Military Review

25 years ago, an experimental Su-47 Berkut fighter made its first flight

50
25 years ago, an experimental Su-47 Berkut fighter made its first flight

Developments on the Su-47 Berkut fighter, which took off 25 years ago, were used to create the fifth generation Su-57 fighter, drones and civil aircraft. "Berkut" was the first aircraft in which composite materials were widely used.


Today, composites make up 25% of the weight of an empty fifth-generation Su-57 fighter; for the Su-47 Berkut, this figure was 13%, which was a breakthrough at that time. Most of the composite materials were in the wing of the aircraft - 50%, which also served for the modern aviation. The Berkut had a sweptback wing with less drag, which increased the aircraft's takeoff and landing characteristics, maneuverability, and subsonic flight range. In fact, this fighter was the basis for testing those technologies that are used in modern aircraft construction.

(...) the colossal knowledge about the reverse-swept wing made of composite materials, obtained during the tests of the Berkut, is used to create unmanned aerial vehicles and civil aircraft

- leads TASS Rostec message.

Su-47 "Berkut" - an aircraft with a reverse sweep wing was first shown at the MAKS-1999 air show. The design with a swept back wing is made according to the aerodynamic scheme "longitudinal integral triplane". On this aircraft, which was a prototype, layout, technical and technological solutions were worked out as part of work on new generation fighters. In fact, it was a "flying laboratory", which worked out technologies for the Su-57. In particular, it was on the Berkut that a new bomb bay was tested, which provided the necessary data to create this element on a fifth-generation fighter.

The development of the Su-47, which originally bore the Su-37 index, was started by the Sukhoi Design Bureau in 1983. The aircraft was originally designed for aircraft-carrying cruisers and only then for the Air Force. The development went on intermittently, in 1988 it stopped completely, later resumed on its own initiative. Mikhail Pogosyan became the chief designer of this aircraft. The flight copy of the Berkut was built in 1997, at the same time he made his first flight. The plane did not go into series, and remained an experimental machine.
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  1. Amateur
    Amateur 26 September 2022 07: 39
    +6
    Mikhail Pogosyan became the chief designer of this aircraft.

    Poghosyan - the man from the song:
    Wise teachers I listened inattentively.
    Everything that was asked of me, I did somehow.
  2. Alien From
    Alien From 26 September 2022 07: 45
    +2
    "" On an initiative basis "" the car was created. Where does Zin's money come from?
    1. UA3QHP
      UA3QHP 26 September 2022 07: 50
      -3
      Where does Zin come from?

      From the company's own funds. It is much cheaper to make a flying model in one copy than a serial aircraft.
      1. SovAr238A
        SovAr238A 26 September 2022 08: 56
        0
        Quote: Ua3qhp
        Where does Zin come from?

        From the company's own funds. It is much cheaper to make a flying model in one copy than a serial aircraft.

        Yes Yes.
        Own funds from a thoroughly budget design bureau in Soviet times ...
        1. Taimen
          Taimen 26 September 2022 09: 41
          +7
          It seems to me (he crossed himself at the same time) that this is the most beautiful aircraft of the twentieth century. Everything in it expresses the desire to fly into the sky. The rest, maybe better, but not so beautiful. And this plane has power, aggression, speed and tender beauty.
          1. SovAr238A
            SovAr238A 26 September 2022 22: 19
            -3
            Quote: Taimen
            It seems to me (he crossed himself at the same time) that this is the most beautiful aircraft of the twentieth century. Everything in it expresses the desire to fly into the sky. The rest, maybe better, but not so beautiful. And this plane has power, aggression, speed and tender beauty.

            The most important thing to know is that in this aerodynamic scheme, in principle, there is nothing that you described.
            Basically.
            Can not be.
        2. UA3QHP
          UA3QHP 26 September 2022 10: 12
          +2
          Own funds from a thoroughly budget design bureau in Soviet times ...

          Oddly enough yes. From any work, the enterprise has a legitimate profit, even in Soviet times, part of this profit is spent on initiative work. And then and now.
          1. SovAr238A
            SovAr238A 26 September 2022 22: 18
            -2
            Quote: Ua3qhp
            Own funds from a thoroughly budget design bureau in Soviet times ...

            Oddly enough yes. From any work, the enterprise has a legitimate profit, even in Soviet times, part of this profit is spent on initiative work. And then and now.

            When and at what enterprises in the Soviet Union was there a profit?
            When did cost accounting appear?
            Have you ever heard such a term?

            What planet are you writing from? Ierative?
            He found profit in KB ...
            Soviet.
            1. lazy
              lazy 27 September 2022 19: 07
              0
              well, it was no longer Soviet time, so it could well have been from a Chinese order, until the moment they ate it up and put it incomprehensibly where the money was, dry and invested in a golden eagle in su80
              1. SovAr238A
                SovAr238A 27 September 2022 23: 29
                +1
                Quote: lazy
                well, it was no longer Soviet time, so it could well have been from a Chinese order, until the moment they ate it up and put it incomprehensibly where the money was, dry and invested in a golden eagle in su80

                Did you look at the project implementation dates at all? Train than to write?
      2. helmi8
        helmi8 26 September 2022 09: 02
        +5
        It is much cheaper to make a flying model in one copy than a serial aircraft.

        Everything is exactly the opposite. Serial production is several times cheaper than a single assembly, where most of the operations are performed manually.
        1. Fizik13
          Fizik13 26 September 2022 09: 35
          0
          ... Serial production is several times cheaper than a single assembly, where most of the operations are performed manually.

          Do not confuse the mass production of aircraft and cars!
          Even the serial Su-35 is assembled by hand. Moreover, the Su-47 did not have even half of the equipment that is on a combat fighter. This is essentially a glider with an engine and electronics that are necessary for flight and engine control.
      3. Sergey Valov
        Sergey Valov 26 September 2022 09: 31
        +5
        Exactly the opposite. Single projects are always much more expensive than mass-produced cars, these are the basics.
        1. UA3QHP
          UA3QHP 26 September 2022 10: 15
          +1
          Single projects are always much more expensive than mass-produced cars, these are the basics.

          In this case, this is not a full-fledged aircraft, but a flying model - a demonstrator that does not have a significant amount of equipment and is made with a large proportion of components from mass-produced products.
    2. Eug
      Eug 26 September 2022 08: 39
      +6
      OKB money from Indian contracts. And the name Su-37 was originally given to a single-engine longitudinal triplane developed in the mid-80s with the R-79-300 engine, which was considered as a light (normal take-off weight of 18 tons) multi-purpose aircraft for the Air Force of the Warsaw Pact countries (to replace the Su-17 ( x), MiG-23,27, and even MiG-29) and for commercial export, showed a model at the Middle East exhibition in 92-93. True, he also allegedly wore the Su-32 index. There was another Su-37 (b / n 711) - to the "first" Su-35 (b / n 709) "added" UVT.
      1. Eug
        Eug 26 September 2022 10: 58
        +1
        Damn, the first Su-37 was not a longitudinal triplane, it was just with a PGO, there was no tail GO.
    3. iouris
      iouris 26 September 2022 09: 36
      -3
      Quote: Alien From
      Where does Zin come from?

      In Soviet times, money was taken "from the bedside table." But where is the money now? Where is "Pogosyan & sons and K", where is "Rogozin & sons and K"? But, most importantly, where are the microprocessors, microcircuits, micromechanical and electron-optical devices, quadrocopters and drones? At least in Iran ... "Artificial Intelligence" ...
      It's time for someone to drink tea...
  3. ramzay21
    ramzay21 26 September 2022 07: 50
    +7
    The pest Pogosyan destroyed the MiG-1.44 fighter flying and ready for production in 2000, pushing through a non-existent project, as a result, our Air Force, which could have already had more than a hundred fifth-generation MiGs, has only a few Su-57s, but on the basis of the MiG- 1.44, a light single-engine fighter of the fifth generation was also created.
    The same pest Poghosyan also had a hand in the destruction of the civil aviation industry, helping to slaughter the finished domestic Tu-204 and Tu-334 with an essentially imported Superjet, and having no experience in civil aircraft construction, he completely failed in the service and supply of spare parts, and the Superjet turned out to be mediocre.
    1. Genry
      Genry 26 September 2022 11: 30
      +4
      Quote: ramzay21
      The pest Pogosyan destroyed the MiG-1.44 fighter flying and ready for production in 2000, pushing through a non-existent project,

      I wonder what non-existent project he was pushing? Or are you "carrying" your non-existent ...?
      Quote: ramzay21
      Pogosyan also had a hand in the destruction of the civil aviation industry, helping to slaughter the finished domestic Tu-204 and Tu-334, in fact, with an imported Superjet,

      And what did Pogosyan have to do with the T-204, the Vedas Superzhdet - an aircraft from another niche up to 100 pax, and the Tu-204 about 200 pax.
      Tu-334 in general, more than half a Ukrainian aircraft, with Ukrainian engines, and they wanted to assemble it in Kharkov (outskirts). It would be like with An-140, An-148, An-158. Yes, and his design was on the principle of "attach somehow", they wanted to take part of the Tu-204 fuselage sections (too thick) using pushing fan-fan engines in the tail. The engines did not work out, they were replaced with turbofans, but it turned out to be a semblance of a wretched T-134, which very often fell in a tailspin, tail first. And he was ready from the word "no-how", since the tests had just begun.
      Quote: ramzay21
      completely failed the service and supply of spare parts, and the Superjet turned out to be mediocre.

      And for which Russian aircraft was / is there a developed service, if everything was ruined?
      And the Superwait is a very good plane, just some of the paid ones, they are heavily thrown at the fan.
      1. ramzay21
        ramzay21 26 September 2022 19: 50
        -1
        I wonder what non-existent project he was pushing? Or are you "carrying" your non-existent ...?

        The MiG-1.44 had already taken off in 2000, and the Su-57 did not yet exist. Or in your version of history, the Su-57 existed in 2000?
        And what did Pogosyan have to do with the T-204, the Vedas Superzhdet - an aircraft from another niche up to 100 pax, and the Tu-204 about 200 pax.

        Pogosyan pulled all the funding over to himself, so the funding for the Tupolev Design Bureau dropped to zero, and as a result, the design bureau died, then, under the guarantor, the design bureau buildings in Moscow were seized and the employees were kicked in the ass. Therefore, it was Pogosyan who began the destruction of the Tupolev Design Bureau and all its civilian aircraft, including the Tu-204.
        Tu-334 in general, more than half a Ukrainian aircraft, with Ukrainian engines, and they wanted to assemble it in Kharkov (outskirts).

        You're lying. The Tu-334 was supposed to be produced only at KAPO, in the 90s they planned to produce it in Kyiv, but then they refused. Kharkov was never considered.
        He only has Ukrainian engines that need to be replaced with PD-8s, like the Superjet.
        Yes, and his design was on the principle of "attach somehow", they wanted to take part of the Tu-204 fuselage sections (too thick) using pushing fan-fan engines in the tail.

        Again lies. This is called maximum unification to reduce the cost of components and, accordingly, the entire aircraft, the share of unification with the Tu-204 was 60%, and this fact greatly simplified the start of mass production, since more than 60% of the components were already mass-produced for the Tu-204.
        The plane was designed by competent people and they thought first of all about saving and not about how to cut the loot and do nothing like Poghosyan.
        About pushing vento-fan motors, old people said they heard a ringing but did not know where it was. The same engines were planned for the Tu-334 as for the Be-200 and An-148.
        The engines did not work out, they were replaced with turbofans, but it turned out to be a semblance of a wretched T-134, which very often fell in a tailspin, tail first.

        You wrote complete nonsense and lies. The Tu-334 flew on exactly the same engines that the Be-200 and An-148 are still flying.
        And the Tu-134 was one of the best Soviet aircraft and ALL of its disasters were only the fault of the crew.
        And for which Russian aircraft was / is there a developed service, if everything was ruined?

        For the Tu-204 and Il-96 until the 2010s, the service was much better than for the Superjets, until it was completely finished off.
        And the Superwait is a very good plane, just some of the paid ones, they are heavily thrown at the fan.

        If you knew at least a little about aviation, you wouldn’t be writing nonsense now. The Superjet is mediocre and much worse than the Brazilian Embraer, having almost the same components.

        And if it weren’t for Pogosyan and the traitors who ruined our aviation industry for Boeing bribes, namely Gref, Khristenko, Medvedev and Manturov, then we would have had our own national air carrier, equipped with completely domestic aircraft Il-96-400M, Tu-334, Tu-204 and Il-114, which would have already been replaced by new generation aircraft of the MS-21 type, and an aircraft based on MS-21 technologies would have been developed to replace the Il-96-400M.
    2. Maxim G
      Maxim G 26 September 2022 15: 22
      0
      The Tu-204 could replace the Superjet, there is about one niche in terms of the number of seats.
      Moreover, there was a positive experience from operation in Dalavia. But the cars were deliberately put on routes where there are few passengers, in order to show that they are supposedly unprofitable.

      As for the MiG-1.44, such an aircraft is redundant for the Russian Federation, as it seems to me, and, moreover, with an internal compartment.
      My opinion was to do something like the Rafal, plus cheap and simple ones like the Gripen, and even better the Korean FA-50.
      1. ramzay21
        ramzay21 26 September 2022 20: 02
        -1
        To be precise, the Tu-334 is a classmate of the Superjet, of course.
        And the example with Dalavia, when Tu-204s were profitable and the company helped their region, and then effective managers came and made Boeings and Airbuses unprofitable on the same routes, perfectly shows that the Tu-204 is an excellent aircraft and the management of Aeroflot are pests and embezzlers.
        As for the MiG-1.44, such an aircraft is redundant for the Russian Federation, as it seems to me, and, moreover, with an internal compartment.

        The MiG-1.44 was cheaper than the Su-57 and was his classmate. And such aircraft for our vast territory is a necessity. In addition, the MiG Design Bureau was developing a light single-engine fighter based on the MiG-1.44, and such an aircraft should have replaced the MiG-29 and become the most massive fighter in our Air Force. But the intrigues of the pest Poghosyan destroyed the then advanced design bureau and put an end to these developments.
        1. Maxim G
          Maxim G 26 September 2022 21: 16
          0
          There was a short Tu-204-300 with about 140 seats, it is closer to the planned Superjet, especially the long one with 120 seats.
          1. ramzay21
            ramzay21 27 September 2022 03: 29
            +1
            I don't know about this one! But the class is still different.
            Now it’s too late, of course, to talk about the Tu-334, its time has passed, now there is a Superjet and it needs to be brought to mind. But this should not be done by Sukhoi, but by those who have experience in building and operating civil aircraft, so the legendary Soviet design bureaus Tupolev, Ilyushin and Yakovlev should be revived, new aircraft should be built by them.
            And in military aviation, the MiG must be revived, there must be competition, because Su's monopoly will not lead to good results.
            1. Maxim G
              Maxim G 27 September 2022 18: 39
              0
              It would be necessary to replace the An-24 yet.
              Or at least produce it.
              1. ramzay21
                ramzay21 27 September 2022 19: 51
                0
                It would be necessary to replace the An-24 yet.
                Or at least produce it.

                The An-24 was replaced back in the USSR, this is the Il-114, which was put into production at TAPOiCh in Tashkent 30 years ago. It is those who destroyed our aviation industry that are trying to establish its release.
                Although, for good, its release could be arranged 20 years ago at the Saratov aircraft factory demolished a few years ago, at the half-dead Samara aircraft factory stolen by Diripaska, or at the Ulyanovsk aircraft factory. But no one in the current government really needs this, and they are incapable of building something.
            2. lazy
              lazy 27 September 2022 19: 14
              0
              if 334 was normal, then airlines would buy it and not an148 until a superjet appeared, but for some reason companies preferred 148 and not 334, how do you suggest that companies cram an economically unprofitable aircraft, Tupolev impotents could not even make a crew of two pilots all the time . well, with Ukrainian engines since 14 from 334 in Russia it would be the same as 148
              1. ramzay21
                ramzay21 27 September 2022 20: 03
                0
                The "economically unprofitable" Tu-204 brought income to the Dalavia airline, and this company helped its region with money, and then effective managers came, this company survived from the market and began to receive losses from the operation of the "economically profitable" Boeing and Airbus.
  4. AVESSALOM
    AVESSALOM 26 September 2022 07: 55
    0
    Poghosyan should be in prison. And working on this freak is nothing more than drinking money.
    1. Genry
      Genry 26 September 2022 11: 32
      +1
      Quote: AVESSALOM
      Poghosyan should be in jail.

      And you will be planted on a sapling of young bamboo to feed on your flesh.
  5. Sergey Obraztsov
    Sergey Obraztsov 26 September 2022 08: 03
    +2
    Twenty-five years old .. I first learned about its existence when I was still a teenager in a reference book that tells about the weapons of the armies of the world. There were also several, as it was then written, "promising" models of the 5th generation. The Sukhoi plane and MIG1.44 were also mentioned there. I really liked the Su-47 then in appearance.
    It was a year .. I can’t say for sure. But early 2000s.
  6. kit88
    kit88 26 September 2022 08: 17
    +16
    Development of the Su-47, originally bearing the Su-37 index

    Here is the experimental Su-37:

    Here is the Su-47:

    Development of the Su-47, originally had an index C-37
    All Sukhoi aircraft have indexes:
    Su-27 -- T-10;
    Su-57 -- T-50;
    Su-47 -- S-37...
    The letter "T" in the design bureau denotes aircraft with a delta wing, the letter "C" with swept.
    1. iz odessy
      iz odessy 26 September 2022 08: 39
      0
      or T-6 "index" Su 24 I remember from the 70s, not quite an arrow
      1. lazy
        lazy 27 September 2022 19: 18
        0
        initially, the su24 was with a delta wing and an additional lifting engine (by the way, it is in Monino), but they realized something was wrong and redid it (as with the su27 they did 10, they realized something was wrong and redid it)
    2. Sergey Valov
      Sergey Valov 26 September 2022 09: 34
      -1
      The triangular wing is ALWAYS swept.
      1. kit88
        kit88 26 September 2022 09: 49
        +9
        Most modern high-speed aircraft have swept or triangular wings in plan.
        The triangular wing is a variation of the swept wing. It works similarly to the arrow-shaped one, but there may be some differences. With a large length of the root chord, the contour of the working skin turns out to be quite large and, consequently, the tangential stresses that arise in the skin from the action of Mcr turn out to be insignificant. This allows thinner skins to be used in delta wings.
        1. Sergey Valov
          Sergey Valov 26 September 2022 15: 55
          +1
          A delta wing with the same span will have more area, and, theoretically, more lift and less drag. It will be heavier, but it will have large internal volumes. As for the thinner skin, due to the larger wing area, the power pack is likely to be heavier. Everything is very ambiguous.
          But there is still a deltoid wing. drinks
  7. dauria
    dauria 26 September 2022 08: 18
    0
    made according to the aerodynamic scheme "longitudinal integral triplane"

    Stunned! They managed not to make a single edge parallel to the others. Yes, and "internal" corners. As if the RCS and visibility of the car were specially increased to the maximum. But then it was already clear that a small EPR was just as necessary as a radar and missiles on board. recourse
    What considerations were guided by, I do not understand.
    1. edmed
      edmed 26 September 2022 08: 33
      +1
      Quote: dauria
      What considerations were guided by, I do not understand.

      In some n-t magazine, a hypothetical aircraft carrier with an air group of S-47s with a folding wing was presented, it turned out that it was more compact compared to the classical scheme and it was possible to cram more S-47s than "classics".
      1. ycuce234-san
        ycuce234-san 26 September 2022 20: 18
        +1
        I don’t remember the number in Technique-Youth, but I still remember (!) A typical 3D drawing of an aircraft with a folded wing in the dimensions of an air lift.
        1. Bad_gr
          Bad_gr 27 September 2022 01: 16
          +2
          Quote: ycuce234-san
          3D drawing of an aircraft with a folded wing in the dimensions of an airlift.
    2. engineer74
      engineer74 26 September 2022 09: 04
      +1
      Quote: dauria
      made according to the aerodynamic scheme "longitudinal integral triplane"

      Stunned! They managed not to make a single edge parallel to the others. Yes, and "internal" corners. As if the RCS and visibility of the car were specially increased to the maximum. But then it was already clear that a small EPR was just as necessary as a radar and missiles on board. recourse
      What considerations were guided by, I do not understand.

      It turns out interesting here: the progress of detection tools (electronics and algorithms) is far ahead of the development of stealth technology, so, in 10-20 years, they will put on stealth. The trend will again be speed (hypersonic) and altitude (near space). S-37 / Su-47, perhaps, determined the time, although it doesn’t smell of hypersound there, but “super-super-maneuverability”, in theory, should have been wink
      IMHO hi
      1. Genry
        Genry 26 September 2022 11: 40
        +1
        Quote: engineer74
        ato "super-super-simplicity", in theory, should have been

        In fact, the emphasis on super-maneuverability was made by some undereducated engineers.
        The Su-47 was supposed to be operated on aircraft carriers and the reverse sweep provided greater lift stability at lower speeds.
        And maneuverability is provided by longitudinal instability, which is restrained by rigid electronic controls, plus vector-controlled engines ....
    3. Maxim G
      Maxim G 27 September 2022 18: 50
      0
      An experimental car, not a serial one. winked
      But whether a fighter needs an internal compartment is a big question, like a KIS for a light front-line fighter and a vertical take-off for a carrier-based attack aircraft.
  8. AVA77
    AVA77 26 September 2022 08: 24
    0
    I saw him live on max, he looked beautiful and unusual. Then the Americans were our first friends, they even brought an F-16 and some kind of bomber.
    I don't even remember what year it was. sad
  9. Two
    Two 26 September 2022 08: 41
    -1
    hi It was laid out somehow indistinctly. Composites have always been praised, but where are the rest of the "novelties" hidden?
  10. solar
    solar 26 September 2022 08: 55
    0
    Developments on the Su-47 Berkut fighter, which took off 25 years ago, were used to create the fifth generation Su-57 fighter

    I carefully read the article, but did not understand what developments were used to create the Su-57.
    As for composites, it is not clear what developments in composites were used, all the same, deck-based - but it was created as a carrier-based fighter called Su-27KM, the USSR Air Force abandoned it at a very early stage (for the Air Force they began to create it as a modernization of the Su-27) - Su-47 and Su-57 are completely different aircraft with different schemes and different wings.
    About the bomb bay - there was no bomb bay on the Su-47, it was already made in the process of working on the Su-57, when the Su-47 began to be used as a flying laboratory (it seems that the writer does not quite understand what this means).
    layout, technical and technological solutions were worked out

    it is not clear, their layout is completely different, what technical solutions are common - the article does not say, about technological ones - it is not at all clear, the Su-47 was created before they started working on the Su-47.
  11. SovAr238A
    SovAr238A 26 September 2022 09: 08
    +5
    In fact, very ambivalent opinions about this aircraft.
    The Americans made their X-29 almost 10-15 years before us. And by 1988, the program was completely closed, as a failure for combat aviation.
    This aerodynamic design is completely unsuitable for combat aircraft.
    We seem to have even understood and accepted the American conclusions. And they stopped the program.
    But the sawyer Poghosyan decided to promote his existence at any cost. And he restored the program again, through the administrative and crony resource.
    Clearly understanding that by his actions he does not develop anything, but only engages in degradation - he spends budget money on a previously known disastrous result.

    The fact that supposedly developments from the technologies of the 70s are used is complete trash.
    Su-47 has already taken developments. For use in your layout. He did not give anything new at all.
    Composites have evolved without this failed project.
    The principles of computer modeling of structures with all the necessary characteristics appeared in 10-15 years.
    So the Su-47, in fact, did not give anything at all.
    Just took it.
    Lots of money and resources.
    1. Genry
      Genry 26 September 2022 11: 59
      +1
      Quote: SovAr238A
      But the sawyer Poghosyan decided to promote his existence at any cost. And he restored the program again, through the administrative and crony resource.

      Yes, you are not only moving bags.
      Reverse sweep is needed for stability at low takeoff and landing speeds, which is necessary for aircraft carrier aviation.

      Quote: SovAr238A
      So the Su-47, in fact, did not give anything at all.
      Just took it.
      Lots of money and resources.

      Didn't pick up a bunch. In fact, a new wing was attached to the serial Su-27 from the then existing composites. A series of tests showed the lack of rigidity of this wing and the impossibility of achieving high speeds with maneuvering - the wing twisted. These experiments yielded results that would make it possible to build such aircraft on a new material basis.
      By the way, the SR-10 was made according to a similar scheme and passed all the tests, but did not go into production due to the lobbying by the MiG of its TCB, which had not yet taken off.
  12. Petr_Koldunov
    Petr_Koldunov 26 September 2022 11: 27
    0
    I will not go into the meaning and profitability of the project. Let it be done by numerous flea detectors, who only need to drop a drop of dirt everywhere in order to show themselves to be experts...

    But the look is ugly! A fantastically beautiful car, even a little mystical and irrational beauty...