Military Review

Juan of Austria. The famous bastard of the Spanish Habsburgs

86
Juan of Austria. The famous bastard of the Spanish Habsburgs

History Spanish kings of the Habsburg dynasty, who ruled this country during the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries, can serve as an illustration of the thesis about the dangers of closely related marriages. Over a relatively short (by historical standards) time, literally before the eyes of contemporaries, this family degenerated. It all ended with the suppression of the family and the dynastic crisis, which caused the so-called "War of the Spanish Succession".


The extinction of the family of the Spanish Habsburgs


If the first of the Spanish Habsburgs, the Austrian Archduke Philip, was known by the nickname Handsome, then it is impossible to call the last representatives of this house beautiful even with a very strong desire. However, beauty is far from the most important quality of the ruler of any state. The problem was that the mind of the last Habsburgs did not shine at all. Moreover, their maternal heredity was not the best.

The aforementioned Philip I the Handsome became the husband of Juana the Mad, the daughter of the famous Catholic kings Isabella and Ferdinand, who, due to her insanity, spent the last 46 years of her life in virtual imprisonment in Tordesillas Castle. Their heir was Charles V, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, in whose portrait the notorious hypertrophied lower jaw (“Habsburg lip”) is clearly visible - a characteristic feature of all Habsburgs.


Portrait of Charles V by Titian

It was Charles V who entered into the first closely related marriage. He was married to a cousin, the Portuguese princess Isabella.


Peter Paul Rubens. Double portrait of Charles V and Empress Isabella

Unlike many other royal couples, Charles and Isabella loved each other. After the death of his wife, the emperor imprisoned himself in one of the monasteries for 2 months. From Toledo to Granada, where Isabella was supposed to find her last shelter, the coffin with her body was accompanied by the Spanish grandee Francisco de Borja de Gandia (great-grandson of Pope Alexander Borgia, who during his lifetime was called the "pharmacist of Satan"). According to tradition, before burial, he had to testify to the authenticity of the body. The coffin was opened and the sight of the half-decomposed corpse made such an impression on the duke that he said:

“I can’t swear it’s the empress, but I swear it’s her corpse that we put here… I also swear to no longer serve a lord who might die.”


José Moreno Carbonero. Message from the Duke de Gandia

True, the duke was not in too much of a hurry to serve the immortal lord: he still managed to work as the viceroy of Valencia and the chief equerry of the Court of Charles V. He became a monk only in 1546 - after the death of his wife and 7 years after the funeral of Empress Isabella. Over time, he became a general of the Jesuit order and was canonized as a saint. His statue can be seen on the famous Charles Bridge in Prague.

Charles V's heir, Philip II, was already clearly inferior to his father intellectually and was a much less powerful and successful ruler.


Alonso Sanchez Coelho. Portrait of Philip II with a rosary

The son of Charles V was married 4 times - and the three spouses of Philip were his close relatives. Mary of Portugal is Philip's cousin both by father and mother. Mary, Queen of England is his own father's cousin. Anna of Austria is Philip's maternal niece and the daughter of a paternal cousin. The eldest son of Philip II, the infamous Don Carlos, was born Mary of Portugal. He turned out to have only six great-great-grandfathers and great-great-grandmothers out of sixteen possible.

It is not surprising that this child was born extremely weak, sickly, and besides, with obvious mental disorders and pronounced sadistic inclinations. His head seemed disproportionately large against the background of his small stature, his back was hunched, his arms and legs were thin. He started talking late and never got rid of his stutter. Three sons born from the last wife of Philip II (the bride of Don Carlos) died in childhood. The only surviving son, Philip III, was a complete nonentity, his reign brought Spain to the brink of permanent crisis. His grandson - King Charles II, who received the speaking nickname "Bewitched", was a severe invalid, barely able to walk and speak. He became the last Habsburg on the Spanish throne.

The offspring of Charles V from Barbara Blomberg (Blumenberg), the daughter of the burgomaster of the Bavarian city of Regensburg, turned out to be completely different. This illegitimate son of the emperor lived a short but bright life, having managed to become a generalissimo and an admiral. He was only 26 years old when he became famous throughout Europe, commanding fleet Holy League during the great naval battle of Lepanto. As you probably already guessed, we are talking about Juan of Austria.


Don Juan of Austria. Monument in Regensburg.

This is a copy of the statue that stands in Lepanto Square in the Italian city of Messina (Sicily).


Don Juan of Austria. Monument in Messina

Don Juan died of an illness before he was 32 years old. Without entering into a legal marriage, he had many mistresses. Two of them (Maria de Mendoza and Diana de Falangola) gave birth to healthy daughters from him. But the only son of Juan, born Zenobia de Saratosa, died in infancy.

Childhood of a bastard


The connection between Charles V and Barbara Blomberg was short-lived, but the emperor did not forget the boy born from this girl in 1545. At the age of 3, he was transferred to Spain and given to the education of Luis Mendez de Gejada. And his mother, having received a dowry from Karl, was married to a certain Rechem and moved to Antwerp.

Until the age of 14, the hero of our article did not even suspect about his origin. Everything changed after the death of Charles V, who went down in history as a man who managed to catch a cold to death ... at his own funeral (or rather, at their rehearsal). In September 1558, a document was found in the papers of the emperor, in which he recognized as his son Jeronimo, a pupil of Luis Mendez de Gehada. In this document, by the way, he suggested that the boy should become a clergyman.

I must say that Philip II recognized his younger brother (they had an age difference of 18 years): he gave him the title of an Austrian prince, presented him with a large house and assigned an annual allowance of 15 ducats.


Coat of arms of Juan of Austria

For some time, 14-year-old Juan was brought up at court along with the heir to the throne, Don Carlos, and Duke Alessandro Farnese (son of the illegitimate daughter of Charles V, Margarita of Parma, Juan's nephew and his future successor as governor of the Netherlands). These boys were a little older than him.


Alonso Sanchez Coello Portrait of Don Juan of Austria, 1559-1560. Juan is here for about 14 years


Alonso Sanchez Coello. Prince Don Carlos of Austria


Alessandro Farnese

According to the will of Charles V, Juan, preparing for a spiritual career, studied at Alcala University for three years, but it soon became clear that this young man would become anything but an abbot or bishop. Juan was noticeably superior to his peers in the ability to deal with weapons and rightly considered one of the best swordsmen of his time. At the same time, he was by no means a "blockhead" obsessed with military topics.

Contemporaries remember him as a well-educated and very erudite young man, besides a great chess lover. Brought up more freely than other Spanish princes of that time, young Juan conquered everyone with his cheerfulness and cheerfulness. Later, his character will deteriorate, but posterity will forget about the envious, conceited and cruel don Juan of the last years of his life. Everyone will remember the 26-year-old admiral, who, in anticipation of a ramming attack from an approaching enemy flagship, does not pray, but dances a galliard on the artillery platform of his ship. Gilbert Chesterton would call him "the last knight of Europe".

The contrast was especially great when comparing Juan with the heir to the throne - the ugly, weak, sickly and mentally unbalanced Carlos.

The beginning of the military service of Juan of Austria


In 1565, during the Great Siege of Malta by the Turks, Juan secretly left his home and reached Barcelona, ​​where he wanted to get a job on one of the ships of the Spanish squadron that was going on a campaign against the Ottomans. He was intercepted and received the strictest royal order to return. Some authors claim that Juan was extradited by his half-brother, Don Carlos, and upon returning home he attacked the heir to the throne with a sword in his hands. If we assume that this message is true, we will have to admit that this episode is very revealing and important for understanding the character of the hero of the article.

Only three years later, in January 1568, he was allowed to fight at sea against the Barbary pirates. On this occasion, Juan was awarded the title of Capitan general de la mar.

Then Juan, after numerous requests in 1569, was assigned to Granada, where in April 1568 the Morisca revolted (the reason was the decree of January 1, 1567 banning Moorish customs, clothing and language). It was the time of the anti-Spanish uprising in the Netherlands, where, with great difficulty, it was necessary to constantly transfer all more or less combat-ready units. This was described in the article "The Spanish Road" of the Habsburgs.

Somehow, the assembled soldiers of don Juan's army were, as they say, third-class. Nevertheless, taking command of about 24 thousand people, in January 1570, Juan laid siege to the fortress of Galera, which fell on February 11. Then Albujara, Seron (here Juan was wounded in the head), Tipola, Turchas, province of Rio d'Almansora were taken. The bulk of the Moors left Spain. Most of the rest were sold into slavery, the rest were resettled to the north of the country.

Holy League against the Ottoman Empire


Meanwhile, in 1571, the Ottomans attacked Cyprus, which then belonged to Venice. The Venetians entered into an alliance with Philip II and Pope Pius V, which went down in history under the name of the Holy League. This union was also joined by Malta and many states of Italy - the Republic of Genoa, Naples, Sicily, Savoy, Tuscany, Parma. Together they managed to put up about 50 thousand infantrymen and 4,5 thousand cavalrymen. The most famous battle of the war that began was the naval battle of Lepanto. Different data are given about the balance of forces of the parties, but all historians agree that they were approximately equal.

For the war at sea, Spain sent 77 galleys, commanded by Giovanni Doria, the great-nephew of the famous Genoese admiral. The Venetian squadron, commanded by Sebastiano Venier (Venier), consisted of 106 galleys and 6 large galleasses. Another Venetian admiral was Agostino Barbarigo.


Venetian warships

Marc Antonio Colonna led 12 papal galleys. Malta sent 6 ships, Savoy - 3. Don Juan became the commander-in-chief of this fleet. The total number of crews of allied ships reached 80 thousand people, about 20 thousand of which were soldiers of the boarding teams. On the galley "La Marquesa" ("Marquis") was then a young Spaniard Miguel Cervantes de Saavedra, who in the upcoming battle will receive two bullets in the chest and one in the arm. He would spend six months in the hospital, and many years later, in 1614, he would write:

"I lost my left arm for the glory of my right."


Galley "Marquez" at the Battle of Lepanto

Took part in this battle and the brother of Cervantes - Rodrigo.

The 75-year-old Venetian admiral Sebastiano Venier openly showed distrust of the Spanish "upstart bastard". To ensure the execution of his orders, Juan, under the guise of reinforcement, had to put 4 Spanish and Neapolitan soldiers subordinate to him on Venetian ships. The Venetians, of course, were outraged, but Juan was able to insist on the execution of his order (although on some ships it came to skirmishes and fights).

The Ottoman fleet opposing the allies consisted of 210 galleys and 66 galliots. In addition to Turkish ships, it included squadrons of Maghreb pirates, who at that time were the real masters of the central and western waters of the Mediterranean Sea. They devastated the coasts of European countries, stormed large coastal cities and successfully defended the coast of North Africa from Christian armies.

The corsairs of Tortuga, Port Royal and the Bahamian island of New Providence, better known to the general public, in their wildest dreams could not imagine the scale of the operations carried out by the predatory fleets of Algeria and Tunisia (pirates of the Caribbean and the Mediterranean were described in separate series of articles). Even the famous Henry Morgan, perhaps, would have become only one of the squadron captains of truly serious people like Khair ad-Din Barbarossa, Turgut or Sinan. Some leaders of the Maghreb pirates held high positions in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish navy. The above-mentioned Khair-ad-Din Barbarossa, who died in 1546, and who died in 1565 on the island of Malta, Turgut-reis, was appointed to the position of Kapudan Pasha.

In 1571, the commander-in-chief of the Ottoman fleet was the commander (aha) of the Janissaries of Constantinople, Ali Pasha Muezzinzade. He received this post after the rebellion that brought Sultan Selim II to power. The XNUMXth-century Turkish historian Mehmed Solak-zade Hamdemi later wrote that this Kapudan Pasha:

"did not see a single sea battle and was not aware of the science of piracy."

But Ali Pasha knew no equal in archery.

But there were also people in the Ottoman fleet who were very experienced in maritime affairs. The most famous of them is Uluj Ali (Uluch Ali, Kylych Ali Pasha).


Monument to Giovanni Dionigi Galleni (Kılıc Ali Pasa) in his native Calabrian town of La Castella, Italy

His real name is Giovanni Dionigi Galeni, a Calabrian born in 1519 and at the age of 17 was taken prisoner by Barbary pirates flying the flag of the famous Khair ad Din Barbarossa. At first he was a slave - a galley rower, but then he converted to Islam and became a full member of the team.

His career developed rapidly: in 1550, a dashing Calabrian took the post of governor of the island of Samos, in 1565 he became the Beylerbey of Alexandria. He participated in the siege of Malta, where Turgut-reis, the successor of Khair ad-Din Barbarossa, very respected by Turkish sailors and Algerian pirates, died. It was Uluj who replaced Turgut as Pasha of Tripolitania. In this position, he plundered the coasts of Sicily and Calabria, ravaged the environs of Naples.

In 1568 he became Beylerbey and Pasha of Algiers, in October 1569 he expelled Sultan Hamid from the Hafsid dynasty from Tunisia. Shortly before the battle of Lepanto, he defeated a squadron of the Knights of Malta, boarding 4 galleys. Another well-known commander of the Ottoman squadron was Mohammed Sirocco (Sulik Pasha) - also a renegade, a Greek, born in the region of the Gulf of Patras, Bay of Alexandria.

Three more Europeans who converted to Islam were the captains of Algerian pirate ships: the Venetian Hassan, the French Jafar and the Albanian Dali Mami.


Ottoman fleet, fragment of a painting by Tommaso Dolabello (1632)


Turkish galeas (mavna). Reproduction from a Turkish manuscript


Venetian galeas who participated in the battle of Lepanto

The total number of crews of the Ottoman ships reached 88 thousand people, but only about 16 thousand of them were in boarding teams. In addition, the Turkish sailors did not have firearms. It was this advantage of the Europeans in the number and armament of the marines that became decisive in the battle of Lepanto.

Next time we will talk about the battle of Lepanto and the last years of the life of the hero of our article.
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  1. tlauicol
    tlauicol 25 March 2022 05: 39
    +9
    That's how it always is, in the most interesting place crying
    By the way, who hit Cervantes with two bullets if the Ottomans had no firearms? wink
    1. VLR
      25 March 2022 06: 10
      +11
      The Ottoman sailors did not have firearms - only the soldiers of the boarding teams. And the sailors of the ships of the Holy League had it. This mistake will be corrected later by Uludzh, who will reorganize the Ottoman fleet and order the crews of warships to be armed with firearms, more on this in the next article.
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 25 March 2022 07: 01
        +7
        Clear hi look forward to
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 25 March 2022 07: 11
    +7
    Thank you, Valery!
    How many dashing people converted to Islam.
    And from the pictures: ships attract more eyes than portraits.
    1. Daniil Konovalenko
      Daniil Konovalenko 25 March 2022 08: 07
      +8
      ..Heartily!
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 25 March 2022 08: 35
        +6
        Thank you very much, Daniel. Very nice.
        1. Fat
          Fat 25 March 2022 09: 15
          +9
          Greetings, Sergey. Happy Birthday!
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 25 March 2022 09: 17
            +7
            Greetings, Andrey! Thank you very much. The picture inspires - I drank in the morning - the day is free.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 25 March 2022 09: 51
              +8
              Greetings, Andrey! Thank you very much. The picture inspires - I drank in the morning - the day is free.

              However, as Valery guessed with the article today, it’s just a topic for real Corsairs! wink Happy birthday, Sergey! Live well! Happiness to you and your family!drinks
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 25 March 2022 11: 55
                +5
                And a picture of a galleas - as a gift. Walk along the river - maybe some one is moored. And the liberation from the ice is not far off.

                Thank you, Nikolay!
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 25 March 2022 12: 32
                  +5
                  Walk along the river - maybe some one is moored.

                  Ushkuy - you need to ask Mikhail. He is our hereditary ushkuinik! drinks
                  And the liberation from the ice is not far off.

                  Yes, rather. I want to throw the rod myself. yes
                  1. Mihaylov
                    Mihaylov 25 March 2022 12: 48
                    +6
                    Quote: Pane Kohanku
                    Ushkuy - you need to ask Mikhail. He is our hereditary ushkuinik!

                    “I went from Novgorod to the Volgoy from the Great one and a half hundred ushki with the robbers of Novogorod, and beat many Tatars and Besermen and Ormen along the Volza. And Novgorod Nizhny was a robber, and their courts, kerbats and carriages, and lods, and uchans, and plows, were all out of sekosh. And going to the Kama, and going to the Bolgars, it is just as creative and belligerent"
                    hi
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 25 March 2022 13: 23
                      +2
                      And went to Kama, and went to the Bolgars, just as creative and belligerent

                      Yes, I recognize Michael! Just like on the forum of alternatives walked! laughing drinks
            2. Mihaylov
              Mihaylov 25 March 2022 10: 58
              +6
              Let me also join in the congratulations! love
              And raise a glass
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 25 March 2022 11: 56
                +7
                Thanks, Sergey! Very very nice!
        2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 25 March 2022 16: 25
          +2
          Dear Sergey, happy jam day!!!
          All the best, health and fulfillment of desires!!!
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 25 March 2022 17: 08
            +2
            Thank you dear Vladislav! Very very nice.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 25 March 2022 09: 03
      +8
      How many dashing people converted to Islam.
      Social elevators in the Magnificent Port worked better than in Renaissance Europe.
      Happy birthday, Sergey!
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 25 March 2022 09: 19
        +7
        Thanks again Anton!

        About social lifts - and indeed, movement is life.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 25 March 2022 10: 23
          +6
          About social lifts - and indeed, movement is life.

          Sergey-Phil is now in the bath, but he ordered to bow, and he also joins in with congratulations! drinks Here, I deliver!
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 25 March 2022 11: 57
            +6
            Thanks a lot! Say hello to Sergei! We are waiting for him "free".
          2. Daniil Konovalenko
            Daniil Konovalenko 25 March 2022 12: 47
            +4
            Sergey-Phil is now in the bath
            Is it washable? With light, steam it! wink
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 25 March 2022 12: 56
              +3
              Is it washable? With light, steam it!

              And how! At one time, they even sat there at the same time as Uncle Kostya - and, apparently, they hovered over each other. laughing drinks
              1. Daniil Konovalenko
                Daniil Konovalenko 25 March 2022 13: 39
                +4
                Uncle Kostya, apparently, could not stand the steam room .. wink drinks
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 25 March 2022 14: 04
                  +3
                  Uncle Kostya, apparently, could not stand the steam room ..

                  And Uncle Kostya celebrated yesterday, and today he also takes a glass for Sergei! wink
        2. know
          know 25 March 2022 17: 00
          +2
          Sergei, we don't know you personally, but let me congratulate you.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 25 March 2022 17: 11
            +3
            Thank you, dear Alexey!

            Now is an amazing time. I don't know if there is an equivalent of a pound of salt in virtual communication. But kind words are definitely pleasant and even necessary.
      2. VLR
        25 March 2022 10: 01
        +8
        I join in the congratulations smile
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 25 March 2022 11: 58
          +6
          Thank you, Valery!

          And your article turned out to be also a place for a holiday.
          We are such noisy guests. Like the King from Ordinary Miracle.
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 25 March 2022 12: 37
            +7
            We are such noisy guests. Like the King from Ordinary Miracle.

            Absolutely!
          2. depressant
            depressant 25 March 2022 13: 51
            +5
            . We are such noisy guests.

            Yeah ... How can I squeeze into the loud and deep-voiced choir of congratulations, so much so as to be heard by the hero of the occasion? Well, I'll try.
            Happy birthday, wise Sergey!
            good drinks hi
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 25 March 2022 14: 38
              +6
              Thank you very much, Lyudmila Yakovlevna!
              You are always heard.

              Why "wise" - I have no idea.
              It was Kaa who was wise. But he is cold-blooded.
              1. depressant
                depressant 25 March 2022 15: 18
                +4
                "Thank you", even a big one, you won't be full!
                How about a poem? wassat )))
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 25 March 2022 15: 24
                  +5
                  I obey. Celebrated birthdays differently. Sometimes on the road. And then there were notes like this:

                  Kologriv. Skate above the roof.
                  Sun, firs, snowfall.
                  Unzha is sleeping. Dogs are not heard.
                  The snow is deep. March month.

                  Along ravines, slopes
                  With a blue bird in my head
                  The path is here. Looks like,
                  Happiness smiled at me.
                  1. depressant
                    depressant 25 March 2022 17: 10
                    +3
                    Wonderful! "Luck smiled at me..."
                    Sometimes luck smiles. At least once. To catch a smile of happiness is good luck.
                    1. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 25 March 2022 17: 22
                      +3
                      Yes. Although the second stanza is frankly weak, everything is remembered. And how they made their way through the meter-long snow.
                      And they ate with firs. And conversations.

                      And how I wanted to return, and then return. But these are separate stories.

                      Still, there is a use for these notes on the cuffs.
                      1. depressant
                        depressant 25 March 2022 17: 29
                        +2
                        You just took me back to my childhood!
                        Sweet fatigue from a sunny day spent with a whole flock of riding huskies, free from work that day, icicles on a fur coat, felting in the snow, games - everything was firmly forgotten, but your lines opened up a whole layer of memory.
                      2. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 25 March 2022 18: 04
                        +2
                        What each picture - the whole Louvre will yield. What master of painting can be compared with life?!
    3. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 25 March 2022 15: 02
      +7
      Congratulating a poet with poetry is like giving a pastry chef a cake, so I just join in the congratulations. smile
      I always envied people born in spring with white envy. Celebrating a birthday under the chirping of spring birds, whether they are titmouses, starlings or nightingales, with the first thawed patches, snowdrops or under the smell of bird cherry ... It's wonderful.
      In short, spring mood, obedient and frisky Pegasus, responsible and hardworking muse.
      Happy birthday, Sergey! drinks
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 25 March 2022 15: 20
        +5
        Thank you very much, Michael!

        “Poet” is still more than the ability to rhyme.
        The birds are chirping like spring.
        In Moscow, where everything used to be, snowdrops have long been, and even the winter spring and crocuses have blossomed.

        Yes, and our suburbs on the coltsfoot can be admired. And the bird cherry buds swell.

        I take good wishes as a guide to action.
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 25 March 2022 15: 23
          +6
          Quote: Korsar4
          “Poet” is still more than the ability to rhyme.

          That's what makes him different from a lyricist like me... laughing
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 25 March 2022 15: 29
            +6
            We are all in the same boat.
            Sometimes, in the company, reading something from their own, and then something from the poets - such a difference is felt.

            So it's for internal use.
            Thank you for being indulgent.
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 25 March 2022 16: 15
              +6
              Quote: Korsar4
              We are all in the same boat.

              Not at all. There is a significant difference.
              My poetic work is always momentary and suitable only for the current moment, instantly losing relevance. This, if you like, is a naked technique, namely, the ability to combine words and select rhythms and rhymes. This can be done by anyone, without exaggeration, a person, if he is well-read and wants to do it. At first it will turn out slowly, then faster, then even faster ... There would be a desire and a vocabulary.
              Your work (as far as I understand, Corsair4 on "stihi.ru" is you) is much more figurative, abstract, somewhat chaotic, but it does not lose relevance with the change in the current situation, it is about something more than what can fit in my head, for example. This is, in the full sense of the word, poetry. It, of course, also requires skill obtained by constant practice, diligence and much more, but poetry itself, in my understanding of the word, is not born from this, but from something else that you have, and I do not.
              I'm not shy and I'm not jealous, and moreover, I'm not trying to flatter. To each his own.
              I am quite satisfied with my literary talents. smile
              Recently, by the way, I published my first finished work of art on LitRes. Let's see what happens. smile
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 25 March 2022 17: 16
                +4
                Very interesting - about your work on LitRes.

                Yes. On "Poetry.ru" the same person. With the same name. Somehow it happened.

                And the music of the word is everywhere - in every cue.
                Sometimes the dialogues and polyphony on this forum thread are very, very interesting.
                1. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 25 March 2022 17: 24
                  +4
                  If you're interested, it's called "Once Upon a Time in the XNUMXth Century". smile The name is easy to find.
                  Quote: Korsar4
                  Sometimes the dialogues and polyphony on this forum thread are very, very interesting.

                  You think like a poet. smile
                  I would say this: sometimes the information in the comments is interesting and useful. smile
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 25 March 2022 17: 26
                    +3
                    I will definitely remember.

                    Each of us has our own picture of the world. And the pieces can fill in that information. But the foundation is different for everyone.
                    1. Trilobite Master
                      Trilobite Master 25 March 2022 17: 55
                      +3
                      For some, beauty lies in the graceful interweaving of words, for others - in a visual image, someone does not peer into the harmony of spheres, but listens, and for me personally, beauty lies in a logical sequence of thoughts ... Nothing is more beautiful than pure and clear I don't know thinking. smile
                      Quote: Korsar4
                      Each of us has our own picture of the world.

                      Do you preach subjective idealism? smile
                      The objective world is the totality of my subjective sensations.

                      I don’t remember who said ... However, I can’t vouch for the accuracy of the quote either ...
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 25 March 2022 17: 59
                        +3
                        I try not to preach anything. To do this, you must be sure of the possession of the truth.

                        And the beauty of the picture of the world is in harmony. But with each bump it is its own. It is convenient to divide by headings. But in doing so, something may be lost.
                      2. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 25 March 2022 18: 19
                        +3
                        "Preach" is not quite the right word here. I should have written "confess", it would have expressed the thought more accurately. smile
                        Something reminded me of the reasoning of one hero Max Fry:
                        You know, it’s quite possible that you are an ordinary vegetable, and you were successfully devoured long ago by some kind of herbivorous monster, the gastric juice of which is capable of causing completely plausible hallucinations in digested food. So you just enjoy the crushing illusion of your wonderful interesting life, in the end ...

                        Quote: Korsar4
                        while something may be lost.

                        Since we have delved into subjectivism, it can be objected that from my subjective point of view, overlooked and lost, not only does not exist, but never existed ...
                        smile
                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 25 March 2022 18: 49
                        +1
                        Max Fry read a little, and relatively recently.

                        And this quote is very reminiscent of the famous parable from Chuang Tzu:

                        “Once Zhuangzi dreamed that he was a butterfly, a merrily fluttering moth. He enjoyed heartily and did not realize that he was Zhuangzi. But, suddenly he woke up, he was very surprised that he was Zhuangzi and could not understand: did Zhuangzi dream that he was a butterfly, or did the butterfly dream that she was Zhuangzi ?!'
                      4. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 25 March 2022 19: 11
                        +3
                        Given the fact that not so long ago I dreamed that I was Zelensky, the parable is downright frightening ... Maybe I am Zelensky's dream? Or the monster spawned by his dream? Maybe I'm destined to wake up and end this world? wassat
                        laughing
                        No, well, what for this subjective idealism. With him, you can populate the world with such monsters that no one else will be left in it, and then you yourself will have to live in it ... laughing
                        It was decided, I remain as I was - a materialist. smile
                        We completely forgot about Juan! ...
                      5. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 25 March 2022 19: 29
                        +3
                        That's noticeable. Pros and cons of gatherings in free mode.

                        And Juan. We will assume that he was born in the absence of inbreeding.

                        But Leo Tolstoy said about this that the nobility did not degenerate in the only way.
                      6. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 25 March 2022 19: 49
                        +4
                        And I thought about the film "His Excellency's Adjutant"
                        Remember the dialogue in the basement in the first episode?
                        - I thought, maybe in this very revolution there is some biological meaning in all this. Well, as in the marriage of a nobleman with a peasant woman. To bring in a fresh stream of blood. After all, we are degenerating, I would even say we have already degenerated. The instinct of self-preservation is absent. We calmly await death like cattle in a slaughterhouse. What?
                        - I'm listening to.
                        - In some Asian country, all this bacchanalia would be slammed in a week. They would have walked up to their throats in blood, but they would have slammed them. And we...
                        - I don't know what to do in this situation. However, captain, I am sure that the rule of law in Russia will soon be restored.
                        And I advise you, when you return home, to marry a peasant woman.
                        - Bravo.
                        - A sinister joke, captain.
                        - But if it helped a miracle, I agree in case of salvation to marry a peasant woman.
                        - I appreciate your sacrifice, captain.

                        smile
                        One of my favorite films...
                      7. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 25 March 2022 20: 05
                        +2
                        I have big gaps with movies. I watched "His Excellency's Adjutant" after talking on the forum. Maybe he can afford more.

                        And what you once look at is rarely imprinted in detail.
                      8. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 25 March 2022 20: 20
                        +4
                        Well, Sergey, it's time to raise a stack to your health. drinks
                        I retire to the table and turn from a writer into an exclusively reader. Again, happy birthday! good
                      9. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 25 March 2022 20: 27
                        +3
                        Thanks. And the remaining daughter, son-in-law and grandson are coming to me. So there is synchronicity. Thank you all for a great holiday!
    4. Catfish
      Catfish 25 March 2022 15: 41
      +5
      Happy Birthday, Sergey! smile
      All life blessings and health! love drinks
      It's only been an hour since I got out of bed and with careful steps I return to myself. laughing

      And a picture of a galleas - as a gift. Walk along the river - maybe some one is moored.


      I am happy to send you a couple of galleass. smile

      [Center]
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 25 March 2022 17: 17
        +3
        Thank you again, dear Konstantin!

        What an expression in the second picture!
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 25 March 2022 17: 21
          +4
          Yes, the drawing is good! I was not sure that it was a galeas, but I really liked it.))



          Well, straight, a natural dump in the battle of Lepanto - literally "wall-to-wall".
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 25 March 2022 17: 24
            +3
            And here - like a whirlwind.
            It is probably interesting to look at the picture of the world from a fair distance.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 25 March 2022 17: 46
              +3
              "What are you laughing at?" Stone asked.
              “Yes, just looked at us from a height of three thousand feet, so it became funny. - Answered Enges Burke. "(S. from Aldridge's Sea Eagle, and probably not accurate, because from memory)))
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 25 March 2022 18: 01
                +3
                I read it relatively recently, at your suggestion.

                We also have a hut-reading room.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 25 March 2022 18: 07
                  +4
                  We also have a hut-reading room.


                  For which I appreciate.))

                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 25 March 2022 18: 50
                    +3
                    Yeah. An indestructible habit of libraries and corridors.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 25 March 2022 19: 35
                      +4
                      and corridors.


                      Yes, practice is great. laughing

                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 25 March 2022 19: 40
                        +4
                        That Asterix with crocodiles.
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 25 March 2022 19: 45
                        +6
                        Crocodiles are also sometimes unlucky. wink

                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 25 March 2022 20: 09
                        +3
                        That's what illegibility leads to.
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 25 March 2022 20: 20
                        +3
                        "She had promiscuous ties
                        He has handwriting."
                      5. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 25 March 2022 20: 33
                        +2
                        "She fell in love with him for money,
                        And he is her, for the attitude towards them "(C)
                      6. Catfish
                        Catfish 25 March 2022 20: 41
                        +3
                        "She fell in love with him for money,
                        And he is her, for her attitude towards them "


                      7. parusnik
                        parusnik 25 March 2022 20: 53
                        +6
                        ..... I went in, and here they are celebrating! laughing love
                      8. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 25 March 2022 21: 00
                        +4
                        Yes. For the second day in a row.
                      9. parusnik
                        parusnik 25 March 2022 21: 03
                        +5
                        Good evening, Anton hi As they say, God loves the trinity smile But God, not a fool, loves a penny smile
                      10. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 25 March 2022 21: 07
                        +5
                        My respect, Aleksey!
                        When is your DR?
                      11. parusnik
                        parusnik 25 March 2022 21: 09
                        +6
                        May 32..only 6 minutes.. wink
                      12. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 25 March 2022 21: 16
                        +5
                        An answer worthy of Octavian Augustus! good
                      13. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 25 March 2022 22: 59
                        +1
                        All Munchausens will agree with you.
                      14. Ruslan67
                        Ruslan67 27 March 2022 02: 08
                        +1
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        When is your DR?

                        At our age, it's time to celebrate non-birthdays sad Another reason to drink... laughing
                        I happened to be passing by yes drinks
                      15. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 25 March 2022 22: 58
                        +2
                        And we always celebrate!
          2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 25 March 2022 22: 24
            +3
            Yes, the drawing is good! I was not sure that it was a galeas, but I really liked it.))

            Exactly - the Venetian galeas. Perhaps even a member of Lepanto. The first six were conversions from large Venetian merchant galleys and had rounded turrets on the forecastle and stern. At the same time, they did not have full-fledged casemates on the sides.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 25 March 2022 22: 42
              +2
              Good evening, Vlad.))
              Well, I still distinguish a corvette from a frigate, but there’s no way for galleasses. request ))
  3. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 25 March 2022 07: 56
    +8
    revolted Moriscos
    Moriscos will remain in Spanish fairy tales and legends, as sorcerers and sorcerers, mostly evil, well, as treasure keepers ..
  4. know
    know 25 March 2022 08: 25
    +6
    A 26-year-old admiral who, in anticipation of a ramming attack from an approaching enemy flagship, does not pray, but dances a galliard on his ship's artillery platform

    Young and living blood!
    "In an hour she is just earth, in two she has flowers and grass, in two she is alive again"
  5. know
    know 25 March 2022 11: 08
    +7
    after the death of Charles V, who went down in history as a man who managed to catch a cold to death ... at his own funeral (or rather, at their rehearsal)



    Yes! It's from the heart ... Wonderful. Worthy of admiration. My patients swallowed spoons many times, I won’t hide it, but that’s it, at lunch ... For dessert ... and a sharp object ... wonderful! For this, we sincerely thank you. If, of course, in addition to iron objects, you can also use porcelain ... Then there are simply no words!
  6. Catfish
    Catfish 25 March 2022 17: 09
    +7
    The above-mentioned Khair-ad-Din Barbarossa, who died in 1546, and Turgut-reis, who died in 1565 on the island of Malta, was appointed to the position of Kapudan Pasha.

    The Turks did not forget either one or the other, having received armadillos from the Germans, they assigned them the names of famous pirates. smile