Military Review

Plant poisons in war

249

Gasparo Diziani. Hercules strikes with a poisoned arrow the centaur Nessus, who kidnapped his wife Dejanira



For a long time, eternally warring people have tried to gain an advantage by making their weapon more dangerous and deadly. And, of course, many turned their eyes towards all kinds of poisons of natural origin. However, empirically, it was possible to find out that it is not so easy to poison a person, and not only with arsenic and cantarella, which was described in a series of articles about Pope Alexander VI Borgia and his children, Cesare and Lucrezia, but even the notorious "Novice" ( unless, of course, one believes that the substances of this group were actually used against the Skripals and Navalny). And therefore we do not read stories about how the soldiers of some Persian ruler or Byzantine strategist, before the battle, dip their swords and arrows into a vat of poison carefully prepared by ancient military toxicologists. Poisoned weapons are an indispensable attribute of some terrible secret society like the Nizari Order of the Assassins. And the dagger of one of the last Fedais, who made an attempt on the life of the English Prince Edward in 1272 in Acre, of course, was poisoned. The recipe for this poison, known to every self-respecting assassin, of course, is lost: no one wanted to get rich by revealing the secret of its manufacture to Baibars, Saladin, Guy de Lusignan or the Mongol Khan Hulagu, whose soldiers captured more than 40 Nizari fortresses. However, the symptoms of the wounded Edward and the effectiveness of surgical treatment (excision of necrotic tissue) clearly indicate that in this case there was a banal wound infection. Microbes and their toxins acted no worse than the most dangerous poison, and local infectious complications in the absence of antibiotics often turned into sepsis.

The Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos allegedly also died from a poisoned arrow accidentally fired at him, and this happened during a hunt. I wonder why use poison on a hunt? To try to poison one of the guests with the meat of a dead animal? After all, to kill a large animal, the concentration of poison must be large enough. Or is it such a sophisticated way of killing a hunter?

When an attempt was made on the life of Ibrahim Pasha, the Grand Vizier of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, it was also claimed that a poisoned arrow was fired at him, although there is no data confirming this version. But, you understand, who in their right mind would try to kill the Grand Vizier with an ordinary arrow? Even the poisoned woman did not take it.

Plant poisons in war
Frame from the TV series "The Magnificent Century": the wounding of the Grand Vizier Ibrahim

All sorts of aborigines and natives are declared other keepers of the secrets of combat poisons. Well, how else could the Europeans explain the high mortality during their campaigns and expeditions? Not the same boring reasons as infectious diseases and wound infections that complicate even the slightest wound - and all this against the backdrop of humid tropical heat, chronic fatigue and beriberi. But modern pharmacologists are skeptical even about the stories about the effective use of the famous curare. The fact is that in the concentrations used by the Indians, this poison is dangerous only for small animals - and that often does not kill them, but only immobilizes them for a while. A small light arrow, the tip of which is moistened with such a poison, has a low kinetic energy and penetrates only into the upper layers of the skin, where there are few blood vessels and absorption is poor. An adult will feel only a slight pain at the point where the arrow hit, this will not affect the general condition in any way. And that is why the spectacular shots of adventure films, where a hefty man falls when a miniature arrow fired from a tube by forced exhalation hits his hand, have nothing to do with reality.

In general, the "disadvantages" of almost all natural poisons that prevent their combat use are the insufficient speed of onset of action, low concentration in the volumes used, as well as rapid destruction, instability.

Let's try to deal with natural poisons and attempts at their practical application. We will not touch on synthetic poisons in this article.

Poisons in the Bible


Poisons are mentioned in the Bible, and the Hebrew words meaning "poison" are traditionally translated into Russian as "bile" and "wormwood". For example, Jeremiah 9:15:

“Therefore thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Behold, I will feed them, this people, with wormwood, and I will give them bile water to drink.”

And the notorious biblical "Star Wormwood" is not a prediction of the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant - it's just a "Poison Star". And "Chernobyl", one of the species of the plant wormwood (unknown in Palestine) is a bitter herb, but not poisonous. Consider the Revelation of John of Patmos:

“And a third of the waters became wormwood, and many of the people died from the waters, because they became bitter…”

The literal translation would be:

"A third of the waters became poisonous, and many people died of poisoning."

Snake venom in the Bible is denoted by a separate word "rosh".

In addition, in the Book of Numbers 11:33 there is a story about the poisoning of the Jews with the meat of wild quails. The most amazing thing is that he turned out to be true: Professor Sergeon, director of the Algiers branch of the Pasteur Institute, found out that in Sudan there is a plant whose grains contain poison that does not affect quails, but accumulates in their meat. But the use of poisons for military purposes is prudently not mentioned in the Bible: indeed, why undermine the credibility of a collection of sacred texts?

Poisoned Arrows of Hercules


But Hercules successfully used arrows, the tips of which were moistened with the poison of the Lernean hydra he had killed. But the Hellenes themselves were very condescending to this story: they say, God can, however, "what is allowed to Jupiter, it is not allowed to the bull." And the Lernaean hydras are no more. It is now impossible to check how deadly their secretions are. Hercules, by the way, died from this poison: he hit the centaur Nessus with a poisoned arrow, who desired his wife Dejanira, and before his death, he “revealed a secret to the woman”: his blood is a love potion of terrible power.


Franz Von Stuck. Hercules kills the centaur Nessus

Dejanira soaked her husband's shirt with poisoned blood, and the suffering of Hercules was so great that he chose to commit self-immolation. He presented a bow and arrows to a certain Philoctetes, but the poison of the hydra, apparently, was already expired - just like the “Novichok”, with which the unlucky Petrov and Boshirov allegedly poisoned the Skripals and, apparently, also Navalny (why not? the more ridiculous the lie, the more chances that the public will believe in it). However, let us return to Philoctetes, who, having been injured on the way to Troy by an arrow with an expired poison, did not die, but began to stink so much that his companions landed him on the island of Lemnos.


Philoctetes in a painting by Guillaume Guyon-Letierre. The bird on the tree of the “aroma” coming from him, it seems, also could not stand it. I hope she didn't die, but is in a deep faint.

Later, Philoctetes nevertheless sailed to the walls of Troy and killed Paris with an arrow presented by Hercules. However, it seems that this cute little squishy would have died anyway, without the poison of the hydra - if not from a wound, then from a wound infection.

By the way, the well-known word toxin (“toxikon”) is of Greek origin and means “poison”.

Another great hero of antiquity, Rustam, killed the invulnerable hero Isfandiyar with a poisoned arrow from a tamarisk tree. But this is again an epic - now Iranian, "Shahnameh".


Rustam and Isfandiyar, scene from Shahnameh

As for the real stories, and in Hellas, and in Ancient Rome, and in the states of other peoples, according to the authors of various works and chronicles, people were often poisoned and with great pleasure - political opponents, bored spouses, too long living relatives and so on. A rather weighty book could be written about this (these, however, have already been written, and more than one). But we are now talking about the military use of poisons and therefore we will not consider political and domestic murders, which are believed to have been carried out with the help of poisoning. We only note that the stories about the insidious poisoners who killed many people should be treated with a certain degree of caution. After all, before the advent of modern ideas about hygiene and the era of antibiotics, any person, even the richest and noblest, could easily die from an infectious disease, the symptoms of which were often understood as signs of poisoning - fortunately, influential people had no shortage of enemies. Yes, and suddenly developing pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident has not been canceled. We have already talked about this in articles about the Borgia family and mentioned it when talking about Catherine de Medici. Today we will talk about the poisons that were used to apply to weapons (most often arrows) and try to assess the degree of their effectiveness.

Acocanthera abyssinian



In Africa, Kenyans, Tanzanians, Rwandans, Ethiopians and Somalis used the concentrated juice of Acocanthera Abyssinian to make poisoned arrows. The name of the main active ingredient of this poison is ouabain. It comes from the Somali word waabaayo - "poisonous arrow". Ouabain is found in the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of the acocanthera, but its fruits are edible. Another source of ouabain is noble strophanthus. Ouabain is a very ancient poison. The first mention of its use is contained in the writings of Theophrastus, who lived in the III century BC. The action of ouabain is systemic: when it enters the blood, it causes palpitations, arrhythmia, shortness of breath, twitching of the muscles of the neck and chest. With a high concentration of poison - about 200 mg, cardiac arrest may occur, but this is possible only if a person is simultaneously injured by a dozen arrows. According to Portuguese sources, such arrows were used by the natives in 1505 when they defended Mombasa (a coral island in the Indian Ocean, where the city of the same name is now located, the second largest in Kenya). However, as you know, the use by both Kenyans and other Africans of arrows, the tips of which were moistened with a concentrated solution of ouabain, did not prevent the Europeans from consistently defeating them. So the Portuguese on the island of Mombasu, being wounded by poisoned arrows, did not fall during the attack, as if they had been cut down. The wounded experienced additional discomfort, but many of them continued to fight, and the island was captured. The use of arrows with ouabain made sense when hunting small animals. But they could not have a serious impact on the course of the battle with a strong enemy.

Curare


This poison was already mentioned at the beginning of the article. The Indians of Central and South America used not one, but dozens of plants containing the necessary substances to obtain it. From the root of Chondrodendron tomentosum, the most powerful poison was obtained - Tubo-curare. The bark of Strychnos castelniaeana and Chondrodendron trees has been used to produce Pot Curare. Calabash curare was made from the bark of Strychnos toxifera. Different tribes added additional components to curare - poisonous insects and worms, as well as particles of poisonous amphibians and reptiles. The meaning of such additives was to increase the toxicity of the poison, the development of inflammation in the wound area, and the disruption of blood clotting processes. However, the main active ingredient is curare. It is a muscle relaxant that paralyzes the respiratory muscles. The poison may seem just perfect, but the downside is the low concentration: it takes at least 200 microliters to knock down an adult man - from 3-5 drops, depending on the weight of the enemy. In general, to achieve the desired effect, the conquistador or "tomb raider" just needs to be stuck with arrows.

By the way, at the trial of the right SRs, which began shortly after the assassination attempt on Lenin by F. Kaplan, it turned out that the group of Grigory Semenov who organized it used curare, which was applied to the notches on the bullets.


A. M. Gerasimov. "Shot at the People"

So, talking about the poisoned bullets that were used by the enemies of the new government during the attempt on Lenin, the Bolsheviks spoke the pure truth. But this attempt at additional poisoning was obviously doomed to failure, because curare decomposes at high temperatures and was neutralized by powder gases when fired. In general, the gentlemen of the right SRs should have read a textbook on chemistry, and not only the works of Chernyshevsky, Mikhailovsky and Lavrov, whom they revere.

In the next article, we will continue the story of natural poisons and attempts to use them.
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  1. ee2100
    ee2100 6 August 2022 04: 46
    +17
    Good balanced article.
    Fairy tales - zero! Bold Plus

    Do not give rest to the laurels of Constantine! laughing
    And I added about curare
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 6 August 2022 09: 52
      +4
      And without fairy tales it's boring.
      1. ee2100
        ee2100 6 August 2022 11: 21
        +3
        I added a picture so it would not be boring drinks
  2. Basil50
    Basil50 6 August 2022 04: 49
    +5
    The author is right.
    Respectable people have always tried to kill * not just *. What is in reality, what is in the myths-legends.
    Much has been written about the poisons used in battle, from the massive use of poisonous arrows against the Persians to the gases used by the Germans during WWI.
    But the ability to poison has not disappeared anywhere. More often they are poisoned in such a way that such deaths arouse little suspicion.
    Although occasionally in the movie scenes with poisons flash. Even with a very exotic batrachotoxin for us (if I remember correctly).
    But still, the poisonings that we hear about most often are household or food, well, or anecdotal, with the participation of Petrov-Bashirov or Alibasov.
    1. Tochilka
      Tochilka 6 August 2022 12: 03
      +2
      In the 90s, it was the banker Kivilidi who was poisoned. If I remember correctly, the poison was applied to the handset. Following him, his assistant, who took on that phone, died.
      Pr **** ok-from-the-mind Alibasov, who allegedly drank a caustic washing liquid, is lying. A normal person, to whom a drop of concentrated alkali gets on the mucous membrane, will not finish drinking the contents.
    2. TEX-50
      TEX-50 6 August 2022 18: 33
      0
      Well, if poisoning with military agents, this is an anecdotal case .... well, let it be.
      1. Senior seaman
        Senior seaman 6 August 2022 22: 38
        +6
        Combat OV is serious. But the story about how two eccentrics brought combat agents in a bottle of cologne and without any protection processed the door handle does not even pull on a joke.
        Just idiotic.
        1. TEX-50
          TEX-50 7 August 2022 07: 28
          -9
          Let's still share the story of two dudes who brought something there, and the story of two dudes who were poisoned. The first is not at all obvious, but the second is more than obvious. The Skripals were poisoned, this is a fact, although the history itself, who painstakingly studied it (like me), raises a lot of questions. Much more than the story of Navalny (who was also, no doubt, poisoned with a cholinesterase inhibitor).

          About the two dudes and the doorknob. For example, I could quite easily do such a job using only gloves. There is nothing difficult in this. No shoe covers, gas masks and OZK are required for this. It is only necessary to protect the skin of the hands from microdroplets. You can still hold your breath, though not necessarily given. how much was applied.

          About idiocy, or why Skripals and Navalny survived. The answer is simple - intensive therapy was used in both cases. All victims were quickly put into an artificial coma (to save the CNS and brain from fatal destruction by seizures) and connected to a ventilator. And they were on this ventilator for the entire period while a new cholinesterase was being produced in the body instead of the hopelessly blocked one. This period can go on for weeks. And if Navalny was just lucky (the plane landed on time), then in the case of the Skripals, IMHO, everything was ready in advance.

          Kivelidi and his secretary were less fortunate, because the dose was such that it was basically impossible to save them. The same goes for a couple of junkies from Amesbury. The man immediately washed off the OM from his fingers, and the aunt not only applied an order of magnitude large dose, she also rubbed it into the skin, actively sniffed it and did not wash it off.
          1. Senior seaman
            Senior seaman 7 August 2022 09: 23
            +4
            Quote: TEX-50
            The first is not at all obvious, but the second is more than obvious.

            The fact is that
            1) These stories go together
            2) There is nothing obvious in the second case.
            Quote: TEX-50
            For example, I could quite easily do such a job using only gloves.

            Yes. Two cubes of chlorpromazine intravenously and a glass of polonium at night.
            Quote: TEX-50
            why Skripals and Navalny survived

            For the same reason no one can catch the elusive Joe.
            Quote: TEX-50
            then in the case of the Skripals, IMHO, everything was ready in advance.

            A Freudian slip. Who in that case "poisoned" him? And did you poison?
            The main question in any crime - Who benefits?
            P.S. Somehow BBC correspondents asked Darkest in an interview why his political opponents like Nemtsov, Skripal and Politkovskaya are dying.
            I only had one question. Why did they offend Arkady Babchenko so much? The man tried...
            1. TEX-50
              TEX-50 7 August 2022 11: 31
              -6
              These stories don't go together. The second story comes from many eyewitnesses, and the first from propaganda. Further, your witticisms are not interesting to me at all, just as your knowledge (which is not) in the investigation and forensics is not interesting. I do not consider the question of who poisoned the Skripals and Navalny, and why. It doesn't interest me at all. I'm only interested in the technical and scientific parts. What, how, symptoms, how treated, what outcome-prognosis. Who is Babchenko, I do not know.
              1. Senior seaman
                Senior seaman 7 August 2022 12: 08
                +3
                Quote: TEX-50
                Who is Babchenko, I do not know.

                You don’t know anything about me either, but you are trying to evaluate my knowledge.
                About signs and treatment you too only assume. And yes, it was not without propaganda. The only question is which side.
                But I understand you.
                1. TEX-50
                  TEX-50 7 August 2022 13: 00
                  -5
                  I don't assume anything. I know exactly. About treatment, symptoms, etc.
                  1. Senior seaman
                    Senior seaman 7 August 2022 13: 35
                    +3
                    Quote: TEX-50
                    I know exactly.

                    Of course of course. You personally examined Yulia Skripal, took tests from her father. I believe. Take it easy.
          2. shikin
            shikin 7 August 2022 13: 42
            +1
            Do you have any idea what FOV is, which Novichok is classified as? The lethal dose is the smallest drop, the duration of action is minutes. After contact with the skin, wash off - you will not have time.
            1. TEX-50
              TEX-50 7 August 2022 14: 15
              -5
              I don't, I know. You can't imagine. If you even lower your finger, and then immediately put it in a degassing solution, then there will be nothing. If you just wash away, like Charlie, you may or may not be poisoned.

              All these tales and pathos are greatly exaggerated.
            2. Duncan
              Duncan 7 August 2022 16: 46
              +1
              Can you imagine that the founders of paralyzing FOS (tabun and pyrophosphates) were not even suspected of toxicity for 40 years? They worked neatly, did not get dirty, cockroaches were not bred in the workplace. Only in the 30s did they find toxicity and how pesticides began to be used.
              Permeability through the skin, especially hands, is very different for people, some do not even get shocked.
              1. TEX-50
                TEX-50 7 August 2022 21: 10
                -1
                Yes. Oiling the doorknob wasn't the smartest thing to do. Unless, of course, it was the pen that was smeared, which I have very big doubts about.

                And as for permeability, Colonel Lindsey got pissed off when he dipped his finger into pure VX in a glass for a couple of seconds at a lecture, and then just washed it off. And continued the lecture. For reference, one drop of VX through the skin can kill 3-5 people. The most permeable places are the eye socket, the skin behind the ears and the scrotum. There, resorption occurs most rapidly. Therefore, when Kim Jong Nam was poisoned with VX, they did everything correctly, they simply rubbed it into his eye sockets and face skin. The dose was such that it was impossible to save him, and despite mechanical ventilation, he died after 30 minutes.

                As for the herd, they had a drop on the bench past the draft, and they were poisoned in pairs, Schrader and assistant. Slightly, but with miosis and oppression of the chest.
  3. Catfish
    Catfish 6 August 2022 05: 13
    +18
    Eh, Valery, Valery... What a beautiful legend with poisoned arrows... Curare... a magic word since childhood, secrets, poisons and an attempt on the Leader... He smashed everything to smithereens with one, albeit an interesting article. Interesting, sorry... smile
    1. Luminman
      Luminman 6 August 2022 07: 42
      +5
      Quote: Sea Cat
      What a beautiful legend with poisoned arrows

      In London, they poisoned one Bulgarian journalist with an umbrella prick! And it wasn't a legend... wink
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 6 August 2022 07: 50
        +13
        Looks like everyone got thoroughly that journalist. wink

        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 6 August 2022 08: 03
          +6
          The first movie with Richard, watched in the cinema.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 6 August 2022 08: 06
            +9
            And cinema, as you know, never lies! good

            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 6 August 2022 08: 27
              +5
              But this is an invention in a specially designated place.
              And from childhood they taught: "A fairy tale is a lie, but there is a hint in it."
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 6 August 2022 08: 43
                +3
                "A fairy tale is a lie, but there is a hint in it."


                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 6 August 2022 08: 56
                  +4
                  Already sent, so sent!
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 6 August 2022 09: 21
                    +4
                    And you write me letters in small handwriting
                    Since there is not enough space in the backpack ...
                    1. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 6 August 2022 10: 25
                      +4
                      I personally carry letters, letters to mail.
                      It's like I'm writing a novel with a sequel
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 August 2022 10: 36
                        +4
                        Finished high school romance
                        Waving a lilac brush,
                        Her pollen on the window
                        Tomorrow will be washed away by rain.
        2. hohol95
          hohol95 6 August 2022 12: 53
          +2
          Got it. He "cut the truth" about socialism in Bulgaria. And with this, the Soviet KGB "finished" it.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 6 August 2022 13: 14
            +5
            They said to the uncle - "Don't wake up famously while it is quiet." And who got better?

            1. hohol95
              hohol95 6 August 2022 13: 25
              +8
              Everyone longed for the opening of the archives of the Security KGB of Bulgaria.
              But no one "dug up" anything there !!!
              On September 11, 2013, the case was closed due to the absence of suspects!!!
              For 35 years they "dug" and did not "dug up" not only evidence, but also motives.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 6 August 2022 13: 29
                +4
                That's what clean work means! wink
                1. hohol95
                  hohol95 6 August 2022 14: 27
                  +6
                  They only "dug" archives in Sofia and Moscow, but not in London ...
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 6 August 2022 14: 40
                    +8
                    Yeah... dig around in London - a lot of interesting things will come up.
                    As you know - "The Englishwoman always crap" sad

      2. vladcub
        vladcub 6 August 2022 09: 55
        +4
        "Bulgarian journalist", it seems, Ivanov?.
        Only there they used not curare, but cyanide
        1. Bolt cutter
          Bolt cutter 6 August 2022 11: 18
          +7
          not curare, but cyanide
          A hard granule of ricin. If it enters the bloodstream, it is very dangerous, and unlike cyanide, which is difficult to poison to death, there is no antidote for it.
          1. TEX-50
            TEX-50 6 August 2022 18: 39
            +1
            in fact, the pellet was made of a platinum-iridium alloy with a cavity inside. This cavity contained the recipe.
        2. Luminman
          Luminman 6 August 2022 11: 22
          +3
          Quote: vladcub
          "Bulgarian journalist"

          Well, yes. The former boyfriend of the daughter of Todor Zhivkov ...
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 6 August 2022 18: 45
            +2
            A dangerous profession is a boyfriend: daughters complain about dad, men hang lyuley.
            In our area in 1977, I finished school, I was such a handsome man. The women hung on him in batches.
            They told him: 412 Muscovite, Java with a sidecar, remember, was he handsome?
            It ended up that the mechanics, from two collective farms, there were 6 of them. They held an "educational event".
            He was not seen again, but they say that the impressive consequences
        3. dzvero
          dzvero 6 August 2022 12: 18
          +3
          Ricin. It belongs to the group of ribosome-inactivating proteins. Unpleasant, but very interesting squirrels. I hope that in the second part the author will touch on them.
          The article is definitely a plus! We are waiting for the continuation.
        4. hohol95
          hohol95 6 August 2022 13: 21
          +4
          Georgy Markov.
          The suspects were never found.
          After 35 years, the case was closed on September 11, 2013!
      3. hohol95
        hohol95 6 August 2022 13: 19
        +3
        In Bulgaria, Georgy Markov was a writer, and in Britain he became a journalist.
        "On September 11, 2013, on the 35th anniversary of the writer's death, the investigation into the circumstances of his death was finally closed due to the absence of suspects and the statute of limitations."
        Life.ru
        19 декабря 2020 года
        Death umbrella. The mystery behind the biggest political poisoning in London during the Cold War
    2. Blacksmith 55
      Blacksmith 55 6 August 2022 12: 45
      +5
      Yes, I also thought that curare, the almighty poison, got into the blood, and the end.
      I read a long time ago about another method of poisoning, although we are not talking about poison at all.
      These are dust (essentially crystals) of diamond.
      It was added to food. And they are so small that they were not felt in food, they naturally had no taste either. But getting into the digestive tract caused wounds, and the person received almost internal hemorrhage.
      In ancient times, there was no way to scientifically determine the cause.
      Naturally, this is not a military poison; the entire army cannot be sent in this way. But you can behead.
      I repeat, I read about this somewhere, thank God I did not poison anyone in my life.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 6 August 2022 13: 09
        +5
        You know, I had a vague feeling that I also read about it somewhere, but I can’t even remember it for a long time.
        1. Luminman
          Luminman 6 August 2022 14: 56
          +5
          You know, I had a vague feeling that I also read about it somewhere

          At Pikul. There, the Turkish Sultan thus persecuted those who were objectionable to him. Sprinkled diamond dust in coffee. It seems to be "Favorite"
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 6 August 2022 15: 19
            +4
            In China, too, there was a funny custom to commit suicide by swallowing a bar of gold.
            Jianjun (governor) at the approach of the Russians committed suicide by swallowing a piece of gold (an honorable form of suicide in China).
          2. AllBiBek
            AllBiBek 7 August 2022 14: 16
            +4
            If you swallow diamond dust, you won’t even notice it: in any case, it is too large to get from the gastrointestinal tract into the bloodstream, plus the properties of the intestine are such that everything like that in it is simply enveloped in mucus and comes out naturally.
            In childhood, we calmly chewed glass of broken light bulbs on a dare, and swallowed it in small doses.
            No one had any special consequences, a maximum of a cut tongue.
            1. Luminman
              Luminman 7 August 2022 15: 57
              -1
              In childhood, we calmly chewed the glass of broken light bulbs on a dare, and swallowed it in small doses.

              Maybe you are a yogi? wink
              1. AllBiBek
                AllBiBek 7 August 2022 16: 13
                +2
                No, a simple Soviet child during perestroika). No one was poisoned by the tar either.
                Moreover, in my childhood, one of my PPG somehow broke a mercury thermometer, and so that my mother would not scold, she did not find anything better than finely crushing it and swallowing it in pieces without chewing. And the mercury rolled into the corners.
                It was in the evening, it surfaced only in the morning, in the hospital they stupidly poured a glass of vaseline oil into her orally to stimulate defecation.
                Nothing, still alive.
                True, the nickname "Flying" was not for this occasion, there were even worse antics).
        2. Korsar4
          Korsar4 6 August 2022 19: 40
          +3
          And Druon in Cursed Kings. There, as far as I remember, crushed emerald was used as an alleged medicine.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 6 August 2022 19: 52
            +2
            I don’t remember this at all, although I even read the book to the devil when, at that age, everything was swallowed avidly.
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 6 August 2022 19: 53
              +3
              I also read it in high school. And I didn't read it. But this piece stuck.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 6 August 2022 20: 07
                +2
                Well, I fell for ships and weapons. smile
          2. AllBiBek
            AllBiBek 7 August 2022 14: 19
            +2
            An ancient superstition that emerald supposedly neutralizes poison added to wine.
            Hence the legend of goblets carved from emerald.
            About amethyst, too, there is a similar one.
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 7 August 2022 15: 01
              0
              With a horn narwhal something similar. Sold at a bargain price.
              1. AllBiBek
                AllBiBek 7 August 2022 16: 07
                +1
                And this is a medieval superstition; the horns of ancient and biblical unicorns did not possess this property in legends.
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 7 August 2022 18: 57
                  0
                  So you can collect a collection of superstitions. Which ones claim to be the main ones in our time?
  4. Edward Vashchenko
    Edward Vashchenko 6 August 2022 06: 25
    +11
    Thank you Valery for the article.
    A small note, toxic - comes from the word "onion" [τόξο], not poison. The etymology is connected with the fact that the Greeks, at an early stage of development, like the Slavs, had very weak bows and poison was used to injure the object of shooting (animal or person). Hercules had poison arrows.
    hi
    1. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter 6 August 2022 11: 21
      +5
      toxic - comes from the word "onion" [τόξο], not poison.
      I read from an English author that a toxikon is an arrowhead with grooves on it, designed to apply poison before use.
    2. Adrey
      Adrey 6 August 2022 14: 37
      +2
      Quote: Eduard Vaschenko
      A small remark

      Then I will add hi
      It is a muscle relaxant that paralyzes the respiratory muscles.

      Acts on all striated muscles. And we breathe completely due to it. So stop breathing and immobilize one field of berries hi
      1. garri-lin
        garri-lin 7 August 2022 20: 31
        0
        The Andromeda Strain describes this very well. There, dart turrets were used to shoot down escaped laboratory rodents. But the professor got it.
  5. parusnik
    parusnik 6 August 2022 06: 53
    +10
    Well, what about the ancient Romans? They soaked the tips of their arrows in a paste made from belladonna. The enemy, of course, did not die, falling in sheaves, but he felt unwell. The plant is quite poisonous and difficult to grow. Therefore, it has not received a particularly massive use. Allegedly belladonna, the Scottish king Duncan, some kind of poisoned his opponents and quite effectively. Adding poison to the wine.
    1. VLR
      6 August 2022 07: 20
      +9
      I will write about this later, but, that's it: "they didn't fall in sheaves," but "felt unwell." And in battle, it was necessary to kill the enemy, and very quickly - not the next day or even three hours later, when everything was already over. Or, at least, guaranteed and quickly disable it. And not to torment the enemy, forcing him to experience additional suffering. Therefore, in real armies, the use of poisons of natural origin was abandoned. But I won't get ahead of myself. Let's talk more about this.
      1. garri-lin
        garri-lin 7 August 2022 20: 35
        0
        A battle in the Middle Ages could last a very long time. And the exchange of shelling from the bow usually took place at the very beginning. Even if a warrior, after being hit by an arrow, began to have tachycardia from the drug indicated in the article, then its effectiveness in battle was already clearly falling. And this is the result.
    2. Ua3qhp
      Ua3qhp 10 August 2022 10: 09
      0
      They soaked the tips of their arrows in a paste made from belladonna. The enemy, of course, did not die, falling in sheaves, but he felt unwell.

      Yeah, given that the lethal dose of atropine (the main active ingredient in belladonna) is -453 mg, then you are tormented by sticking arrows to get at least some kind of effective effect. By the way, it is released as a medicine, and there the dosage is 0,5 mg per tablet. Such concentrations are tormented by smearing an arrow.
  6. Popenko
    Popenko 6 August 2022 07: 27
    +4
    Insightful and informative. It is only necessary to mention in more detail that the same plant poisons that enter the stomach can easily lead to death.
  7. parusnik
    parusnik 6 August 2022 07: 37
    +8
    At one time, tomatoes were considered poisonous. There is a legend that once a spy of the English king (J.Washington's personal chef) seriously tried to poison J.Washington with tomatoes. However, Washington not only ate a dish flavored with fleshy fruits with pleasure, but even lived long enough to win the war and become the first president of the United States. Therefore:
    "- Do not eat raw tomatoes at night," Ostap advised, "so as not to harm the stomach" (c). You never know. laughing
    1. Senior seaman
      Senior seaman 6 August 2022 17: 53
      +5
      Yes. And Jail Bailey (chef-poisoner), in order not to fall into the bloody paws of the still non-existent FBI, stabbed himself with a kitchen knife...
      In fact, this is a story that first appeared in a fantasy story in 1959.
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 6 August 2022 22: 30
        +3
        stabbed with a kitchen knife...
        Even so laughing It became a tale. Heard about two more options for suicide: Hanged himself in the kitchen and shot himself .. Leaving a suicide note .. laughing Can you tell me the author of the story? "The source" of the tales, interested.
        1. Senior seaman
          Senior seaman 6 August 2022 22: 34
          +3
          The Ellery Queens Mystery Magazine published the short story "The Murder of George Washington" by one Gordon, Richard M.
          http://www.vostokolyub.info/kollektsiya-interesnostey/galereya-zabluzhdeniy/istoriya-o-dzhordzhe-vashingtone-i-pomidorah-mif-i-realnost.htm
          1. parusnik
            parusnik 7 August 2022 06: 22
            +3
            Yep, got it, thank you
    2. AllBiBek
      AllBiBek 7 August 2022 14: 26
      +2
      If anything, nightshade - and the tomato comes from them - are all poisonous, there is solanine (such a glycoalkaloid) in one or another concentration throughout the stem and, partly, in the fruits.
      In particular, in a tomato, it is in the leaves (which is why the stems of tomatoes do not go into livestock feed after harvesting, maximum on compost), and in unripe fruits; the younger the fruit of the tomato, the more solanine it contains per unit mass.
      Not a balodonna, of course, but catching poisoning from a couple of handfuls of small green ones is quite real.
      Potatoes are also poisonous, but only berries that appear in the second year of the cycle.
  8. Luminman
    Luminman 6 August 2022 07: 38
    +3
    Neither the ancient Greeks, nor the ancient Romans, nor Borgia, nor even Solieri knew such achievements of the 210th century as polonium-XNUMX and Novichok! How would that make things easier for them... wink
    1. AllBiBek
      AllBiBek 6 August 2022 16: 09
      +6
      Speaking of Borgia, this genus has not gone away, and one of its representatives is the world's largest expert on poisons in the Paleolithic.
      Maria Borgia.
      Naturally, among her colleagues she is known under the nickname "Lucretia".
      So Borgia is aware of modern achievements in this area, more than.
      1. Luminman
        Luminman 6 August 2022 16: 17
        +1
        So Borgia is aware of modern achievements in this area.

        Well, family! Not lost in the ruthless flow of time! wink
  9. Catfish
    Catfish 6 August 2022 07: 46
    +7
    talking about the poisoned bullets that the enemies of the new government used in the assassination attempt on Lenin, the Bolsheviks spoke the pure truth.


    The gun Browning 1900 (FN Browning model 1900), designed by the legendary gunsmith John Moses Browning, chambered for 7,65mm Brownin (7,62x17mm SR, .32 ACP), which was also designed by Browning in 1896 year.

    And this is exactly the weapon from which Kaplan shot, she really didn’t know how to shoot.
    1. VLR
      6 August 2022 07: 55
      +11
      But it did, and not just once. And the wound hastened Lenin's death - one of the bullets damaged the arteries that feed the brain, sclerosis of their walls developed, narrowing of the lumen, and, as a result, strokes.
      And they also failed to poison Rasputin, as you remember - they had to shoot: a bullet - it would be more reliable.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 6 August 2022 08: 03
        +8
        But it did, and not just once.

        There, the distance was less than 20 meters, you could immediately get right where you need to go.
        a bullet - it will be more reliable.


        That's right! smile

        1. VLR
          6 August 2022 08: 16
          +11
          It's not a sin to remember Al Capone:
          A bullet changes a lot in the head, even if it hits the ass.

          And more:
          A bullet in the head is better than endless sadness in the heart

          Poet, damn it!
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 6 August 2022 08: 35
            +4
            Haven't heard that before, only about "a kind word and a revolver". And he is also a philosopher, it turns out. laughing

            1. hohol95
              hohol95 6 August 2022 13: 04
              +4
              If the door in the heart is closed
              Gotta hit the liver
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 6 August 2022 13: 16
                +3
                Who is the author? Also Capone? belay

                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 6 August 2022 14: 23
                  +2
                  No, "grandfathers of the Soviet army."
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 6 August 2022 14: 35
                    +2
                    "Announce the entire list of please" (c)
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 6 August 2022 15: 19
                      +2
                      "Their name is legion" (C)
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 August 2022 15: 29
                        +2
                        We leave at dawn.
                        The wind blows over the Sahara
                        lifting our songs to heaven.
                        Dust curls under boots.
                        God is with them, and the banner is with us
                        and a heavy carbine at the ready.
                2. hohol95
                  hohol95 6 August 2022 14: 25
                  +3
                  Diskoteka Avaria
                  Song of the Robbers
                  "...
                  We will still smoke and drink wine!
                  We are a gang!
                  It will still be full of riches
                  We are pirates, we are robbers, we are bandits,
                  You'd better not meet with us!
                  If the door is closed in the heart,
                  If the door is closed in the heart,
                  If the door is closed in the heart,
                  You need to knock on the liver!"

                  @ Diskoteka Avaria

                  Source: https://www.beesona.ru/songs/diskoteka_avariya/pesenka_razboynikov.php
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 6 August 2022 14: 47
                    +3
                    If the door is closed in the heart,
                    You need to knock on the liver!"


                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 6 August 2022 15: 17
                      +2
                      Stattem's health is definitely fine, sports youth affects.
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 August 2022 15: 30
                        +2
                        Happy for him, good actor.
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 6 August 2022 16: 20
                        +2
                        In his youth, he was part of the British Olympic diving team.
            2. Grim Reaper
              Grim Reaper 8 August 2022 00: 38
              +1
              Quote: Sea Cat
              Haven't heard that before, only about "a kind word and a revolver". And he is also a philosopher, it turns out. laughing


              I prefer between a kind word and a revolver to choose two revolvers and not waste time. (C) I don't remember. :)
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 8 August 2022 01: 48
                0
                I don't remember.


                Probably the one who had two revolvers and didn't have time. wink
      2. lisikat2
        lisikat2 6 August 2022 13: 15
        0
        "And they failed to poison Rasputin either." Valery, do you remember the details of the assassination attempt on Rasputin?
        The poison was in the cream filling, and the oil envelops the walls of the stomach and neutralizes the effect of the poison.
        "A bullet - it will be more reliable", but not in the case of Rasputin: they fed him with poison, hit him with two bullets, from a distance of no more than 1,5 meters, and he was still breathing under water
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 6 August 2022 14: 26
          +3
          The poison was in the cream filling, and the oil envelops the walls of the stomach and neutralizes the effect of the poison.
          No, Katya. The sugar just neutralizes the cyanides.
          1. lisikat2
            lisikat2 6 August 2022 14: 55
            +1
            Anton, here the magazine disagrees with you: "Health" 1978, the opinion of the forensic examination, Vitaly read in some publication.
            Maybe I'll ask at work on Monday
        2. AllBiBek
          AllBiBek 6 August 2022 16: 07
          +3
          In the case of potassium cyanide, there is such a moment that a horse dose of it acts as an antidote; in this situation, it acts as a laxative.
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 6 August 2022 12: 24
      +2
      Kostya, hello. "from which Kaplan fired" read that an examination was carried out in 1967: the bullets were fired from another pistol ..
      I don’t remember now, but in 1918 they were able to carry out fingerprinting. It seems they knew how to compare the rifling of the barrel.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 6 August 2022 13: 07
        +2
        Hello, Glory! smile
        In Russia, in 1908, the first forensic ballistic examination was carried out to identify firearms by traces on the cartridge case.

        Establishment in 1912-1914 offices of scientific and forensic examination in the largest cities of the Russian Empire, of course, led to the development of many expert studies, including those that were later called forensic ballistics.

        So everything was already at that time, and behind the cord already at the end of the XNUMXth century.
        The introduction of a fingerprinting system for registering criminals in Russia took place in 1906.

        The whole question is, who would be doing this in 1918? laughing
        the bullets were fired from another pistol..

        Perhaps it was so, as a distraction was set up by the blind-eyed Dr. Kaplan, and she, of course, did not hit, but the one who knew how to do it did, so the option with another pistol is quite suitable.
        1. VLR
          6 August 2022 13: 15
          +4
          With the murder of Rasputin the same story. In the book Rasputin, an employee of Scotland Yard with 30 years of experience, Richard Cullen, it is stated that the fleeing Rasputin was shot by the English lieutenant Oswald Rayner, who controlled this conspiracy from British intelligence, but seeing absolute "incompetence"
          and the worthlessness of Russian aristocrats decided: "If you want to do well - do it yourself."
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 6 August 2022 13: 28
            +3
            So he has

            and the revolver was decent, unlike Yusupov's firecracker.
            Webley & Scott (.455 Webley cartridge. Caliber: .455")
          2. vladcub
            vladcub 6 August 2022 18: 47
            +1
            However, even this caliber did not take Rasputin.
        2. vladcub
          vladcub 6 August 2022 18: 29
          +2
          I do not rule out the possibility that she did not hold a gun at all.
          Might have been on the lookout
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 6 August 2022 18: 46
            +1
            Yes, she had a gun, they simply set her up to distract her from the main shooter and at the same time made her a scapegoat. D-ura exalted, what is she good for besides this.
            1. vladcub
              vladcub 6 August 2022 19: 15
              +1
              "framed" I do not argue. Exalted idiots are the dream of terrorists.
              Who saw her gun? Perhaps at the investigation, if only that was a normal investigation, she was given a hold
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 6 August 2022 19: 55
                +1
                Yes, what is the consequence, it would be better if they were immediately killed on the spot. In general, it looks like a classic provocation - an attempt on the leader as a reason to unleash the Red Terror. Now you will never know the truth anyway, in such cases documents are not written, and witnesses are removed.
                1. VLR
                  6 August 2022 22: 06
                  +1
                  Substitute the recognized leader of the revolution under bullets in order to unleash terror later? No, something didn't bring you there. Lenin was too large and valuable a figure to take such risks.
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 7 August 2022 11: 52
                    0
                    At that time, as far as I remember, there were two leaders.

                    "Love passionately
                    Russian workers
                    Trotsky and Ilyich
                    And all that stuff" (c)
                    1. VLR
                      7 August 2022 22: 46
                      +2
                      Trotsky himself admitted that Lenin was no match. His role is generally overestimated - because he is a self-promoter. Sverdlov was a much more serious and weighty figure.
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 August 2022 23: 01
                        0
                        Sverdlov was a much more serious and weighty figure.

                        And much more vile.
                      2. vladcub
                        vladcub 10 August 2022 08: 15
                        +1
                        Without a doubt
                2. vladcub
                  vladcub 10 August 2022 08: 14
                  +1
                  Kostya, it looks more like a banal elimination of a competitor.
                  Dzerzhinsky was sent to Petrograd, under some kind of rotten sauce, and in Moscow they shoot at Lenin. Ya. M. Sverdoov immediately takes all power into his hands
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 10 August 2022 14: 02
                    0
                    It is quite possible, only the shooters were picked up by the bad guys, also the underground terrorists. laughing
                    1. vladcub
                      vladcub 10 August 2022 16: 37
                      +1
                      But, after all, the Social Revolutionaries were masters of the exes, perhaps they had to use the bomb.
                      It seems they were more bombers
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 10 August 2022 17: 41
                        -1
                        Kaplan once fiddled with a bomb, where she lost her sight. laughing
      2. VLR
        6 August 2022 18: 10
        +3
        I read that an examination was carried out in 1967: the bullets were fired from another pistol ..

        It is now believed that two men fired at Lenin, and each of them fired from a Browning Model 1900 pistol. The first shooter fired three shots, the second only one shot. Kaplan, given her vision problems, probably missed - three wounds. But she didn't reveal her accomplice. This is Lenin's jacket, the places where the bullets entered are marked:

        One bullet ricocheted off the left scapular bone, changed trajectory and stopped in the right upper region of the neck, damaging the vessels supplying the brain. This is what caused the strokes. Moreover, this bullet was removed only after the death of Lenin - she sat very uncomfortable.
        The bullets had strange cruciform notches. When they asked at the trial of the Right Socialist-Revolutionaries what it was and why, they said that poison was applied to these notches.
        1. VLR
          6 August 2022 18: 46
          +3
          By the way, about the use of poisons by the Social Revolutionaries:
          From a letter from a Socialist-Revolutionary militant with the initials "A.Ch." in the Central Committee of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, about 1909:
          1. Use exclusively lead bullets for browning, without hard shells, as they are easily deformed in the wound and make it easier to process the part for laying a portion of the poison.
          2. Supply all provincial committees with stocks of poisons and indicate the methods of obtaining them.
          3. Develop instructions for poisoning bullets and edged weapons with poison.
          ........
          5. Apply in the absence of poison for poisoning bullets, the distribution of infectious bacteria: consumption, tetanus, diphtheria, typhoid fever, etc. just before the terrorist act...
        2. vladcub
          vladcub 6 August 2022 18: 51
          +1
          Model 1900, it is quite possible that the pistol was well known. Kostya will quickly explain everything here.
        3. vladcub
          vladcub 6 August 2022 19: 06
          +1
          "cross-cuts", hence the myth that explosive bullets were used.
          I'm not special, but I think that if - Dum-Dum, they would have been completely turned around
          1. Alexander Salenko
            Alexander Salenko 6 August 2022 21: 47
            0
            In the Crimean War, the shooters from the Littikh fittings used Kulikovsky bullets, it’s worse than dum-dum, because it’s lead, it’s also with rifling wings. And a jacketed bullet perfectly spreads bones, and their fragments, bones, cut blood vessels and nerves, pierce organs, so it's all relative.
        4. Alexander Salenko
          Alexander Salenko 6 August 2022 21: 43
          +1
          As far as I know, no one saw the certificate from the ophthalmologist for Kaplan, so if there were problems with vision, then from that distance it could well have hit. There is Gavrila Princip, an inexperienced shooter, and two shots - two corpses, and they couldn’t cut Nicholas 2’s head, which also happens, although it seems like a man knew how to control a saber. There really is a problem in the frailty of the Japanese, he held on to the car with one hand, and therefore could not deliver a strong blow.
          1. Senior seaman
            Senior seaman 6 August 2022 21: 58
            0
            Quote: Alexander Salenko
            he held onto the car with one hand

            A car in Japan in 1891?!!! belay
            1. Alexander Salenko
              Alexander Salenko 6 August 2022 22: 17
              +1
              Sorry, stroller, I connected something with the Sarajevo murder and the typo came out.
              1. Senior seaman
                Senior seaman 6 August 2022 22: 30
                +2
                That's how I understood it :)
                As for me, then
                1) The Tsarevich did not fly so weakly. Judging by the bloody shirt (and on top of it was at least a vest and a frock coat), there was blood gushing out there, mother don't worry!
                2) Japanese westernization was accompanied by absolutely insane Westernism, when everything was copied, even what was not really needed. And it is very likely that the saber of Tsuda Sanzo was originally a katana on which a European hilt was planted. And the samurai did not know how to chop with one hand stupidly.
                3) The policemen in those days often and thickly used cold water as a modern "rubber democratizer" (and in our country too), and in order to avoid accidents, they did not sharpen it stupidly.
                In general, versions for every taste :)))
                1. Alexander Salenko
                  Alexander Salenko 6 August 2022 22: 46
                  +1
                  My son flew off the bike, it was also bleeding, mom don’t worry, there is always a lot of blood from the head, for the katana, I said the saber is very conditional, and for the sharpening, in the Battle of Balaklava, a felling took place between the hussar brigade of the namesake of the author Ryzhov and the British brigade, 11 saber blows were counted on the head of one Englishman, the sabers became dull from the wooden scabbard while riding, and somehow they were in no hurry to correct them.
                  1. Senior seaman
                    Senior seaman 6 August 2022 22: 55
                    0
                    Quote: Alexander Salenko
                    11 saber blows, sabers blunted from the wooden sheath while riding,

                    Sabers in those days were exclusively in metal sheaths :))) In wooden - checkers :)))
                    1. Alexander Salenko
                      Alexander Salenko 6 August 2022 23: 06
                      0
                      Well, Chennick said so. the most perfect study of the Crimean War, the saber is still a simpler and inertial weapon, it would immediately get worse there. It was with a saber that the craftsmen at a gallop cut into meat, and the hussars still rode with sabers. If the scabbard is metal, then poor weapon care.
              2. vladcub
                vladcub 10 August 2022 08: 04
                0
                Not even a stroller, but a rickshaw
          2. vladcub
            vladcub 10 August 2022 08: 02
            0
            "could not deliver a strong blow" there is another reason: the katana was blunt-1, the future English king George set up an umbrella-2 .. The blow went tangentially
  10. Korsar4
    Korsar4 6 August 2022 08: 08
    +8
    It is easier to poison through food and drink: and such poisonous plants as Cerberus, aconite, yew berry and much more come to mind.

    And in general, foxglove was used as a heart medicine, otherwise they were mistaken with the dose.

    I read it with great interest, Valery.

    A short Potions course would be nice. For educational purposes only.
    1. VLR
      6 August 2022 08: 20
      +7
      Poison is easier through food and drink

      But we are talking about natural poisons in war. Or, do you propose to poison the enemy parliamentarians who arrived for negotiations? To paraphrase a joke about Raskolnikov: "100 parliamentarians are already a company"!
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 6 August 2022 08: 29
        +3
        Wine served in yew goblets is said to cause poisoning. It's interesting how plausible that is.
        1. AllBiBek
          AllBiBek 6 August 2022 14: 06
          +5
          There is a similar story about Anchar.
          There are a lot of tales about him in general, even more than about yew.
          And so, the yew cup will rather have bactericidal properties.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 6 August 2022 19: 28
            +1
            Anchar is not so poisonous. In the first ranks in terms of toxicity, I would put Cerberus and Acocanter.
        2. Alexander Salenko
          Alexander Salenko 6 August 2022 21: 51
          +2
          It is plausible that we have yew growing. One friend somehow went down the slope, and grabbed the yew branches, and then ate sandwiches and it became not very healthy for her. But the wine must stand for about 15 minutes. Yew is mahogany and cabinetmakers have ulcers all over their hands. And the Red Book yew berry, this wood was cut down, because the rat and mouse will not gnaw.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 6 August 2022 22: 50
            +3
            It is believed that the lethal dose for humans is 50 grams of yew needles. I also heard about the hands of cabinetmakers working with yew.

            And in Europe, yew was primarily cut down for longbows.
            1. Alexander Salenko
              Alexander Salenko 6 August 2022 23: 03
              +1
              That is a slightly different yew, also poisonous, but this is a Spanish yew, and I was talking about a berry yew. So, the onion blank was placed in a latrine, as far as I heard, I didn’t check it in detail, for a year and only then they worked with it.
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 6 August 2022 23: 27
                +3
                In Spain, as well as throughout Europe, yew is also a berry. In the Far East - yew spiky.
                1. Alexander Salenko
                  Alexander Salenko 7 August 2022 00: 06
                  +2
                  It means that they hit me hard, they just corrected me during the story that they made onions from another yew, but I'm not a biologist.
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 7 August 2022 00: 36
                    +3
                    It means that they hit me hard, they just corrected me during the story that they made onions from another yew, but I'm not a biologist.

                    Sergey-Korsar is a professional botanist. yes From the word "activity". This year he identified primroses for me in Kingisepp in early April. I tell him - "blue snowdrop", and he clearly gives a lesson - "liverwort". stop I ask you to love and favor Sergey, especially since we have known him since 2017, Alexander. drinks
                    1. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 7 August 2022 00: 42
                      +3
                      Still a forester. In botany, rather an amateur. There is no knowledge system. And more than enough spaces.
                      1. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 7 August 2022 00: 51
                        +3
                        Still a forester. In botany, rather an amateur. There is no knowledge system. And more than enough spaces.

                        The arborist is not a arborist, and few people know the botany of those who participate in the forum on the site like you do. So don't be shy. stop With the liverwort, you just blew me away. However, my respect is great! good
                      2. Senior seaman
                        Senior seaman 7 August 2022 09: 25
                        +3
                        Quote: Korsar4
                        Still a forester.

                        So we are almost colleagues :)
                        (It was the case, he studied at the North Caucasian Forestry College)
                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 August 2022 09: 32
                        +3
                        Graduate of the Moscow Forest Engineering Institute.

                        Always glad to colleagues.
                      4. Senior seaman
                        Senior seaman 7 August 2022 10: 15
                        +2
                        Alas. In my case, everything ended with the release.
                        hi
                      5. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 August 2022 11: 50
                        +2
                        Now the discrepancy between education and work is quite typical.
                    2. Alexander Salenko
                      Alexander Salenko 7 August 2022 17: 50
                      +1
                      I agree that it is nice to deal with a person of a different specialty. drinks
                      1. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 7 August 2022 19: 45
                        +1
                        I agree that it is nice to deal with a person of a different specialty.

                        I will add - with a competent representative of a different specialty! yes
                2. Liao
                  Liao 7 August 2022 00: 46
                  +3
                  I ate it, sweet, without poisoning. It is believed that the extracts of their roots are a cure for cancer.
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 7 August 2022 01: 38
                    +4
                    Seedling (arillus) is not poisonous. I also tried. But from the seed it is better to stay away.

                    There is a master's student - an Indian. So he uses cough medicine, in which yew is an integral part.
            2. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 7 August 2022 00: 37
              +2
              And in Europe, yew was primarily cut down for longbows.

              The notorious "English bow"? hi
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 7 August 2022 00: 43
                +2
                Quite right, Nicholas.
                Sometimes I think how the face of the Earth changes under the influence and without the influence of man.
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 7 August 2022 00: 56
                  +2
                  Quite right, Nicholas.

                  And a lot of yew trees were cut down for this business? What were the consequences?
                  Sometimes I think how the face of the Earth changes under the influence and without the influence of man.

                  If you are talking about dodos and Moriori - only under the influence of a person! recourse
                  By the way, the ethnic Izhora people who inhabited a vast territory from the Neva, Gatchina (then Khotchino) to Yama-Kingisepp and the Kurgalsky Peninsula (probably larger in scale, but this is already to Mikhail), there was only one village left - Luzhitsy, which is right near Ust- Meadows. Several dozen people. A couple of years ago, they wrote an appeal to Putin, asking them to reduce their harassment from the port infrastructure.
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 7 August 2022 01: 45
                    +2
                    First in England they were exhausted. Then they took up Spain and Italy. And it grows slowly.
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 7 August 2022 02: 19
                      +2
                      First in England they were exhausted. Then they took up Spain and Italy. And it grows slowly.

                      It is a pity that the life of plants was sacrificed depending on the petty desires of people.
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 August 2022 06: 13
                        +3
                        This is a small example. The reduction of tropical forests for plantations has its own inexorable features.

                        Yes, and in our climate - its own. However, the Time of Troubles comes, and more than once, and already the fields are overgrown with forest. And there is nothing good in it.
                  2. AllBiBek
                    AllBiBek 7 August 2022 12: 08
                    +1
                    In England at one time - almost all, to the point that the duty from European ships calling at English ports was levied in yew in the agreed quantities.
              2. AllBiBek
                AllBiBek 7 August 2022 12: 14
                +2
                Correction: English army longbow.
                Peisans made their hunting longbows mainly from ash.
                The answer is simple; a yew bow of a given size will be a) approximately the same in terms of characteristics, i.e. a volley of archers, regardless of their level of training, will cover a relatively small area, but very densely, and b) a yew bow lives approximately the same number of shots (one and a half hundred plus or minus another one and a half to two dozen), and when the resource is exhausted, it stupidly bursts in the hands, into toothpicks.
                So it is very easy to calculate the moment when new bows can be issued to the entire unit in general, and its combat effectiveness will not change in any way.
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 6 August 2022 08: 40
        +5
        No, the idea is to train special chefs and send them to the enemy rear to prepare writing for the enemy. soldier

        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 6 August 2022 08: 45
          +6
          - Babami detained, poisoned wells.
          - Yes you that?!
          - Sit down.
          Come on.
          - I won't say anything anyway.
          -Correctly.
          Drink.
          - Block the well.
          - Come from the neighborhood.
          - From the outskirts?
          - Let's go next.
          - Or maybe from the square.
          - Until you tell me where the water comes from, I don’t want to drink
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 6 August 2022 11: 09
            +2
            Gaidar: "Bumbarash" UTB I remember. I liked the movie better than the story
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 6 August 2022 19: 32
              0
              The film with the songs of Kim and Zolotukhin is also quite good.
        2. VLR
          6 August 2022 08: 58
          +4
          Well, this is a special operation with the introduction of a saboteur. I think all commanders in wartime assume such a possibility and take some measures. Should, at least.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 6 August 2022 09: 12
            +3
            Should, at least.


            Must and accept are two very different things. Army-s... laughing
        3. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 6 August 2022 09: 24
          +4
          Yes. And the best means of air defense is your own tanks at the enemy airfield.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 6 August 2022 09: 50
            +4
            Yes, it is, of course, good, but you still need to get there. laughing



            Hey nephew! drinks
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 6 August 2022 11: 06
              +3
              "The corps, which rose first, sways,
              Blows his fire
              But the Stavka is already sending out reserves,
              And the battalions go to immortality!" (C)
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 6 August 2022 11: 11
                +4
                We are no longer enough in ranks of eight,
                and the heroes got bored with trench jargon.
                And the last autumn embroiders with a cross
                on the worn gold of our shoulder straps.
      3. Alexander Salenko
        Alexander Salenko 6 August 2022 21: 48
        0
        By the way, why not poisoning in the war, throwing animal corpses at the wells? Probably the most efficient method ever used. You can’t poison much, but leaving without water is extremely unpleasant for the enemy.
    2. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter 6 August 2022 11: 23
      +4
      cerberus
      Its nut has a spicy (curry-like) flavor, making it easy to mix into Indian dishes.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 6 August 2022 19: 33
        +1
        She has a couple of synonyms for the names - "tree of suicides" and "tree of Indian widows".
    3. Popenko
      Popenko 6 August 2022 14: 24
      +1
      As for potions, go to Hogwart.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 6 August 2022 19: 35
        0
        Haven't heard of Professor Snape's refresher courses.
    4. TEX-50
      TEX-50 6 August 2022 18: 42
      +3
      The easiest way to poison is through the skin or inhalation. Through eating or drinking is much more difficult (for many reasons). Inhalation toxicity is closest to intravenous toxicity, and sometimes even exceeds it.
  11. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 6 August 2022 09: 27
    +5
    That's when the British, Protestants and Peter III are not mentioned in Valery's article, the degree of adequacy of the author immediately rises, although, of course, criticizing the Bible and ancient myths as historical sources is still an occupation. Well, come on, I have long understood that the historical myths that Valery loves to expose with such fervor, he draws mainly from fiction, not scientific literature, and I'm used to this. smile
    So, our topic today is chemical warfare agents of plant origin from the period of Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
    I would start my discussion on this topic like this:
    Since ancient times, people have paid attention to the fact that some animals and plants have special properties - contact with them, or eating them leads to health problems or even death, despite the fact that some serious damage to the human body shell when this is not observed. And it would be strange if a person did not want to use these properties for their own purposes. First for hunting, and then for war.
    Poisons found in nature, I would divide into three conditional categories: plant origin, animal origin and cadaveric poisons. We are now talking only about the former, although the latter were both more accessible and more deadly.
    What could they (ancient people) know about these poisons? And the fact that they are fatal only in relatively large doses, in most cases, the result of contact with it is a health disorder of varying severity - from banal reddening of the skin and itching, to a temporary loss of adequacy. wink
    Conclusion: you can instantly kill or paralyze a person with such a poison only by injecting him with a shock dose, which is almost impossible in combat conditions. Refuse them altogether? Not at all. War is often not limited to a single clash, and if my arrow is equipped with some kind of poison, then even a small scratch inflicted on an enemy warrior on the eve of a decisive battle can deprive him of the opportunity to participate in further hostilities. Even if this scratch just itchs and itchs unbearably, this alone can significantly reduce the combat effectiveness of an enemy combatant, which means this is a useful and necessary thing. In theory.
    However, the question arises: do we have information about the use of plant poisons in hostilities? I, honestly, did not come across such information, although I did not specifically try to find them. Unless in fiction, but I will leave the analysis of these sources to Valery. In some sources, one can come across allusions to the use of poisons by the "victims", who in this way (or similar references to enemy sorcerers and shamans) try to justify their defeats or heavy losses. But so that someone would talk about the fact that they prepared poison, especially plant poison, equipped their weapons with it and used it en masse against the enemy troops - I have not seen this in the sources.
    Question: why?
    I offer my colleagues the following answers to this question.
    The first. Vegetable poisons were not massively used in the war, because they are too expensive to manufacture. Cadaveric poison is both cheaper and more effective.
    Second. Poisons were used, but no one was in a hurry to admit it, because in the mass consciousness this was considered a deed unworthy of a noble warrior. After all, it was mainly noble people who were engaged in the war ...
    Third. The level of military medicine was such that the probability of death as a result of a wound was already too high, so much so that there was simply no need to increase it additionally.
    To whom that is more like. smile
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 6 August 2022 09: 42
      0
      Poisons found in nature, I would divide into three conditional categories: plant origin, animal origin and cadaveric poisons
      And that inorganic chemistry is no longer poison? Arsenic, mercury, lead salts?
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 6 August 2022 09: 49
        +1
        I was thinking about poisons of biological origin. But I agree. Then we will include uranium with polonium in this list ... smile
        1. Bolt cutter
          Bolt cutter 6 August 2022 11: 29
          +3
          https://amstat.com/products/anti-static-brush-with-ionizing-cartridge-1.html

          uranium with polonium.
          You can buy a brush for negatives with polonium online, dissolve the polonium to get salt, and voila yes The alpha emitter inside the cells will make the rest of life unforgettable. The issue price is 155 bucks.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 6 August 2022 11: 44
            +1
            The issue price is 155 bucks.
            A little more, more acid is needed.
            1. Bolt cutter
              Bolt cutter 6 August 2022 11: 52
              +2
              still need acid.
              Vinegar or lemon seems to do. Or steal an old battery from a landfill, if funds are running out.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 6 August 2022 12: 23
                +2
                In Russia, batteries do not reach the landfill.)))
                1. Bolt cutter
                  Bolt cutter 6 August 2022 12: 28
                  +2
                  It is worth noting that commercial polonium is produced only in Russia. So the sanctions clearly do not apply to him if the Americans barry him in the form of brushes.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 6 August 2022 12: 42
                    +1
                    Well, it's a well-known trick! If you need to bypass customs restrictions, name the product differently.
      2. TEX-50
        TEX-50 6 August 2022 18: 45
        +1
        And organic? Well, for example, some kind of cloflubicin (the first thing that came to mind). Or TBPO. Well, or soman.
    2. Korsar4
      Korsar4 6 August 2022 10: 29
      +3
      This behavior is not chivalrous - to poison with poisons.

      I came across information that they prevented a knightly duel by rubbing the saddle with the juice of a crow.

      It is clear that contact with the mucous membrane of the juice of the crow is poisonous.

      But the knights were not naked ... they sat on the saddle with skin.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 6 August 2022 14: 30
        +1
        This behavior is not chivalrous - to poison with poisons.

        That's for sure. It's easier to kill nafig! "Black Mass" is a prime example.
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 6 August 2022 19: 29
          +1
          And how else can you show a heroic strength.
    3. vladcub
      vladcub 6 August 2022 11: 04
      +3
      Mish, good health.
      About poisons
      1) "the masses were not used", but it is not a fact that they were not used at all.
      It can be assumed: variant
      a) there was not enough reason to massively use such poisons And in the 21st century. toxicologists at every step, they don’t roll around in packs, but in those days: a toxicologist per 100 population, or maybe less
      b) similar poisons were used and quite a lot, but again, competent toxicologists, to identify, there were 0, 0,2.
      2) "not worthy of a noble driver."
      Here are the options:
      a) some driver knew about the "cadaveric" poison, even so the people were not so dark, but say: "I use such poison" and ..... Estimate what will be done to you if you get captured ?. It will be very "fun"
      b) remember Gilles de Retz? There will be "well-wishers" that "politics will be sewn"
      c) The people then were more God-fearing. Extra sin on the soul. fire
    4. ee2100
      ee2100 6 August 2022 11: 13
      +3
      Good morning!
      Ptomains - or cadaveric poisons - are a mixture of liquids formed as a result of tissue decomposition and their toxicity is not great.
      This includes poisons (liquids) formed as a result of the decomposition of wood or plants.
      The topic declared by the author is poisons of plant origin. The circle is clearly defined. And in my opinion the topic is open.
      You could add ricin.
      Classification of poisons (toxins, etc.)
      Dcl (dosis certa letalis) 100% death
      Dlm (dosis letalis minima) - during what time is almost 100% death
      Dl50 - for a certain time, 50% death.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 6 August 2022 11: 54
        0
        Greetings, Alexander.
        It seems to me that the stated topic is not disclosed at all.
        There is no intelligible classification of plant poisons either by origin or by the method of use, or specific examples of the use of poisons in hostilities, and indeed, half of the article is devoted to mythology.
        But poisons can be used not only by applying them to weapons, especially since this particular method raises the most reasonable doubts about its effectiveness.
        For example, Valery here just recently published an article about the siege of Malta. It is surprising that it was during this siege that the Joanites used poisons, including those of plant origin, in order to poison the wells on the island and deprive the Turks of fresh water suitable for consumption. A certain number of Turks got sick, the rest were forced to suffer from thirst, which could not but affect the overall result of the company. Or is this use of poisons not covered by the topic of the article, is it necessary to smear it on weapons?
        In short, my opinion - the author once again did not finalize.
        In general, though, I agree. Compared to some other articles by the author, this one looks a little more attractive (I noted this at the beginning of the first comment) - at least it does not contain outright blunders and purely biased assessments that distort an inexperienced reader's understanding of history.
        1. know
          know 6 August 2022 12: 23
          0
          Well, here again, an Anglophile graphomaniac with conceit appeared with his peremptory assessments. The article is only the first of the cycle, what will happen next - no one knows, but he already - "the topic has not been disclosed to him." And he distributes "valuable advice" on how to write and what exactly to write - for some reason they did not consult him. Maybe because the opinion is not considered very valuable? It's true: who can - does and writes, who can't - tries to look smart in the comments.
          I would start my discussion on this topic like this:

          Well, so, start, finally. Let's take a look, let's have an opinion.
          1. ee2100
            ee2100 6 August 2022 12: 47
            +2
            Sometimes Michael is too harsh. It's true.
            But he has, like all of us, a right to it. Maybe he is more than others.
            Read his work posted here. And if you can master something like that, then write your nonsense.
            1. know
              know 6 August 2022 12: 55
              0
              Yes, I read it, but somehow I was not impressed. Not to say it's bad, but not very good either. Average. Conscientiousness is felt, but there is no "zest", no brilliance, "lightness of the pen", grace.
              1. ee2100
                ee2100 6 August 2022 13: 02
                +4
                So you started scoring!
                I do not agree with Mikhail in everything, but his work is much deeper than you decided.
                Write something on a historical topic and discuss. am
                1. know
                  know 6 August 2022 13: 05
                  +2
                  I have now been provoked into evaluations. I don't usually rate. I write comments without ratings.
                  1. ee2100
                    ee2100 6 August 2022 13: 19
                    +2
                    I wonder who provoked you to write "an Anglophile graphomaniac with conceit"?
                    As Chernomyrdin said, "Whoever has itchy hands, scratch them elsewhere"
            2. lisikat2
              lisikat2 6 August 2022 14: 46
              0
              I confess: I haven't read it yet. I found a few excuses, but I will definitely read
          2. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 6 August 2022 13: 06
            +2
            Quote: vet
            arrogant anglophile

            laughing
            I wonder what you call yourself when you stand in front of a mirror?
            I can suggest options if you'd like. laughing
            Quote: vet
            who can - does and writes, who cannot - tries to look smart in the comments.

            Who are you talking about now? If to yourself, then you shouldn’t flatter yourself so much - you don’t even try to look smart, apparently realizing the failure of such attempts ...
            Are you a fan of Ryzhov? Take care of your health, to each his own. I hope he at least says "thank you" for this, although I personally would be unpleasant if a character like you were among the fans of my work - stupid, illiterate, uncultured and, apparently, because of this, pathologically active. It is generally better to have such enemies than friends. smile
            I, thank the Almighty, have not yet come to this, and I sincerely sympathize with Valery - such obscene and illiterate ass-licking should be simply unpleasant for a normal person.
            Quote: vet
            Let's take a look, let's have an opinion.

            Have you read all my articles published here? Have you expressed an opinion? Why do you need more if you are not able to master the available material? laughing
            And yes, the last one for you today. Your opinion for me, literally on any issue, is like spitting on the wall for me - ugly, unpleasant, but not fatal, passed by and forgot.
            Now let me say goodbye. For today, communication with you is enough for me. laughing
        2. ee2100
          ee2100 6 August 2022 12: 42
          +5
          Hi Michael!
          This is not scientific work. For a wide audience it is.
          Especially the scope of the article ....
          The comments mentioned "umbrella prick" where ricin was used.
          Ricin in the USA was sent by mail, why not a combat award?
          I don’t rate the author, but this article is really "tested!
          drinks
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 6 August 2022 13: 10
            +1
            It is depressing that the quality of Valery's work is steadily declining. Apparently it dissolves in an amount that is also steadily increasing.
            1. ee2100
              ee2100 6 August 2022 13: 13
              +3
              May be. But quite against the background of others.
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 6 August 2022 13: 47
                0
                The background is even more depressing. smile
                1. ee2100
                  ee2100 6 August 2022 13: 57
                  +2
                  What is interesting, and I agree with this statement
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 6 August 2022 23: 47
                    +1
                    What is interesting, and I agree with this statement

                    Alexander, tere! I subscribe to the extreme words of both of you completely.
                    1. ee2100
                      ee2100 7 August 2022 01: 43
                      +1
                      Too bad the site is dying.
                      1. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 7 August 2022 02: 17
                        +2
                        Too bad the site is dying.

                        As long as we and good authors exist - Ryzhov / Shpakovsky - the "history" section will not die. It would be interesting if Shirokorad was printed. Wow, I would definitely talk to him! good
    5. Alexander Salenko
      Alexander Salenko 6 August 2022 22: 04
      +1
      Just the same, bone-setting quickly turned out to be developed both in the ancient period and, later, in the developed Middle Ages. I don’t remember which British prince the arrow flew into, pierced his nose and got stuck in the cervical vertebra. Any other would have been slaughtered so as not to suffer, and then the king said to the Aesculapius - it is necessary! They took it under the visor, mounted something there, and pulled it out.
      The problem was pain. For this reason, and because doctors did not know how to treat infectious diseases, there was no trust in them, so it is not surprising that the phrase Peter the Great was like a medical bastard. And treatment with arsenic and mercury did not always lead to a positive result)))
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 7 August 2022 01: 13
        0
        mercury did not always lead to a positive result

        Napoleon on St. Helena was given calomel (based on mercury) by Good Doctor O'Meara. True, the former "great emperor" did not have an infection, but cancer ... A very energetic figure cannot feel good on a small island! request Psychosomatics?
      2. AllBiBek
        AllBiBek 7 August 2022 13: 57
        0
        I would not say; that in ancient, and even more so, in medieval necropolises, the norm is just blind man's blind man with incorrectly fused intravital fractures, and rich grave goods do not particularly affect this.
        1. Alexander Salenko
          Alexander Salenko 7 August 2022 17: 57
          0
          X-ray was not invented, but there is an anthropological paradox, the most broken is the most tenacious, and they were returned to service even from the broken ones.
  12. vladcub
    vladcub 6 August 2022 10: 00
    0
    Valery, what about fecal poisoning?
    How did the Viet Cong do it?
    1. AllBiBek
      AllBiBek 7 August 2022 13: 59
      +2
      Meaning?
      Before the battle, European archers simply stuck arrows into the ground: there are fewer unnecessary movements, and the number of arrows is visually monitored, and the likelihood of infection entering the wound is comparable to that of smearing it with feces.
  13. lisikat2
    lisikat2 6 August 2022 12: 39
    +2
    Good afternoon. I would like to communicate more, but I have to go to relatives, and there is little pleasure here. The mother-in-law broke her arm and she will have to wash the floors, and in addition I will hear: what a bad Putin, he seized the Crimea, he supports anti-people regimes in Syria, Belarus. Salvation - Sobchak, Navavalny. I like Putin more than Ksenia, he is a man, and I am of a traditional orientation
  14. hohol95
    hohol95 6 August 2022 14: 38
    +2
    warspot.ru
    Water at war
    Anton Lyapin 13 June '18
    "Poisoned water is a real weapon. It is not known when people first began to use poisons for military purposes, but the first written mention of the victory achieved with their help dates back to the XNUMXth century BC. During the First Holy War, a certain Nebr, a healer from the family Asklepiadov, the ancestor of the "father of medicine" Hippocrates II, advised the Greeks to add a hellebore plant to the water supply system of the besieged city of Kirr. Soon the garrison and the inhabitants of the city lost their fighting capacity due to severe diarrhea - the besiegers took Kirr without a fight and killed the entire population. "
  15. lisikat2
    lisikat2 6 August 2022 14: 41
    +1
    "Honored by them: Chernyshevsky, Mikhailovsky and Lavrov"
    Valery, I want to object: 1) Chernyshevsky has nothing to do with essays.
    2) Fani Kaplan was an anarchist. Meaning: Kropotkin, Bakunin
    1. VLR
      6 August 2022 15: 15
      +4
      Kaplan started out as an anarchist, but then, under the influence of the notorious Maria Spiridonova, whom she met in hard labor, she switched to the Socialist-Revolutionaries. And the "classics" of the Social Revolutionaries are the above.
      1. Senior seaman
        Senior seaman 6 August 2022 18: 15
        +1
        Quote: VlR
        but then, under the influence of the notorious Maria Spiridonova, whom she met in hard labor, she went over to the Socialist-Revolutionaries.

        Sorry, but exactly to the "right"?
        Spiridonova is just from the left.
        1. VLR
          6 August 2022 18: 18
          +3
          The split in the Socialist-Revolutionary Party into right and left took place on June 7, 1917. That is, Spiridonova at the time of her acquaintance with Kaplan was just a socialist-revolutionary.
          1. lisikat2
            lisikat2 6 August 2022 20: 41
            +1
            Kuzmina-Karavaeva was also with the Socialist-Revolutionaries and said that she would not have been entrusted with a gun.
      2. lisikat2
        lisikat2 6 August 2022 20: 39
        +1
        "Classics", why did they say ?! I would be in the eighth!
        We had a writer: Mark Andreevich, a crazy communist. He demanded that they memorize quotes from Belinsky, Chernyshevsky, but I, as a normal girl, could not stand them.
        To be 5 you need: from there quotes or from party documents about Belinsky
        1. Alexander Salenko
          Alexander Salenko 6 August 2022 22: 13
          +2
          What does a communist have to do with it, just crazy, I had such a teacher, I won’t name names, according to the methodology of historical research. It is strange that we decided to read this course not in the 1st year of study, but in the second. Well, here comes the lecture, I myself decide what to write down and what not, and even as a freshman I decided and only he: why don't you write down the words of Karl Jaspers? Yes, and as a scientist, I doubt it.
          And another venerable scientist without a bullshit, who in Soviet times traveled to conferences in the West, but he studied the primitive archeology of the Urals, the Kama region and the Volga region, and these primitive cultures simply nested us, damn it, we have a Klondike on this subject in Crimea, I don’t want to study.
    2. Alexander Salenko
      Alexander Salenko 6 August 2022 22: 08
      +1
      All revolutionaries on a grand scale read everything, even Prince Obolensky, a liberal, comrade-in-arms of Milyukov, read Marx.
  16. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 6 August 2022 15: 09
    0
    "_By the way, at the trial of the Right Social Revolutionaries, which began shortly after the assassination attempt on Lenin by F. Kaplan, it turned out that the group of Grigory Semenov who organized it used curare, which was applied to the notches on the bullets._ This is just nothing more than ideologically convenient legend. _But this attempt at additional poisoning was obviously doomed to failure, because curare decomposed at high temperatures and was neutralized by powder gases when fired. Lavrov._
    TUBOCURARINE CHLORIDE does not lose its properties up to the melting point - 268 degrees. A pistol bullet in the barrel does not heat up above 150 degrees.
    1. VLR
      6 August 2022 15: 26
      +3
      At least, such a version with powder gases, under the influence of which the poison decomposed, was voiced in an article dedicated to some anniversary exhibition, where objects related to this assassination were exhibited. In court, the Socialist-Revolutionaries claimed that they "poisoned bullets," but how did they do it? Maybe, initially, they messed up something, or maybe they were sold a dummy in general. It is unlikely that there were specialists in toxicology among that group of militants. Amateur amateurs.
    2. TEX-50
      TEX-50 6 August 2022 19: 11
      +3
      Curare does not necessarily contain tubocurarine. Curare is, let's say, a mixture of variable composition, and can contain very different active ingredients, depending on the methods of preparation. In addition, the bullet may not heat up, but its surface, over which the substance was distributed, may well heat up for a short time to a very high temperature (the gases are then hot and directly in contact with the surface. This may be quite enough.
  17. TEX-50
    TEX-50 6 August 2022 18: 31
    -2
    "However, the main active ingredient is precisely curare.", - you can not read further.
  18. Tech_Orchestra
    Tech_Orchestra 6 August 2022 19: 52
    0
    Batrachotoxin is perhaps the most dangerous of organic poisons, while it does not have an antidote and the only way to stop its action is the introduction of an antagonist poison, tetrodotoxin.

    Getting into the blood through the mucous membrane, wound or crack in the skin, the poison causes an arrhythmia leading to cardiac arrest, resulting in death.
    1. TEX-50
      TEX-50 6 August 2022 21: 31
      -1
      Well, then it turns out that tetrodotoxin is an antidote, isn't it)))? The most "dangerous" of organic poisons is botulinum toxin. Although depending on the aspect in which to consider the "danger". But botulinum toxin-A has the lowest lethal dose of any substance known to science. In order to kill the entire population of the planet through the introduction into the stomach, you need about half a ton of toxin, and through inhalation - 6 kg.
  19. Nord11
    Nord11 6 August 2022 20: 50
    0
    I don’t know how it is now, but in the last century the CIA used the so-called. oyster poison, a concentrated extract of the toxins of this delicacy. Death occurred due to heart problems, and the beauty was that after an hour or two, traces of the poison could no longer be detected ..
    1. TEX-50
      TEX-50 6 August 2022 21: 42
      -1
      :))) They used saxitoxin. But with modern methods of analysis, they will find anything, if they really need it. And if there is an ordinary hospital in Muhosk, then they will not find it (as with Navalny) simply because the chromatograph library will not have this substance.
    2. Alexander Salenko
      Alexander Salenko 6 August 2022 22: 16
      0
      No wonder I have not bought this mollusk for many years. laughing I recently tried it, chopped it in childhood, including raw mussels, I didn’t notice a big difference.
  20. Alexander Salenko
    Alexander Salenko 6 August 2022 21: 16
    +1
    In addition, arrows had to be immediately dipped in poison, otherwise it dries, and these are already chemical changes. It seems to me that to dip in feces, and that is more reliable, you won’t get problems with the wound and they still dried up or not. And the very hit of the arrow is extremely unpleasant, the tip can break the bone, which was not treated very well, cut the nerve or break the artery.
    Thanks for the article, as a child I read a lot about curare, and another funny case, then of course I believed it, it seems from Arkady Fidler. There, poisonous snakes were tied in such a way that they would bite the enemy walking along the path, but that is already an artistic fantasy.
    1. AllBiBek
      AllBiBek 7 August 2022 14: 04
      +2
      Gurkhas traditionally, at every opportunity, kukri dols (they are paired) were lubricated with viper venom: it does not lose its properties much from oxidation.
      The Mongols also bothered with this.
      Once, in his youth, Genghis Khan caught such a one; it was saved by the fact that his nuker (like Jebe) stole a skinskin of sour milk from the enemy and gave the overlord a drink; sour milk in large quantities among the Mongols is still considered an antidote for 6aduchy poison.
      1. Alexander Salenko
        Alexander Salenko 7 August 2022 17: 58
        0
        Interesting information, thanks. hi
  21. acetophenone
    acetophenone 6 August 2022 22: 07
    +1
    Vegetable poisons and as sabotage are not suitable. And as a combat ...
    1. TEX-50
      TEX-50 7 August 2022 13: 11
      -2
      Plant poisons are quite suitable as sabotage, depending on what kind of sabotage. Yes, and as a combat, because if you put a hollow dart with tubocurarine, then in a few minutes you will die. And if amotoxins are mixed into food, then when you notice an indisposition (after 6-12 hours), it will be impossible to save you.
      1. AllBiBek
        AllBiBek 7 August 2022 14: 09
        +2
        If you stick even a non-poisoned dart in you, in the conditions of ANY medicine, up to the first third of the 20th century, there will not be much chance of surviving.
        Another thing is that the same police special forces units in South America are now running around the jungle in plastic armor for a reason; it’s hot, of course, but the poisoned arrow from the blowpipe from the local Indians does not add health, and if it worked, then the unit receives a conditionally incapacitated unit for the next few hours at least and with all the ensuing consequences.
        1. TEX-50
          TEX-50 7 August 2022 14: 16
          -1
          "Dart" is meant by the size of the syringe needle. If you poke such an unpoisoned one. you will only get hurt.
          1. AllBiBek
            AllBiBek 7 August 2022 14: 32
            +1
            Tady "oh", the wrong association worked)). But it’s true, large living creatures are put to sleep, a hollow arrow from the oven, and it’s also a “dart”, somehow I didn’t think))
            1. TEX-50
              TEX-50 7 August 2022 21: 27
              -1
              Yeah, just not "lulled", but immobilized. There, a narcotic state is similar to that of visitors to Nord-Ost at the time of well-known history. And even similar substances are used.
        2. Duncan
          Duncan 7 August 2022 17: 32
          +1
          Iodine with brilliant green has been used only for the last hundred years, before that children survived after all sorts of scratches and cuts due to superimmunity and natural selection. 2 out of 10 survived, but then they were not so afraid of punctures. Here is a wound in the stomach, yes.
    2. AllBiBek
      AllBiBek 7 August 2022 14: 35
      +1
      Suitable.
      In South America, the same Incas used capsaicin quite successfully against the Spaniards; stupidly downwind they set braziers with coals, and threw dried pods of chili peppers on them.
      1. The comment was deleted.
  22. Duncan
    Duncan 7 August 2022 01: 47
    +2
    The most potent toxin in plants seems to be abrin from rosary seeds. This phytotoxin is just some kind of protein death machine. Like ricin, only much meaner. When released into the blood, lethal doses are fractions of a milligram (how much data is not available for a person). Only in seeds it is not enough and it is unlikely that the ancient warriors could use it in battle - it will only work in a day.
    The most suitable neurotoxin in combat would be aconitine. The wrestler plant is common, alkaloids, in principle, could be extracted. When it enters the blood, lethality is from a few milligrams.
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 7 August 2022 06: 20
      +2
      The cheternik did not come across in life. And aconite (wrestler) is really one of the first to come to mind. No wonder Greek mythology produces it from the saliva of Cerberus.
    2. TEX-50
      TEX-50 7 August 2022 13: 08
      0
      The lethal dose of pure abrin for an adult when administered intravenously is hundredths of a milligram.
  23. demiurg
    demiurg 7 August 2022 10: 54
    -2
    Cadaveric poison with almost 100% lethality when it enters the blood has not been considered. And which, by the way, was just applied to arrows. Rather, arrows were stuck into rotten salmon before the battle.
    1. AllBiBek
      AllBiBek 7 August 2022 14: 11
      +1
      And where does the information come from, if not a secret? Region, period, and primary source.
  24. Chief Officer Lom
    Chief Officer Lom 7 August 2022 12: 05
    +1
    Quote: Luminman

    At Pikul. There, the Turkish Sultan thus persecuted those who were objectionable to him. Sprinkled diamond dust in coffee.

    Now I know why the coffee tasted so good!
    - the words of the dying yes
  25. TEX-50
    TEX-50 8 August 2022 07: 53
    -1
    By the way, the author in vain only encroached on plants. The world of animals is even cooler. There are shooting poisons and such cases when a couple decided to simply clean their aquarium with zoantaria and, as a result, they also had to evacuate their neighbors.

    https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/man-reveals-how-fish-tank-12307032
    https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/fish-tank-poison-family-toxic-fumes-location-chris-matthews-a8291441.html