The Baltics are ours! The victorious end of the Northern War


Peter I proclaims the Peace of Nystad on Trinity Square in St. Petersburg. Author: Charlemagne Adolph Iosifovich (engraver Julian Karlovich Schübler). 1901 g.

Exhaustion of Sweden

Tsar Peter Alekseevich more than once offered the Swedes peace, both before Poltava and after it, but each time he met the stubborn reluctance of King Charles XII to sit down at the negotiating table. At the same time, Sweden was defeated, both on land and at sea, lost Ingermanland, Estonia and Livonia.

Sweden was in a state of disaster.

War and mobilizations left only old people, women and children in villages and towns. The population of the kingdom from 1700 to 1718 almost halved - from 1,2 million people to 600-700 thousand (lands on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea were lost). Industry and trade fell into decay. The merchant fleet decreased by more than three times - from 775 ships in 1697 to 209 in 1718. The treasury was already empty for a long time, there was no money for the salaries of officers, the purchase weapons, ammunition and equipment, for the construction and manning of ships, etc. The national debt has grown significantly.

The first period of the war, when the Swedish army could wage a war by plundering enemy territories (Rzeczpospolita, Saxony, Little Russia, etc.), contributions from the occupied cities were long in the past. Sweden lost its possessions on the southern coast of the Baltic. And the Baltic provinces were a source of food, primarily bread. Also, Russian troops occupied a significant part of Karelia and Finland.

Now the Swedes have learned all the hardships of the war: malnutrition, emergency taxes, numerous mobilizations and duties. The entire working population of Sweden was mobilized into the army, the navy, and auxiliary work. Local trade came to a standstill, factories and shipyards stalled, villages and fields were empty, as were the mines. Markets and barns were also empty; merchant ships from Holland and England did not come.

Thus, Sweden could no longer fight. The country has lost its position as one of the leading military, maritime and economic powers in Europe. The country faced hunger and complete decline, a crisis that could last for decades.

Aland Congress

Before Poltava, Pyotr Alekseevich offered modest peace conditions: Izhora land (Ingria-Ingermanlandia) with St. Petersburg and Narva, for which the tsar was ready to give a ransom. That is, Russia was supposed to get access to the Baltic Sea. However, every year, as Russia became stronger and Sweden weakened, the demands of St. Petersburg grew.

Now Russia was striving to secure the lands conquered by weapons. Sweden, supported by England, on the contrary, sought to return everything that was lost during the war. But Sweden was completely devastated by the battles, and the people wanted peace.

Therefore, Stockholm went to peace negotiations.

Negotiations began in May 1718 on the Åland Islands on the island of Vordø. On the part of Russia, Jacob Bruce, Osterman and Pavel Yaguzhinsky were authorized, on the part of Sweden - Goertz and Yullenborg (Gillenborg). For negotiations, a whole town was built, the city, which consisted of the Russian and Swedish halves.

The Russian side offered to transfer to Russia all the lands captured by the Russian army, except for Finland.

Sweden was to be rewarded at the expense of Danish lands, including Norway, and return part of the lands in Germany (recaptured from Hanover). The Russian sovereign was even ready to allocate an auxiliary corps to help Sweden against Hanover (the principality was in personal union with the English throne). The Russian government was not going to fight against Denmark, which was our ally.

Peter was also ready to sacrifice the position of King Augustus II on the Polish throne (the Saxon elector proved to be an unfit ally), since the Swedes and the French insisted on the candidacy of Stanislav Leszczynski.

Who interfered with peace negotiations

If negotiations on the Alands were only between representatives of the two Baltic powers, they would obviously quickly come to a compromise and conclude peace.

Charles XII himself, obviously, was already tired of the confrontation with Russia. He retained his belligerence, but switched to confrontation with Denmark, from which he wanted to seize Norway and thereby compensate for the loss of the Swedish Baltic. The head of the Swedish delegation, Baron Görtz, was for peace at the price of a concession to the Baltic provinces. True, in return he proposed a Russian-Swedish alliance directed against the Commonwealth and Denmark.

However, several powers that supported the anti-Russian party in Stockholm were interested in disrupting the negotiations.

So, the Danes were afraid that Sweden, having agreed with the Russians, would attack Denmark with all its might in order to seize Norway. Hanover feared for the fate of its acquisitions in Central Europe, which were previously owned by Sweden. Charles XII, despite the unsuccessful war with Russia, was a good commander and, undoubtedly, would like to return Pomerania and other possessions. So, Bremen and Verdun were captured by the Hanoverian Elector Georg (aka the English king), Stettin was occupied by Prussia.

The governments of the Western European states tried to play off the Russians and the Swedes again.

England stood out among the powers hostile to Russia.

In 1716, a combined fleet of England, Holland and Russia sailed the Baltic in order to suppress the actions of Swedish privateers. Sweden had to abandon privateering in the Baltic Sea.

But the British did not want peace between Russia and Sweden.

They wanted to preserve the former position of Russia - landlocked. Also, a certain influence was exerted by the dynastic interests of the Hanoverian prince. Therefore, the British began to promise Stockholm money and support. fleet.

However, Charles XII did not react to the promises of the British. Baron Goertz also strove for peace with the Russians.

Obviously, the British quickly found a way out. November 30, 1718 in Norway during the siege of the Friedrichsgal fortress, the Swedish king died under mysterious circumstances.

Officially, he was killed by a stray bullet. But, most likely, the conspirators shot him. Goertz was immediately arrested, accused of treason and executed. Karl had no heirs, so his sister Ulrika Eleanor took the throne. She and her husband Frederic of Hesse-Kassel took a pro-English position. Swedish troops were withdrawn from Norway, negotiations dragged on.

Closing of the congress in Aland

Tsar Peter is taking vigorous measures to end the war.

In the summer, Osterman was sent to Stockholm with final peace terms ("Conditions"). If the Swedes refused, Russia promised to resume hostilities. A galley fleet with an assault force was sent to the Swedish shores. Osterman's mission ended in vain.

The Swedish government, relying on the help of England, rejected the conditions of Russia. Then the fleet under the command of Admiral Apraksin landed troops in the Stockholm area. Russian troops under the command of Apraksin and Lassi, without storming the fortresses and not getting involved in battles with the enemy, ravaged and burned 8 cities, over 20 factories, dozens of mills, more than 130 villages and villages. The soldiers seized rich trophies.

Apraksin could continue to burn the Swedish lands, but was instructed to withdraw the troops. The lesson was given to Stockholm.

Before that, the Russian detachment of Boryatinsky, near the Swedish capital itself, defeated the Swedish troops under the command of the Prince of Hesse-Kassel. Stockholm was gripped by fear when the Cossacks appeared on the outskirts. The clashes showed a strong drop in the combat effectiveness of the Swedish army and a great increase in the training of the Russian troops.

The 1719 landings did not make the Swedes more compliant. They still hoped that "the West will help."

In 1719 England sent Norris's squadron to the Baltic, ordering the destruction of Russia's Baltic fleet. However, the British were late. When the Swedish-English fleet approached Stockholm, the Russian ships had already calmly left for their shores. At the end of October, the British fleet returned to Britain.

In August, Pyotr Alekseevich sent a letter to Queen Eleanor, in which he reproached Sweden for not wanting to successfully complete the negotiations. The tsar delivered an ultimatum: the Swedes accept the Russian conditions or the congress is over.

The Swedes broke off negotiations.

On September 15, 1719, the Åland Congress was closed.

Ending war

In 1720, the military-political situation for Russia worsened. There was a threat of attack by the Swedish-British fleet. Relations with Denmark have become complicated. Sweden could now direct all its forces to fight the Russians.

Peter Alekseevich had to strengthen the defense of the Baltic states. In the spring, he instructed Menshikov to form 20 dragoon regiments in Ukraine, some of which were sent to defend the coast. Dragoon regiments, more mobile than infantry, were to overturn possible Swedish landings. Russian troops stepped up their actions in Finland.

Peter was sure that it was enough to show the Swedes in practice that they should not count on real help from England, and Stockholm would ask for peace. He was right. The British limited themselves to demonstrations.

The Russian galley fleet under the command of Mikhail Golitsyn successfully attacked the enemy. One detachment went to Vaza, the other to Aland. The landing under the command of Brigadier Mengden devastated enemy territory. Golitsyn's fleet lured the Swedish squadron and on July 27 defeated it at Grengam. The Swedes lost 4 frigates. Both operations were carried out in front of the British. And the Swedish-British fleet did not achieve any success.

In November 1720, King Frederick of Sweden (Prince of Hesse-Kassel was crowned) proposed to resume peace negotiations. Sweden could not continue the war, the crisis was getting worse. It also came to the realization that hopes that Russia is also exhausted and can no longer fight are in vain. Russian troops and navy showed a high level of combat effectiveness.

London came to the conclusion that the continuation of the war has no prospects. Sweden cannot continue the war. And British traders were interested in developing trade with Russia.

Tsar Peter so far refrained from trade sanctions against England, but his patience could run out, and the British would be expelled from the Russian market. In addition, the annual maneuvers of the British fleet in the Baltic cost a lot of money and did not bring any profit. For the tight-fisted English merchants, such a war had no benefit. In London, they decided that it would not work to impose their own conditions on St. Petersburg, so it was necessary to end the war and fix the losses.

A sharp turn in British policy is taking place. Now British diplomacy was persuading the Swedes to peace and as soon as possible.

Sweden, which followed the lead of England, suffered new losses and losses. Its negotiating position has deteriorated further. The British washed their hands and offered the Swedish side to accept the bitter peace.

The Baltics are ours! The victorious end of the Northern War
The signing of the peace treaty in Nystadt on August 30, 1721. Engraving by Peter Schenk Jr.


In May 1721, negotiations resumed in the Finnish town of Nystadt. Russia was again represented by Bruce and Osterman, Sweden - by Count Johan Lilienstedt and Ullenborg.

In the conditions of the Russian side, there were two new points.

First, Peter agreed to pay compensation for Livonia.

Secondly, in Aland, the king agreed to take Livonia for a period of 20-40 years. Now Livonia passed to Russia forever. They tried to drag out until the fall, before the fleet left for the bases. The Swedes agreed to cede Revel (the capital of Estonia), but Vyborg and the island of Ezel remained with Sweden.

Remembering the lessons of the Aland Congress, Tsar Peter continued the demonstrative preparation of new landings and the construction of new battleships. The Admiralty was working at full capacity. Apraksin was preparing a campaign to Stockholm, it was canceled only because of rumors about the appearance of the British fleet. However, Golitsyn sent a galley detachment of General Lassi to the Gulf of Bothnia, which conducted a successful landing in the Umeå region.

The visit in 1721 to the Russian capital of the Holstein Duke Karl Friedrich had a strong impact on the Swedish government. He was a contender for the Swedish throne, to which he had more rights than Ulrika Eleanor and especially her husband Frederick. Karl also claimed land that the Danes took away. Karl was going to marry one of Peter's daughters - Anna or Elizabeth.

That is, if Stockholm continued to play for time, then Russia could continue the war with the aim of expelling Frederick I. The calculation of Russian diplomacy turned out to be correct, the Holstein card at the negotiations in Nystadt acquired great importance. Swedish diplomats have become more compliant.

In the summer of 1721, Peter promised to resume hostilities in Finland if negotiations were disrupted. Russian diplomats rejected all of the Swedes' claims: compensation for Vyborg, keeping Ezel and mentioning the concession of St. Petersburg.

On August 30 (September 10), 1721, the peace was signed.

On September 4, Peter, with a brigantine that entered the Neva, informed the capital of the victory of Russian weapons. All day long, at the sound of trumpets and timpani, trumpeters and horsemen with white scarves over their shoulders and white banners depicting an olive branch and a laurel wreath (a symbol of peace) rode the streets of the city and announced the conclusion of peace.

The bloody and difficult 21-year war was over. Peter called it "a three-time bloody and very dangerous school" (students then finished school in 7 years).

Russia returned access to the Baltic and the status of a great maritime power. Ingria, Estlandia (Revel), Livonia (Riga), part of Karelia with Vyborg and Kexholm, the islands of Ezel and Dago departed to Russia. Finland was returning to Sweden. Sweden bargained for the right to buy bread in its former Baltic provinces and a $ 2 million compensation for Livonia (Sweden's annual budget).

Sweden lost its position as one of the most powerful military and naval powers in Europe. However, Russia did not completely eliminate the threat from the northwest. Having built the capital by the sea, Peter, in essence, put it under attack. Russia had to fight three more times with Sweden and take away Finland in order to resolve this issue.

"On the Nishtat world." Officer's medal for participants in the Northern War, 1721
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  1. +7
    6 September 2021 03: 41
    It would be nice from the Balts to demand compensation for Petrovsky's money, taking into account inflation, for the forcible separation from Russia, since the Jews also demand compensation for everything that is possible why and we would not take it into service.
    The money here is very good ... and the Balts will immediately shut up with their Wishlist.
    1. +7
      6 September 2021 05: 24
      Excellent article!

      As for the Balts ... Yes, Russia bought the lands on which the states of Estonia and Latvia are now located.

      Here is the land and must be returned! All the same, there is nothing to take from the Balts. And the Balts can be sent to Sweden for permanent residence.
      1. +8
        6 September 2021 06: 04
        It is now, in hindsight, analyzing the events of the Great Northern War, we still implicitly imagine modern Sweden, which is now an ordinary state. But then Sweden was militarily and economically the number one state in Europe fellow ... As an example of the economic power of Sweden, we can say that the Swedes were the first in Europe and even ahead of England in steel and iron smelting. Plus, the Swedes were lucky with the king, who undoubtedly had a talent for leadership. But nevertheless, Russia broke the back of such a powerful state, after which it no longer went! good drinks
        1. +5
          6 September 2021 07: 54
          Plus, the Swedes were lucky with the king
          In Sweden itself, there is an ambivalent attitude towards him. In the mass culture of the country, he is a genius commander and a romantic hero of the XNUMXth century. However, controversies about his contribution to the history of the Swedish state range from enthusiastic to sharply negative. The latter include the majority of historians who rationally and soberly assess the role of Charles XII.
          On November 30, 1718, in Norway, during the siege of the Friedrichsgal fortress, the Swedish king died under mysterious circumstances.
          This is how Voltaire described the events:
          “On November 30, St. Andrew's Day, at 9 pm, Karl went to inspect the trenches and, not finding the expected success in the work, seemed very unhappy. Megre, the French engineer in charge of the work, began to assure him that the fortress would be taken within eight days. “We’ll see,” said the king and continued to bypass the work. Then he stopped in a corner on a branch of the trench and, resting his knees on the inner ledge of the trench, leaned his elbows on the parapet, continuing to look at the soldiers at work, who labored in the light of the stars. The king leaned out from behind the parapet almost to the waist, thus representing a goal ... At that moment there were only two Frenchmen next to him: one - his personal secretary Siquier, an intelligent and efficient man who entered his service in Turkey and who was especially devoted; the other is Megre, engineer ...
          A few steps away from them was Count Schwerin, the trench commander, who gave orders to Count Posse and Adjutant General Kaulbars. Suddenly Sikye and Megre saw the king fall on the parapet, letting out a deep sigh. They approached him, but he was already dead: a half-pound buckshot hit his right temple and punched a hole into which three fingers could be put; his head threw back, his right eye went in, and the left one completely jumped out of orbit ... Falling, he found the strength to put his right hand on the hilt of the sword with a habitual movement and died in this position. At the sight of the dead king, Megre, a man of rare equanimity, uttered only: "The play is played, let's go to supper." Sikye ran up to Count Schwerin to tell him what had happened. They decided to hide the news of the death of the king from the army until the Prince of Hesse was notified. The body was wrapped in a gray cloak. Sikye covered the head of Charles XII with their wig and hat so that the soldiers would not recognize the murdered king. The Prince of Hesse immediately ordered that no one should dare to leave the camp, and ordered to guard all the roads leading to Sweden. He needed time to take measures to ensure that the crown passed to his wife, and to prevent the claims to the crown of the Duke of Holstein. This is how Charles XII, King of Sweden, who experienced the greatest successes and the most cruel vicissitudes of fate, died at the age of 36 ...
          Peter I mourns the death of Charles XII. Engraving by Daniel Chodovetsky. 8,2 x 4,8 cm. End of the XNUMXth century. Museum of Fine Arts, San Francisco, USA.
          … I cannot pass over in silence one slander. At that time, rumors spread in Germany that Syquier had killed the king of Sweden. This brave officer was desperate for this slander. Once, telling me about this, he said: "I could have killed the Swedish king, but I was filled with such respect for this hero that if I even wanted something like that, I would not dare!" I know that Siquier himself gave rise to such an accusation, which part of Sweden still believes. He told me that while in Stockholm, in a fit of delirium tremens, he muttered that he had killed the king, and, deliriously opening the window, asked forgiveness from the people for this regicide. When, after his recovery, he found out about this, he almost died of grief. I saw him shortly before his death and I can assure you that he not only did not kill Karl, but he himself would have allowed himself to be killed a thousand times for him. If he were guilty of this crime, it would, of course, be with the aim of rendering a service to some state that would reward him well. But he died in poverty in France and needed the help of friends. " ...
          1. +7
            6 September 2021 08: 06
            So what happened on November 30, 1718, when it was announced that he had been killed by buckshot fired from Danish positions, people immediately questioned this theory. Doubts turned out to be so strong that 28 years later, in 1746, the Swedish king Fredrik I ordered to open the grave of Charles to re-examine the body. The court physician Melchior Neumann performed the embalming flawlessly, so the august deceased looked as if he had died quite recently.
            The excellent preservation of the body allowed a detailed study of the wound on Karl's head. Doctors and military personnel, who are well acquainted with the nature of combat injuries, made a stunning conclusion: a through hole in the skull the size of a pigeon's egg was made not by a grapeshot shell fragment, as previously assumed, but by a rifle bullet.
            It was brought to the museum in Varberg in May 1932 by Karl Andersson, a local blacksmith. Andersson rendered "two hemispheres of brass, filled with lead and welded together to form a ball, with a protruding loop, evidence of its previous use as a button." One side was flattened by a violent impact with something hard. He found the button back in 1924 in a pile of earth that he pulled from a hole near his house. Do we need to explain that his house was located at the very fateful trench where the king was killed. The results of ballistic examination confirmed that the shot was fired from the side of the fortress, the bullet speed was estimated at only 150 m / s, which says that it was already at its end and flew a fair distance. There were about 300 steps from the forward positions of the Swedish troops to the walls of the fortress. According to the calculations of ballisticians, the probability of hitting a target measuring 1.2 x 1.8 meters from a smoothbore gun of the early 25th century from such a distance is only 1718%, and the chance of hitting a person's head from such a distance is much less. It would seem that the "Danish" version turned out to be untenable. But it received an unexpected confirmation after almost two centuries. Above it was said how difficult it would be to hit Charles with a regular smooth-bore musket. But in 30, there were already special fortress guns. These were heavy and bulky mechanisms with a barrel length of up to two meters and weighing up to 30 kilograms. Such a gun is difficult to handle, so it was equipped with a wooden stand. Conical lead bullets weighing 60-XNUMX grams served as ammunition for him, and the range of destruction made it possible to pierce the skull through even from a very long distance. Was it possible to shoot Karl with it?
            In 1907, a Swedish physician and amateur historian, Dr. Njustrem, conducted an experiment. According to old drawings, he assembled a fortress gun and filled it with gunpowder, also made according to a recipe from the 24th century. At the place of the king's death, the doctor set up a wooden target the size of a human body, and he himself climbed the fortress wall of Fredrikshald, from where he fired XNUMX times. Nyström himself believed that the Danes could not get to Charles from such a distance, even with a fortress gun, and wanted to confirm this.
            But the result of the experiment turned out to be exactly the opposite. The doctor hit the target 23 times, proving that a good shooter from the fortress wall could well have killed the king.
            The conclusions of the specialists turned out to be contradictory. On the one hand, the bullet hit the skull on the left and slightly behind, and, according to experts, could not fly from Fredrikshald. But on the other hand, the inlet was located slightly higher than the outlet, - the bullet moved along an inclined trajectory, from a hill, for example, from an embankment or…. walls. The second conclusion already allowed a shot from the fortress.
            1. +5
              6 September 2021 08: 10
              And if it was still a conspiracy, then who was the organizer, if there was such a thing? The involvement of King George of England is unlikely. He did not have a sufficient reason for the murder. Fredrik of Hesse, the husband of his sister Ulrika Eleanor, who took the throne immediately after the death of his brother, won the most from Karl's death. In 1720, she renounced the crown in favor of her husband. Fredrik ruled Sweden until his death in 1751. Many conspiracy theorists consider him the mastermind behind the assassination, and the murder of Charles, according to the dying Kronstedt, was the result of a conspiracy by the Swedish aristocracy, dissatisfied with the king's policies. As the direct executor of the murder, the Baron enlisted Sterneroos, his subordinate and excellent marksman. On the evening of November 30, he followed Karl and his retinue through the trenches, then climbed out of the trench and took up a position in front of an earthen embankment, to which the monarch approached from the other side. Sterneroos waited for the king to look out from behind the parapet, and fired. In the turmoil that followed the murder, he quietly returned to the trenches.
              Kronstedt also admitted that after Karl's death he and other military leaders behaved in a not noble manner at all - they appropriated the entire military treasury. Sterneroos also received a very substantial monetary reward and subsequently rose to the rank of general of the cavalry.
              The information contained in the notes of the deceased priest had no confirmation and could not serve as legal evidence. But it is known that in 1789 the Swedish king Gustav III, in a conversation with the French ambassador, said that he considered Kronstedt and Sterneroos to be the perpetrators of the murder, but perhaps all these conclusions are incorrect and Karl died from an accidental bullet fired from the walls of Fredrikshald. The riddle could be solved by a new examination of the remains using the most modern technical means.
              In 2008, Stefan Jonsson, professor of materials science at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, in an interview with the BBC announced the need for a new exhumation, already the fifth in a row. The scientist is going to study the bones using an electron microscope.
              “Even if there are even the slightest traces of metal, we can study their chemical composition,” the professor said. However, permission for the next exhumation of the remains of the "last Viking" has not been received to this day.
              1. 0
                6 September 2021 17: 12
                It's time to return these lands, which were paid for with Russian blood, lives and a lot of money! They - русские!
    2. +5
      6 September 2021 06: 31
      What does the Balts have to do with it? Whom did Peter pay the money to? If you bought a cow and she ran away from you, then the claims are not against the cow, but against yourself!
      1. -1
        6 September 2021 06: 39
        Give my cow back to the neighbor ... this is my cow, I bought it and I have to milk it. smile
        1. +2
          6 September 2021 06: 46
          So the cow is not at the neighbor's, it runs by itself. laughing
          1. -1
            6 September 2021 07: 47
            So let's start looking - who is milking the cow and who is feeding.
            1. 0
              6 September 2021 08: 22
              Swedes or what?
            2. +2
              6 September 2021 08: 44
              If you think that the cow is yours - go and bring her to your home am
              1. +1
                6 September 2021 08: 57
                There is no need to be angry.
                Simply using an analogy can lead to its development.
                1. +2
                  6 September 2021 09: 43
                  I'm not angry drinks on the contrary, it’s funny to me as what the Swedes have been paid want to claim from the front of the purchase. Someone started it and the people are underway!
                  1. +1
                    6 September 2021 09: 51
                    The trouble with all templates.
                    And in any case, it makes you wonder how the country grew by efforts, and how it can collapse. On the scale of history - overnight.

                    And the eternal right is the right of the strong.
                    1. -1
                      6 September 2021 09: 54
                      There is, in addition to this right, and there is also the right of the "first"!
                      But the right of the strong is stronger fellow
                      1. -1
                        6 September 2021 11: 31
                        The chroniclers will run in. And the Salic Law will be brought in, and the necessary bull will be remembered, and a line from the Old Testament. And how to correctly interpret ladder law.
                      2. -1
                        6 September 2021 11: 33
                        If an order is found, how to argue for it!
      2. ANB
        6 September 2021 17: 59
        ... If you bought a cow and she ran away from you, then the claims are not against the cow, but against yourself!

        The cow is movable property, and the land is immovable. Peter also bought Lithuanians and Estonians, but in light of the abolition of serfdom, they can be considered a runaway cow. But the pasture does not change its owner.
        In short, either the Balts must recognize the legality of the transition of Crimea to the Russian Federation on the basis of the desire of the population, or pay for the lease of Russian territory. Or go where the rent is cheaper.
    3. +5
      6 September 2021 07: 42
      Lech from Android. (Lech from Android)
      It would be nice from the Balts to demand compensation for Petrovsky's money, taking into account inflation, for the forcible separation from Russia
      There it is necessary to demand not only from Peter's money, but also from what was invested under the USSR. These imperfections have always, I repeat ALWAYS, were subsidized, i.e. they were fed not by their own labor, but by Russia. And as soon as they separated, it immediately became clear that they were not able to feed themselves. Even now, they feed on the infrastructure left over from the Soviet Union so hated by them. So what do they owe us as land to the collective farm, but what should they take from the hicks? Well, except perhaps to expose reciprocal claims so that they would restrain their Wishlist.
      1. -5
        6 September 2021 08: 39
        Another nonsense ...
        1. +2
          6 September 2021 08: 45
          And besides your sketch about the alleged delirium specifically on the points, there is what to object? Or do you lack vocabulary for more than one phrase?
          1. -7
            6 September 2021 08: 47
            And you answer every obvious nonsense point by point? :) I especially liked about "I did not feed my own work."
            1. +3
              6 September 2021 11: 51
              And for general mental development, go to the statistics of the USSR and see who lived at whose expense. All republics were subsidized, except for the RSFSR and the BSSR, that is, they consumed more than they produced themselves.
              So only you are raving here.
              1. -3
                6 September 2021 13: 21
                From this article “Sweden has lost its possessions on the southern coast of the Baltic. And the Baltic provinces were a source of food, primarily bread."- that is, the Baltic provinces not only fed themselves, but also were an important supplier of food for Sweden itself. This is a word about" ALWAYS subsidized ".
                As for the statistics of the USSR, are you talking about that one picture of Komsomolskaya Pravda, which people here like to insert into every post for many years now? By the way, even if so Lithuanians, Estonians and Latvians asked for what would have occupied them in the 40th USSR? Like "please, please, we need subsidies"? :) And if not, then why whine about this?
                1. +2
                  6 September 2021 13: 29
                  Is this article a beacon of truth? From the collective under the nickname "Samsonov" historians as from the well-known substance is a bullet.
                  In addition, the army feeds on whatever food it can find on the spot. Nowhere is it indicated that all of Russia was fed with this bread.
                  Where do you come from in general such unique ones? Out of 404 I suppose?
                  1. -1
                    7 September 2021 14: 00
                    Before you throw yourself at your opponent with foam, find that beam in your own eye, eh? I replied to a post in which it was written that the Baltic states "ALWAYS have been subsidized". Always in my understanding it is not only about 200 years of Russian rule. Or is it not so? What does the army have to do with it, or did they "feed the whole of Russia"?
                    Samsonov is over, he is still a "historian", but even he, in this shortage, had to unsubscribe that the Baltic was an important supplier of Sweden's provisions, because the points of the peace treaty indicated this, and there was no way around it.
            2. 0
              10 September 2021 21: 07
              Quote: Ulrih
              I especially liked about "not feeding my own work."

              Of course, they fed on their own labor, and under the Union too. The trick is that this "own labor" could not even come close to provide the level of consumption that they had during the Soviet Union.
    4. -5
      6 September 2021 08: 37
      What kind of nonsense?
  2. +4
    6 September 2021 05: 56
    Stalin's biggest mistake is that after the Second World War he did not abolish these Baltic republics by annexing them to the Kaliningrad, Leningrad and Pskov regions of the Russian SSR. The resettlement of Russians and Cossacks there had to be carried out at the same pace as when in Tsarist Russia Russians settled the territories beyond the Urals and in Siberia. Or at the same rate as the Russians settled
    new cities in the Far East in the first five-year plans in the USSR.
    But now Russia is simply obliged to return these territories of its own. By the way, as well as their primordial territories of Little Russia, White Russia and the Oran territories of Russia.
    1. -7
      6 September 2021 08: 41
      Look at the map of Russia. Then go further than Moscow, St. Petersburg and look at the villages from which only names remain ... But no, you need everything from a foreign land ...
      1. +5
        6 September 2021 09: 20
        Look at the map of Russia. Then go further than Moscow, St. Petersburg and look at the villages from which only the names remain.

        This is your utter nonsense. That is, people do not live outside the Moscow Ring Road and St. Petersburg? Look at Kazan, Belgorod, Nizhniy - this is so, at a glance. tongue fool
        1. -5
          6 September 2021 11: 56
          Unfortunately, this is not enough for the country. You can also remember Krasnodar, and other regional and republican centers.

          But to drop into the districts of the same Nizhny Novgorod or Kostroma regions - and there will be many "wonderful discoveries."
      2. 0
        10 September 2021 21: 12
        Well, firstly, there is a process of enlarging agricultural production. In the United States, too, farmers are 10 times less than 100 years ago. Well, and secondly, the Nazis walked through the European part of our country. Can I explain to you what they were doing there?
    2. +2
      6 September 2021 11: 26
      Why do we need Chukhonts and their territories? let them live., develop, whine money from the EU and rush with their "history". Time is a wonderful healer. There is no need to repeat the mistakes of the past, support all neighbors, invest in them, build infrastructure for them, etc. the greatness of the country in its citizens. it is necessary to take care of yourself, and not the surrounding hicks, let them beg in the states and Brussels.
    3. +1
      6 September 2021 18: 33
      the biggest mistake of Peter and after in the Germanization of the Baltic states, it was necessary to Russify as Germans with Poles
      1. -2
        7 September 2021 11: 33
        Loved our battalion commander starts a conversation about the "pacification" of the area, referring to the fact that any corpse is much more pacifist than any hysterical lady with a poster or a pathetic student drugged with drugs.
  3. +8
    6 September 2021 06: 14
    Golitsyn's fleet lured the Swedish squadron and on July 27 defeated it at Grengam.
    Peter, having learned about the appearance of enemy ships on the Aland Islands, ordered to clear the islands. Golitsyn made the right decision - to withdraw to the islands, hiding in the straits, lure the Swedes there and give battle where the advantage will be on the side of the galleys. Sheblad, seeing the retreat of the Russian fleet. , chased after him, believing himself the winner, and realized too late that he had been lured into a trap. Four Swedish frigates were pulled into the skerries, where they could hardly maneuver. Golitsyn, keeping his galleys at a safe distance from them, waited. And his expectations were met.
    Sheblad gave the order to his sailors to turn the ships around in order to meet the Russian galleys with an onboard salvo if they decided to attack. At the same time, the frigates "Venker" and "Store-Phoenix" deviated from the fairway and ran aground. This is exactly what Golitsyn was expecting. Russian galleys, firing from their bow guns, rushed at the enemy to take him on board.
    Sheblad too late realized his mistake and gave a signal to two other frigates - "Dansk-Ernu" and "Kiskin" - to stretch out into open water. However, before they could do that, he had to deploy his battleship. Turning around, the flagship of the Swedes blocked the fairway for its own frigates. While Sheblad maneuvered to catch the wind in the sails, the Russian galleys surrounded all four Swedish frigates and took them on board. The engagement was fierce. But neither the high sides, nor the artillery fire could stop the outbursts of Golitsyn's soldiers. "Venker" and "Store-Phoenix" were taken within a quarter of an hour. "Kiskin" and "Dansk-Ern" resisted a little longer, while continuing to appeal to their flagship for help, however, Sheblad was no longer up to them. He was not a stupid enough person to understand: being drawn into the skerries with his hulking battleship, he risks putting it aground, after which the ship would inevitably face the fate of the Venker and Store-Phoenix. From the Grengam stretch it was necessary to urgently go to the open sea. And soon over the flagpoles of "Kiskin" and "Dansk-Erna" St. Andrew's flags were already fluttering.
    1. +8
      6 September 2021 06: 16
      Golitsyn, however, was not going to be content with four "prizes", but sent his galleys in pursuit of the fleeing Swedish flagship. Colonel Chubarov commanded the pursuit squad. The fire of Russian bombardiers from the galleys was quite accurate, from the stern of the Swedish flagship, only the boards flew into the water. However, the battleship remained a battleship, and in the fresh wind Sheblad had all the advantages on his ship. He escaped from the Grengam reach and now, with the ships he had left, was preparing to meet the attackers. In addition, the wind spread a large wave, which, as Shigin points out, prevented the Russian galleys from acting. And Chubarov decides to retreat.
      The battle lasted only 4 hours. As a result of the battle, the Swedes lost four frigates, and their flagship battleship was damaged. According to V. Shigin, the Swedes lost 103 people killed, and 407 Swedes were taken prisoner. Russian losses amounted to 82 killed and 246 wounded. Forty of them were burnt with gunpowder, which testifies to the fierceness of the boarding battle and the decisiveness of the actions of the Russian boarding teams. Peter learned about the Grengam victory on the day of the Transfiguration of the Lord, upon leaving the church. To celebrate, the tsar ordered an immediate thanksgiving service. "True, a considerable Victoria may be due," he wrote to Menshikov, "but especially in front of the eyes of the British, who defended the Swedes as well as their lands and the fleet."
      1. +8
        6 September 2021 06: 22
        Peter ordered to knock out a special medal intended for all participants in the naval battle. The obverse of the medal adorned the profile of Peter the Great; the reverse bore the inscription “Diligence and loyalty. Exceeds strength. " It was noted below: July 1, 27 - the day when the Grengam battle took place.
        It so happened that two significant victories of the Russian fleet in the Grengam and Gangut battles were won in different years, but had the same date - July 27. This day in Orthodoxy is dedicated to the memory of St. Panteleimon. Therefore, it was decided to build a chapel in St. Petersburg dedicated to this saint. In 1722, a small church was solemnly consecrated, which replaced the chapel. In 1735-1739, a new church was built in stone
  4. +1
    6 September 2021 06: 47
    The article, apparently, was written under the impression of Putin's "alternative history", who mixed everything up.
    1. -5
      6 September 2021 08: 35
      I remember that the unfortunate boy, who explained to the President a real, and not an alternative, history, was accused of arrogance and lack of respect for his superiors, was given a lesson in honor, so to speak.
      Everything according to the well-known aphorism of Peter 1
      The subordinate in the face of the rulers must have a dashing and silly appearance, so as not to embarrass the authorities with his mind.

      Samosonov is more modest, he did not explain the situation right in front of his superiors
      1. +1
        6 September 2021 09: 22
        I remember the unfortunate kid

        Aren't you tired of looking for the "truth" in the garbage segment of the Internet? Kind of smart ... at times.
        1. -6
          6 September 2021 13: 17
          The trash segment is when everyone together suddenly retells that there is where some former deputy blurted out.
          And the fact that the President of Russia is everywhere ...
          1. -1
            6 September 2021 15: 43
            Quote: Avior
            And the fact that the President of Russia is everywhere ...

            And what is your Poroshenko saying now? And what does your playing game play on the piano?
            [media = https: // v = H5ANCC5CowU]
            For normal people, this is vulgarity, not funny. I don’t understand at all how adults 25+ can laugh at this. Only children 10-15 years old can laugh from such vulgarity, no more. Your development is just at the level of a 10-year-old child, you are infantile.
            1. -1
              6 September 2021 18: 42
              Yes, I don't care about your Poroshenko
              He is nobody, he is another former, and that he blurted out somewhere - you can only find it on the information wipes, this is not interesting to anyone
              1. -2
                7 September 2021 11: 36
                and you have not been interesting to anyone for a long time. nothing new ,
      2. +1
        6 September 2021 18: 22
        Unfortunately, you yourself are in an alternate history. Do not read any nonsense on the Internet and do not spread it further. Peter the Great never issued such decrees.
        1. -1
          6 September 2021 18: 56
          My post is not about Peter the Great, but about Vladimir Zeroed.
          And is there this phrase in the letter to Admiral Apraksin, is it not (or the Soviet censors tried to delete it) - this is the fifth case, the fact that the boy was treated strictly in accordance with this well-known aphorism, even if Peter did not write it.
    2. Fat
      6 September 2021 09: 41
      hi Irina, It is not worth multiplying entities and attributing the carrier to the names of those in power today. Nevertheless, the search for braces for the Russian people can lead to a lot ... Sincerely.
  5. The comment was deleted.
    1. Fat
      6 September 2021 09: 50
      hi Kuzmich! When the super-Russians talk about the wars of conquest in the Baltic states, the normal is doing badly ... For all that, these lands are the legacy of the tsar's muzzles ...
      So, either take off the cross, or pull on your underpants ... wassat drinks
      With respect.
      1. +4
        6 September 2021 11: 11
        Quote: Thick
        Kuzmich! When the super-Russians talk about the wars of conquest in the Baltic states, the normal is doing badly ...

        Pot calls the kettle black! Are these Ukrainians normal? But what about your mriyas about "Ukraine to Vladivostok"?
        Quote: Thick
        Despite the fact that these lands are the legacy of the royal muzzles ...
        So, either take off the cross, or pull on your underpants ...

        Russia is actually the legal successor of Russia-Russian Empire-Russian Empire-USSR.
        1. 0
          6 September 2021 15: 34
          Are these Ukrainians normal?

          Is it you so simply accuse the whole people of abnormality?
          You are either not a very smart person, or an outspoken provocateur for feeding from the Western special services.
          1. -2
            6 September 2021 15: 38
            Quote: Sea Cat
            Is it you so simply accuse the whole people of abnormality?

            In 2014 and 2019, 90% of Ukrainians voted for Russophobes and Nazis like Poroshenko, Tymoshenko, Gritsenko, Lyazhko, Tyagnibok, Yarosh and Zelensky, who later joined them. Moreover, these candidates did not hide their Russophobic and Nazi views at all, and 90% of Ukrainians who voted for them knew very well about their views, and therefore, share them, since they voted for them. AND DO YOU CONSIDER THEM NORMAL?
            1. 0
              6 September 2021 15: 57
              Everything is learned in comparison - in our country the majority of Russians voted for Borka only for the reason that they were tired of the stagnant idiot in the country and wanted at least some changes, as a result, we now have what we have. So what is now considered abnormal in all Russians?
              1. 0
                6 September 2021 16: 05
                Quote: Sea Cat
                Everything is learned in comparison - in our country the majority of Russians voted for Borka only for the reason that they were tired of the stagnant idiot in the country and wanted at least some changes, as a result, we now have what we have. So what is now considered abnormal in all Russians?

                The Russians, unlike the Sumerians, did not jump on the rake, but immediately made a conclusion and now the liberals are getting a measly 2% of the vote. Unlike pots, where 90% of Ukrainians still sincerely believe that the West will help them, and will give them 220 billion euros, as the clown raves about it laughing
                1. -1
                  6 September 2021 16: 18
                  ... now the liberals get a measly 2% of the vote.

                  Do you even remember who is in power in Russia, who found Putin, transferred power to him and who is now supporting him.
                  Probably, it is very comfortable to live in the world at close range without seeing the obvious. request
                  1. -1
                    6 September 2021 18: 22
                    Dumas: “As the gentleman is, such is the lackey”.
                    1. -1
                      6 September 2021 18: 30
                      In our opinion: "What is the priest, so is the parish" (c) True, not all parishioners are in it. smile
                      1. -1
                        6 September 2021 18: 34
                        With the arrival, there is a choice. And there all have their own roles. And the successor from there does not appear so often.
                      2. -1
                        6 September 2021 18: 51
                        With regard to choice, that's for sure, everyone has it.
                  2. 0
                    7 September 2021 00: 20
                    Quote: Sea Cat
                    Do you even remember who is in power in Russia, who found Putin, transferred power to him and who is now supporting him.
                    Probably, it is very comfortable to live in the world at close range without seeing the obvious.

                    Yes, I remember his name was Berezovsky. In your opinion, would Navalny be in power better? Are you bulk?
                    1. -1
                      7 September 2021 01: 47
                      And what does Navalny have to do with it? Can't you even sit on a pot without him? laughing
                      1. 0
                        7 September 2021 02: 02
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        And what does Navalny have to do with it? Can't you even sit on a pot without him?

                        And what has the long-dead Berezovsky got to do with it?
                      2. -1
                        7 September 2021 02: 55
                        I actually meant Borka Yeltsin, but it doesn't matter, one gang.
  6. +2
    6 September 2021 07: 24
    Russia returned access to the Baltic and the status of a great maritime power. Ingria, Estlandia (Revel), Livonia (Riga), part of Karelia with Vyborg and Kexholm, the islands of Ezel and Dago departed to Russia.

    200 years anniversary great VICTORY is a significant date and thanks to VO for marking her with an article. hi

    Much has been achieved by her from what made Russia great power.

    Unfortunately, the national traitors who came to power in the 20th century made a lot of money by inventing the never-before-existing so-called "states" - conscientious estonia, latvia, which led to the loss of territories for which so much Russian blood was shed in the most difficult Northern war ...
    1. +2
      6 September 2021 07: 43
      To profuse or "take for a fook" i.e. blink, and the Baltics were not profiled, but purposefully surrendered or presented to the local elites for the sake of the West.

      We must thank the people's deputies and personally EBN
      1. 0
        6 September 2021 08: 58
        Not only the Baltics.
        Yeltsin in the struggle with Gorbachev for power in the RSFSR and the rest of the Union collapsed at the same time - he was only interested in the RSFSR, the rest was all the same to him.
      2. -1
        6 September 2021 10: 07
        Quote: ee2100
        To profuse or "take for a fook" i.e. blink, and the Baltics were not profiled, but purposefully surrendered or presented to the local elites for the sake of the West.

        and they did it back in 1917, the so-called. the decree on peace and the Declaration of the rights of the peoples of Russia.

        In 1918 the Council of People's Commissars recognized the INDEPENDENCE of the conscientious ones in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

        In the 1920s, the Council of People's Commissars recognized the independence of the already bourgeois states.

        In 1940 he created the sovereign ANTI-Russian states of the Lithuanian SSR, LaSSR, and the Estonian SSR as part of the USSR, securing the right of withdrawal to them in the constitution.

        They went out.
        1. +2
          6 September 2021 10: 21
          There was no "right to exit" such a right. There was a right "to self-determination in the flesh before secession," and all the republics had this right. laughing
          Only the mechanism was not spelled out.
          By signing the Tartu Peace Treaty, Russia recognized the Baltic republics and Finland.
          In the 40th year, the Baltic republics harmoniously merged into the USSR. And the legality of this was confirmed by the Helsinki Treaty.
          You can label whatever you like, but the fish rots from the head!
          1. 0
            6 September 2021 11: 03
            Quote: ee2100
            There was no "right to exit" such a right.

            17 Article. Each Union Republic retains the right to freely withdraw from the USSR.
            Quote: ee2100
            In the 40th year, the Baltic republics harmoniously merged into the USSR. And the legality of this was confirmed by the Helsinki Treaty.

            with the right exit. They went out
            Quote: ee2100
            You can label whatever you like, but the fish rots from the head!

            and who's arguing? Rotted and - rotted.
            1. +2
              6 September 2021 11: 34
              Agree. The constitution of the ussr is not my reference book
          2. +3
            6 September 2021 11: 14
            There was no "right to exit"

            Yes you what.
            Constitution of the USSR, 1924
            Quote: "Chapter 2. 4. Each of the union republics retains the right to freely withdraw from the Union."
            Constitution of the USSR, 1936
            Quote: "Article 17. Each union republic retains the right to freely secede from the USSR."
            Constitution of the USSR, 1977
            Quote: "Article 72. Each union republic retains the right
            free exit from the USSR. "
            "bonus" from the same place
            Quote: "Article 76. The Union Republic is a sovereign Soviet socialist state ..."
            Quote: "Article 80. The Federal Republic has the right to enter into relations with foreign states, conclude treaties with them and exchange diplomatic and consular representatives, participate in the activities of international organizations."

            And one moment. In 1945, by the decision of I.V. Stalin (Dzhugashvili) and the Politburo of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, two union republics - the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian SSR were also endowed with international legal personality by including them in the UN with a representative office separate from the representation of the USSR.
            Prior to that, in 1936, in the same way, by the decision of I.V. Stalin (Dzhugashvili) and the Politburo, a separate Kazakh SSR was separated from the RSFSR.
      3. +3
        6 September 2021 10: 07
        handed over or donated to local elites to please the west.

        I have always "liked" this formulation of the question. And for the sake of someone, for example, the British "handed over to the local elites" as much as the whole of India. And before that - Ireland? ;)
        1. -2
          6 September 2021 10: 22
          Do not confuse red and hot.
        2. ANB
          6 September 2021 18: 51
          ... whole India. And before that - Ireland? ;)

          Did they buy or seize them as colonies?
    2. +2
      6 September 2021 08: 31
      Yes, you, the enemies of the USSR and the Soviet people, are national traitors, YOU dismembered your centuries-old country TWICE, during the Civil War you unleashed, and in your anti-Soviet / anti-communist Perestroika, you ran in millions to grovel before the invaders of your homeland by the invaders and the Nazis, and having seized the republics USSR, you ran to put under the enemy of your country, the anti-Soviet-Russophobic West.
      And THAT you cowardly dumped the responsibility for all this on the Bolshevik communists and their supporters, you YOURSELF recognized this as your crimes against your country and people.
      1. 0
        6 September 2021 08: 50
        No need to shift from a sore head to a healthy one! The communists were in power in all the republics of the USSR, the communists started perestroika and the communists destroyed the country. Long live the Communist Party. Only the people, as always, forgot to ask.

        And the people were against it! And now they are against.
        1. +1
          6 September 2021 09: 07
          Well, here AGAIN cowardly spells.
          The enemies of the communists are not only sticking to the truth, but also against logic and common sense.
          Is it the communists from Perestroika who slander the Bolshevik-communists, blame them for the crimes of external and internal enemies of the communists, squeal that the communists repressed the enemies of the USSR and Soviet power exclusively "for nothing"?
          Was it the communists who ran to the White House to defend Yeltsin? It was the communists with 45 million people who imposed him on the President of the RSFSR in 1991? Was it the communists who imposed the RSFSR as state symbols of the tricolor and the two-headed eagle? Is it the communists for 30 years on the territory of the destroyed USSR boasting, as to all of them, "and now it is better than in the USSR under the communists"?
          1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Fat
        6 September 2021 10: 01
        Irina! or nation, or "communist party leadership", This leadership led to a common denominator of the tribes that did not even know feudalism straight to the "bright future" Yes Where they safely and returned ... on occasion laughing
      3. -2
        6 September 2021 10: 10
        YOU TWICE dismembered your centuries-old country - during the Civil War you unleashed, and during your anti-Soviet / anti-communist Perestroika

        1) Who are you exactly?
        2) What kind of centuries-old country is this? The USSR existed from 1922 to December 1991. There won't even be one century.
        3) There was no Civil War before the October Revolution of 1917. From the word "absolutely". Moreover, there was only one party that in its political programs explicitly stated about "the transformation of the imperialist war into a civil war." The party was called the RSDLP (b) where the letter "b" meant - "Bolsheviks".
      4. -4
        6 September 2021 10: 20
        Quote: tatra
        Yes, you, the enemies of the USSR and the Soviet people, are national traitors, YOU TWICE dismembered your centuries-old country during the Civil

        Did you even go to school? Nope.

        Today's borders of Russia are cut (by 90%) from 1917 to 1940, by inventions on ITS territory of the ANTI-Russian sovereign STATEs (read the constitution of the USSR) - all the ussrs, etc.

        And in power, hack it on your forehead, were exclusively BOLSHEVIKS. WHERE is Russian Odessa and WHO is it raped to Ukraine, mmm?
        Quote: tatra
        and in your anti-Soviet / anti-communist Perestroika, you ran in millions to grovel in front of the invaders of your homeland by the invaders and the Nazis, and having seized the republics of the USSR

        we SERVED and WORKED, and the failure before perestroika, perestroika and the collapse of the country are exclusively YOUR communist "achievements and successes", because only you alone ruled the country.

        Or ... where are you, multimillions of real communist gone? belay lol
    3. +2
      6 September 2021 10: 01
      Quote: Olgovich
      200th anniversary of the great VICTORY

      To blame zelo feel anniversary 300 summer.
      1. -4
        7 September 2021 00: 23
        Are you a male version of Poklonskaya? Are you masturbating to the rag tsar Nikolasha the Bloody?
        1. -3
          7 September 2021 11: 07
          Quote: Kot_Kuzya
          Are you a male version of Poklonskaya? Zelo masturbate on

          Fuuu, what an abomination ...

          Shame ....

          1. -3
            7 September 2021 11: 16
            laughing Everyone here knows that you are a patented, exemplary monarchist, hating the Bolsheviks, idolizing the rag tsar and yearning for the crunch of a French roll. By the way, were your ancestors until 1917 noblemen or rabble? Let me remind you that according to the 1897 census, the share of nobles in the Republic of Ingushetia was 1,5%, this is also taking into account the Poles and Georgians, where every second was a proud nobleman or prince. So among the Great Russians, I believe, the share of the nobility was only about 1%.
  7. -5
    6 September 2021 08: 45
    As I read the article, from the first paragraph the author gives the impression that it was Sweden that unleashed the war. Then I looked at who the author is and everything is clear - as usual, historical realities are not taken into account, the main thing is to write some facts under Samsonov's Tartarian sauce.
    1. Fat
      6 September 2021 10: 37
      hi Well, Moscow has unleashed a war for access to the sea. For once, even if not painfully brilliant, Samsonov set out ... But it was so. Think differently? Object with arguments!
      1. -1
        6 September 2021 13: 23
        So what is there to argue about? My comment actually was that the author wrote the first part in such a way that the reader gives the impression that the war was unleashed by Sweden. And this is not true.
  8. +5
    6 September 2021 08: 52
    Great people for centuries, bit by bit, created a great empire, conquered, mastered, bought, and the present ones have all gone for several years, and have not even sold, but also paid extra. Urapatriotam - do not take the names of Great People in vain, you are not worthy of them, and you will not return a damn thing, the return one has dried up.
    1. 0
      6 September 2021 10: 14
      Great people for centuries, bit by bit, created a great Empire, conquered

      The Roman Empire was great. The Mediterranean was in fact its inland sea. But - she was gone, and only in history textbooks she remained.
      And the Mongol Empire to them. Genghis Khan was also great. Has already conquered China. "Blown away" for a couple of centuries and is gone.
      Even more was the British Empire, over which the sun did not set in the most literal sense of the word - its possessions were in all time zones of the Earth. And she's not there either.
      And so everywhere - any empires built and held by military force (that is, violence) will inevitably disintegrate.
    2. Fat
      6 September 2021 10: 28
      "A woman with a cart is easier for a mare" (c) Who needs this tribaltic now? All young people have merged in Europe for earnings. What to provide for their pensions? IN RI and the USSR THEY WERE BEFORE "conditionally." And in Russia itself there are enough subsidized regions ...
      Nobody needs these "sovereign democracies" by and large. This is understood, and hence all the rubbish that is pouring on "Moscow", their ruling circles want to be necessary ... wassat At least someone ...
      1. +3
        6 September 2021 13: 59
        Sovereign democracies are not needed, that's right. But it is convenient
        territories located on the coast of the Baltic Sea
        will not interfere. Our ancestors were no more stupid than us and did not fight
        just out of love for art (military).
      2. -1
        6 September 2021 18: 53
        you have little command of military geography
    3. 0
      10 September 2021 21: 29
      Empires are created over the centuries, and sometimes fall apart for months. Ours, yes, badly beaten, but lives as long as, and even gets stronger recently. But what I'll be happy to see is how the current financial empire, which claims to global hegemony, collapses.
  9. 0
    7 November 2021 15: 01
    According to this agreement, these are our lands for eternity. Together with livestock and people. So it is necessary to shake the reparations from them, and it is better to expel them to Europe from our lands forever!

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