without the permission of the owners (although France has stamped her foot ... but now she knows that it is no longer possible to do this).
              ...
              And what about the permission for Nord Stream?
              If the pipeline was laid by another country, there would be no such problems.

              A stick in the wheel of Gazprom?

              Etc. etc.
    2. ikrut
      ikrut 1 November 2012 20: 33
      +1
      First and foremost. what these countries have in common is the desire for an independent (from the United States) economic policy. Towards equity in the financial sector. This is a serious and precisely political aspect of BRICS unity. And everything else is much easier to solve. Do you think why the Jews came up with MIST, supposedly to replace the "dying" BRICS? Like, BRICS slows down, but MIST is driving. We all look up to them and invests in them. And this MIST unites only one thing - singing to the tune of Wall Street.
      1. Brother Sarych
        Brother Sarych 1 November 2012 21: 22
        -1
        There is neither BRICS nor MIST - these are just abbreviations, inventions of magazines ...
  6. IRBIS
    IRBIS 1 November 2012 11: 33
    +2
    The main thing is that the BRICS union does not follow the path of the European Union and does not make the same systemic mistakes. Amer to this "feeding trough" is very limited, with an eye on their desire to dominate and the eternal desire to shit. The number of people wishing to "fish in troubled waters" is increasing, bankers smell very big money. That is why BRICS needs to be careful in attracting such Western "investors."
    1. Brother Sarych
      Brother Sarych 1 November 2012 15: 24
      0
      BRICS is not a union, and has never been! It is more like an interest club ...
  7. Slevinst
    Slevinst 1 November 2012 12: 21
    0
    It is necessary to establish a new world order and the United States at the same time leave aside
    1. MG42
      MG42 1 November 2012 16: 35
      +2
      I wonder how you suddenly push the United States aside. By changing the reserve currency? Or destroying all American AUGs?
      1. ikrut
        ikrut 1 November 2012 20: 37
        +1
        For starters, there will be no reserve American currency within the BRICS. Calculations will be carried out in national currencies. For the worm of the world's economy, it's no longer bad. Not a weak "blow in the gut" to those. who feeds on the reserve currency without producing anything. But there will be no such income and AUG will quickly reach the wall of the berth.
      2. Cat
        Cat 2 November 2012 03: 16
        0
        Quote: MG42
        I wonder how you suddenly push the United States aside. By changing the reserve currency? Or destroying all American AUGs?

        To destroy AUG is a matter of technology, with a great desire, it is quite feasible for itself. But the currency is more complicated ... too much of it in different mattresses is jumbled, both private and public.
  8. Slevinst
    Slevinst 1 November 2012 18: 07
    0
    I have no idea but wish it
  9. NEMO
    NEMO 1 November 2012 18: 38
    -3
    [Quote]All five countries are corrupted by corruption ...

    Among the five equal, there is one who is “more equal” than others - China ...
    [/ q [hide]

    It is especially difficult to disagree with this part of the article.
  10. WW3
    WW3 1 November 2012 21: 01
    +2
    Of course, it is necessary to look for alternatives to US hegemony in the world - the world should be multiband. BRICS as a variant of this alternative. The same Europe switched to the euro and now the euro is a real competitor to the dollar, although of course the crisis in the EU is in full swing ....
    1. igor67
      igor67 1 November 2012 21: 07
      0
      WW3,
      What the hell is the alternative, you look at where is the bank with which BRICS collaborates, and to whom it belongs, and then draw conclusions
      1. WW3
        WW3 1 November 2012 21: 27
        +2
        So this is apparently not about the World Bank, but about the Development Bank .. here are the materials ...

        The BRICS countries agreed to lend to each other and to create their own Development Bank - a competitor to the World Bank. Following this statement, the finance ministers of all powers were given specific instructions: for the next summit, to prepare a draft for the creation of a new global credit organization.

        In addition, the BRICS countries agreed to maximize settlements among themselves in national currencies. This will allow them not to depend on the behavior of the highly volatile dollar recently. Loans for the development of innovations and infrastructure from the newly made Development Bank are also supposed to be issued in national currencies.

        All these measures can lead to the fact that the dollar will finally lose its position as the main currency of the planet. And this really means global changes in the global economic system. And in order to make such a coup, BRICS has not only ambitions, but also quite serious resources.
        http://www.posprikaz.ru/2012/04/strany-briks-brosayut-vyzov-nyneshnemu-mirovomu-
        poryadku /
        1. igor67
          igor67 1 November 2012 22: 36
          -2
          WW3,
          BRICS is a group of five rapidly developing countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa). The acronym BRIC was first proposed by Jim O'Neill, an analyst at Goldman Sachs, in a November 2001 bank policy note [1] [2]. Until 2011, the abbreviation BRIC was used in relation to the organization. In connection with the accession of South Africa to BRIC on February 18, 2011, according to the statement of the Indian Minister of Finance, from that time the group began to bear the name BRICS. [3] According to Goldman Sachs, by 2050 the total economies of the countries of the group will exceed the total size of the economies of the richest countries in the world (the GXNUMX) in size. And ask which street in New York is Goldman Bank
          1. WW3
            WW3 1 November 2012 22: 53
            +2
            Well you quoted Wikipedia
            https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/БРИКС
            Why do you need an address? Want to visit ... here I give orientation

            They did not answer my post above, in fact, that another bank will be created ... PS I'm not "minus" you, just a discussion going on ....
          2. BeTeP
            BeTeP 1 November 2012 22: 57
            +4
            if you are quoting Vick that at least read carefully - Mr. O'Neill from Goldman Sach just came up with a name .. well, or if you’re too lazy to think about it, then at least read it to the end - analysts from Goldman Sach at first did not even assume any coordination among these countries - not the fact that the economic bloc: "Goldman Sachs did not assume the existence of coordination of economic policies between the BRIC countries. Moreover, it was not assumed that the BRIC countries form an economic bloc or an official trade association, like the European Union. However, over time, signs appeared that" the four countries The BRICs seek to form a political club "or" union, "and thus transform" their growing economic power into greater geopolitical "influence." One of the recent signs is the 2008 summit of foreign ministers of the countries in Yekaterinburg, as well as the summit of the heads of the member countries BRIC 2009 ibid. "
            So the guys are "out of business", don't worry :) they just came up with a name - which stuck ... for which, in general, thanks to them :)
  11. igor67
    igor67 1 November 2012 22: 59
    0
    WW3,
    I want to visit and there is no gold reserve, well, you can create a bank and all the BRICS countries must invest the initial capital most likely gold, since they want to get rid of the dollar and create a single unit of account, most likely it is a new bank, now all available are tied to the dollar,
    1. WW3
      WW3 1 November 2012 23: 15
      +2
      Well, that’s right new own Development Bank you just didn’t carefully read the material apparently ... I laid out the link above .... we will survive as they say until the next summit hi
    2. v53993
      v53993 2 November 2012 20: 41
      +1
      Hurry, let them go there with dollars. Soon they will beat the face. I won’t be surprised if ours, Russian guys.
  12. Piran
    Piran 3 November 2012 04: 17
    0
    Comrade Lavrov confirmed the position of Russia ....
    This is when and to whom was he COMRADE? He’s not my friend, to most of our citizens he’s not a friend, but the LORD! That is how for the whole country he is one of the LORD and overlords. Or who has a different opinion?