Military Review

Aviation of the Red Army of the Great Patriotic War (part of 8) - MiG and La Fighters

Even before the start of World War II, new design bureaus were quickly created in the USSR in 1939, which were given the task of developing projects of promising aircraft that would be able to lead aerial battles with modern fighters of a potential enemy. One of the design bureaus was headed by A.I. Mikoyan and M.I. Gurevich, the other by S.A. Lavochkin, V.P. Gorbunov and M.I. Gudkov. The data of the design bureaus soon presented samples of the new fighters, which ultimately left a noticeable mark on the Great Patriotic War; we are talking primarily about the MiG-3 and La-5 fighters.

MiG-3 high-altitude fighter

MiG-3 Soviet high-altitude fighter of World War II, developed on the basis of the fighter Polikarpov and 200 design team, headed by A. I. Mikoyan and M. I. Gurevich. The first prototype of the fighter was ready in the spring of the 1940 of the year, at the same time the test pilot A. Ekatov first flew on it. Tests of the new machine were completed successfully. The new fighter received the designation MiG-1 (Mikoyan and Gurevich, the first) and was recommended for mass production. This aircraft had a number of flaws, in particular, the fighter easily fell into a corkscrew and hardly got out of it, because of the rear centering, the aircraft was unsatisfactory static longitudinal stability, the pilot's fatigue with its piloting was higher than on other aircraft.

Taking this into account, a modernized version of the aircraft was created, called the MiG-3. The MiG-3 was a single-seat, single-engine, high-altitude fighter-interceptor, which was equipped with an AM-35А engine, which had an 1350 hp takeoff power. In the design of the MiG-3 aircraft, the shortcomings of its predecessor were largely overcome, but some negative family traits could not be overcome. In particular, the landing speed was quite large - not less than 144 km / h, the turn radius was large, at low altitude the fighter's maneuverability was insufficient. At the same time, at altitudes above 6 000 meters, the MiG-3 was more maneuverable than other fighters.
Aviation of the Red Army of the Great Patriotic War (part of 8) - MiG and La Fighters

The turn of the fighter was 26-27 seconds. Despite the significant take-off weight (3 350 kg.), The speed of the serial MiG-3 fighter near the ground slightly exceeded 500 km / h, and at an altitude of 7 000 meters it accelerated to 640 km / h. At the time, it was the highest speed in the world achieved on a serial fighter. The plane was quite promising, but with the beginning of the Great Patriotic War it became clear that the main battles would be fought at low and medium altitudes, at which the MiG-3 was inferior in maneuverability to other aircraft. Coupled with fairly weak weapons, this was the reason why the plane was discontinued in 1942 year.

The nature of the fighting determined the nature of air battles. On the Eastern Front throughout the war, air battles were fought at altitudes less than 4 000 meters. In this case, the high altitude MiG-3, which was initially recognized by its merit, turned into a disadvantage, since a number of characteristics of the high-altitude engine were achieved due to the deterioration of its qualities at low altitudes. In addition, the quality of the first serials at the beginning of the war left much to be desired. Also, the aircraft demanded that highly qualified pilots (by the standards of wartime). Its short fuselage (like the I-16 or the subsequent I-180) had insufficient longitudinal stability.

Along with this, the repair qualities of the MiG-3 fighter were simply excellent. The interchangeability of components and assemblies was well provided. From a 2-3 malfunctioning aircraft, it was easy to assemble one fully functional machine. In addition, at the time of its entry into service, the MiG-3 was one of the best fighter-interceptors in the world.

In this case, the fighter’s armament turned out to be frankly weak. Although, despite their shortcomings, in the hands of tactically competent and enterprising pilots, the MiG-3 could show itself to be a fairly strong fighter. There were plenty of examples of this. In particular, the well-known Soviet ace A. I. Pokryshkin shot down enemy vehicles, including 3 Messerschmitt Bf-10E fighters, on MiG-5 109. At the same time, under the conditions of mass exploitation and at low altitudes, this aircraft had insufficient combat capability, yielding to the German fighter Bf-109F.

Armament MiG-3 consisted of 12,7-mm machine gun UBS (300 ammunition) and 2-x 7,62-m ShKAS machine guns (375 for ammunition). On some fighter series, two more 12,7-mm UBK or 2 UBS machine guns were additionally installed under the engine. But his weapons were clearly insufficient. On some machines with an AM-38 engine, 2 synchronous 20-mm ShVAK guns (100 projectiles) were installed, but this version was produced in a very small series.

The difficulties of wartime with the provision of IL-2 attack aircraft were forced to abandon the release of AM-35 in favor of AM-38, which was necessary for the attack aircraft. This event finally predetermined the fate of the MiG-3 fighter. At the beginning of 1942, its release was discontinued. In total, 1940 1942 fighter of this type was released in the 3172.

And although the MiG-3 was mass-produced for a relatively short time, it managed to leave a noticeable mark on stories Great Patriotic War. The fighter played a particularly large role during the battle of Moscow in 1941, when he participated in repelling German raids aviation to the capital. After the production was completed, the MiG-3 was used for quite some time in the Air Force, in particular, in air defense regiments. A high degree of maintainability and unification of the fighter provided them with a sufficiently long service life. The last high-altitude fighter MiG-3 were decommissioned from combat units for wear only at the very end of the war.

Performance characteristics of the MiG-3:

Sizes: wingspan - 10,2 m., Length - 8, 25 m., Height - 3,5 m.
Wing area - 17,44 square. m
Normal take-off weight - 3 350 kg.
Engine type - 1 PD AM-35А, power 1200 hp
The maximum speed is 640 km / h.
Practical range: 1250 km.
Practical ceiling: 12 000 m.
Crew - 1 man.
Armament: 1x12,7-mm machine gun UBS, 2x7,62-mm machine gun ShKAS, 2x100-kg bomb FAB-50 or FAB-100.

La Fighter 5

The single-engine fighter Lavochkin La-5 was created by the OKB-21 in Gorky under the direction of S. A. Lavochkin in the 1942 year. The fighter was a single-seater monoplane, equipped with a closed cabin and a wooden frame with fabric covering and wooden wing spars. The aircraft was originally called LaGG-5. The aircraft was based on the previous design work - fighter LaGG-3, which in various serial versions produced before 1944 year. At the same time, in the 1941 year, Lavochkin and Gudkov (in the future, their paths diverged) were working to equip their fighter with a more powerful air-cooled engine M-82. Compared with the VK-105 engine, which was used on the LaGG-3, the new aircraft engine had a large take-off power - 1 700 hp. vs xnumx xnumx hp

Very high expectations of the designers were associated with this engine, but its serial production was delayed. When test pilot G. Mishchenko raised a new fighter designed by Lavochkin into the sky of 1942 in March, it became clear that these hopes were met. Successfully passed and state tests of the machine, after which in April 1942, the fighter, which received the designation La 5, was launched into a series. And although the aircraft had children's diseases and a number of flaws, technologists managed to fine-tune its production in a very short time, since when it was created, the LaGG-3 glider was taken as the basis. However, due to the absence of scarce delta wood, in organizing mass production in the design of the new fighter, more and more ordinary pine was used.

Thanks to the new 1700-strong engine (normal power - 1330 hp), the fighter's flight characteristics were quite high. Its maximum speed reached for 580-600 km / h, maneuverability improved. In addition, the fighter’s weapons were reinforced. He received two 20-mm automatic synchronized ShVAK cannons that fired through the propeller.

All these improvements could not affect the combat characteristics of the machine and its behavior in combat. With the appearance of La 5 fighters at the front, Soviet pilots were able to fight on equal terms with modern German fighters. At the same time, the appearance of the Lavochkins in the sky was an unpleasant surprise for the Germans. Perhaps, for the first time during the war years, the German aces faced a fighter who could successfully conduct not only defensive combat, but also an offensive one. In all, during the war years, almost 10 000 La 5 aircraft were produced.

But the war is the engine of progress, and already at the end of 1942, advanced Bf 109 fighters in the G version and new Focke-Wulf 190 fighters appeared at the front in large numbers, whose combat capabilities significantly exceeded the previous mass Bf 109E and F fighters. In front of the situation, the Lavochkin Design Bureau demanded immediate and adequate measures to improve the quality of the La-5 fighter. As a result, in the 1943 years a new version of the La-5F fighter with the M-82F engine was developed. In addition, it was possible to reduce the weight of the aircraft design from 3 360 to 3 200 kg. In addition, the design of the lantern of the pilot's cabin was changed, which had a positive effect on the back-up review. The fighter’s maneuverability, as well as its maximum speed, increased practically on 20 km / h.

In the same year 1943, a new engine M-5FN was installed on the upgraded La-82. Unlike its two carburetor predecessors, this engine was equipped with a new system of direct fuel injection into the cylinders. This task was performed in it by high-pressure pumps. La-5 fighters, which received a new M-82FN engine (FN - forced with direct fuel injection), became known as La-5FN. When creating a new aviation engine, the specialists of the KB A. Shvetsov managed to bring the maximum power up to the 1 850 hp without increasing its mass.

The tests of the La-5FN fighter surpassed all expectations. Its maximum speed increased to 635 km / h. The La-5FN fighter is rightfully ranked among the best planes in the world of that period. He surpassed the German FW 190A fighter in terms of horizontal and vertical maneuver, as well as speed at low and medium altitudes. For the first time, La-5FN was massively used during the battles at the Kursk Bulge, where they met FW 190A in the sky and in battles proved their superiority over Focke-Wulfs. Especially their advantage was palpable in close maneuver combat. This is confirmed by the dry numbers - the turning time for the La-5FN was 19 s., And for the FW 190A - the 22 s. The height in 5 000 meters “Lavochkin” gained 5 minutes, and the German 5,8 minutes. respectively.

Tactical and technical characteristics of the La-5:

Sizes: wingspan - 9,8 m., Length - 8, 67 m., Height - 2,54 m.
Wing area - 17,5 square. m
Normal take-off weight - 3 360 kg.
Engine type - 1 PD M-82, power 1330 hp
The maximum speed is 580 km / h.
Practical range: 1190 km.
Practical ceiling: 9 500 m.
Crew - 1 person.
Armament: 2X20-mm ShVAK air cannon and 2x100-kg bomb FAB-100.

Information sources:
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MIG and LA

This popular science film tells about the main Soviet fighters of the Second World War. These machines have replaced the outdated pre-war fighters I-16 and I-153. Even before the war, their prototypes were superior to German engineering, but real superiority began to be felt only in the second half of the Great Patriotic War. They easily surpassed all enemy counterparts, and also did not yield to Allied vehicles.

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  1. Vadivak
    Vadivak 7 September 2012 10: 01
    developed on the basis of the Polikarpov fighter I-200

    Yes, not developed, but simply stolen, Polikarpov left for Germany and returned, and the plane was no longer his. and 80 most experienced employees !!! they transferred it from the design bureau to Mikoyan, and this is how the Mikoyanov Design Bureau was born - Mikoyan was never an aircraft designer, he will be from the military envoys, but I really wanted to bro Anastas and

    Polikarpov then said

    Yes, he wrote. (Complaint) I wrote to Kaganovich, but he is already gone. (People’s commissar of the aviation industry, M. M. Kaganovich, was removed from his post in the beginning of 1940 and committed suicide a few days later. We have no one to complain to. In Germany, one can complain to Goering, and we have no one! Well, that also didn’t pass without a trace.

    And on the engine, Polikarpov warned that he would not pull the AM-35 I-200, it happened,

    Although Comrade Stalin knew perfectly well who the author of the MiG was, - After the introduction of the MiG-1 series, Polikarpov was noted with a special prize for the development of this machine), but to some extent the genius was rotted

    La-5 was created by OKB-21 in Gorky under the leadership of S. A. Lavochkin

    Hello again, the first LaGG under the M-82 was offered by Gudkov, the Gu-82 aircraft.

    Two Gu-82 fighters were built in the fall of 1941 at plant number 301, and the first of them showed a maximum speed of 573 km / h during flight tests, which was slightly less than that of LaGG, but the range was longer. The armament of the first Gu-82 was supposed to consist of four machine guns (a pair of BS and ShKAS), but it entered the tests without ShKAS, and the BS machine guns did not have barrels. On the second car, there was already a ShVAK cannon and two BS machine guns. Everything was fine, but Gudkov did not have a serial plant, and there were no such connections as Lavochkin's and the project was "hushed up"

    And what about Lavochkin?
    Here is his deputy S.M. Alekseev recalls
    Lavochkin returned to Gorky, gathered his closest assistants, explained the situation and expressed his opinion: for a number of obvious reasons, the M-82 engine cannot be put on the LaGG-3 without major modifications to the aircraft. It is necessary to install the motor M-107. Hack and decided. All hope was that Klimov would be able to bring the motor, and we can eliminate the shortcomings that appeared on the first LaGG-3 M-107. I asked Lavochkin for permission to take two or three people to help and work with the motor. Lavochkin then said: Not more than two or three. and flew to Moscow, when he returned, they managed to sew up one side of the aircraft with a false side over the old skin, without changing anything else. They put sectors from slats, and plywood on them. The result was a round fuselage. Lavochkin realized that the plane was turning out, and he had already mobilized all the design bureaus to work on the M-82.

    Still, the proverb is true - the King plays the retinue

    Gu-82 find differences from the bench

    Whistling, why silently minus? I would write something ....
    1. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 7 September 2012 10: 40
      Everything was correctly written by a colleague Vadim on the I-200. It’s only worth adding that M.I. Gurevich in the design bureau of Polikarpov headed the team of designers who developed this fighter (to be more precise, the high-altitude interceptor). Mikoyan A.I. He was a military representative at the factory where Polikarpov Design Bureau worked. A talented engineer and a crafty Jew drove up to him. Well, and then things went undercover, with the support of the all-powerful Anastas Ivanovich.

      The decision to decommission LaGG-3 was made shortly after the decommissioning of the MiG-3. And then, undercover games with the participation of the People’s Commissar of the Aviation Industry Shakhurun ​​A.I. Lavochkin S.A. just took advantage of the situation.
      Shakhurin A.I. at the end of 1941, he decided to stop mass production of the M-71 engine in favor of the M-82 engine. But this engine was not brought, and therefore, despite the instructions and orders of the NKAP combat aircraft (with the exception of a few experienced) there was no exit. But engines let out and warehouses were hammered by them. Shakhurin was threatened, according to the laws of war, well, at least the Gulag. So he called on Lavochkin, Mikulin and instructed them to blind the plane as soon as possible.
      When Shakhurin reported to Stalin about the creation of a "magnificent" fighter, he, possessing the information, replied: “T-shu Shakhurin. It is too early to talk about "launching" into the series: the shortcomings have not yet been eliminated and the aircraft is undoubtedly not yet ready to speak seriously about launching into series. I. Stalin ". The leader was, of course, aware of all the ups and downs with the refinement of new aircraft and engines, when there were much more failures than successes. Therefore, he was in no hurry to make any hasty decisions, although Lavochkin promised to eliminate all discovered defects before the start of mass production.
      However, the “hesitations” and “doubts” made were Stalin's proprietary method of checking the firmness and gravity of the arguments of those people who came to him with any suggestions.
      The M-82 engine (AM-82) was only brought to the end of 1945.
      There is a good monograph by G. Serov "HISTORY OF LA-5 or DEVELOPMENT AND REFINING OF THE M-82 MOTOR IN THE YEARS OF THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR" in Aviation and Cosmonautics magazines for 2005.
      Aviation and astronautics 2005 02 -
      Aviation and astronautics 2005 03 -
      Aviation and astronautics 2005 04 -
      Aviation and astronautics 2005 07 -
      Aviation and astronautics 2005 08 -
      Aviation and astronautics 2005 10 -
      This monograph describes well the difficulties with refining both the engine and aircraft with this engine, as well as some undercover cases. Click here to read the monograph online.
      1. Vadivak
        Vadivak 7 September 2012 10: 44
        Quote: Gamdlislyam
        M.I. Gurevich in the design bureau of Polikarpov led the team of designers,

        Not true, not a group of designers, but a "group of general views and sketch design"
        1. ZAVET
          ZAVET 7 September 2012 17: 24
          Delete this post
  2. ZAVET
    ZAVET 7 September 2012 10: 13
    In September 1941, the aircraft was tested Gudkova M.I. With air-cooled engine M-82 A. Shvetsova (ASh-82) Gu-82. However, the Jew Shlyoma Simon Aizikovich Storer in the world Semyon Alekseevich Lavochkin did everything (using his contacts in the NKAP) to prevent this aircraft from being put into production.
    Later, the camel, WITHOUT DRAWINGS AND SCHEMES, created a plane in the workshop, which he named La 5.
    Moreover, this plane passed all the tests ?? !! What is impossible) For example, try to put together a stool "without drawings and diagrams."
    That is, in fact, Slam Shoper spizd (oh) stole the project of the Russian inventor M. Gudkov and called his "official" surname.
    Everything would be fine, however, the production of the aircraft was delayed for a year.

    How many pilots would remain alive if the aircraft arrived on time?
    1. Vadivak
      Vadivak 7 September 2012 10: 49
      Quote: ZAVET
      stole the project of the RUSSIAN inventor M. Gudkov

      He didn’t even steal anything, his engineers on a silver platter ready plane (LaGG-5 second photo of the shop above) brought him while he defended LaGG-3 with M-107 in Moscow
      1. ZAVET
        ZAVET 7 September 2012 17: 24
        This post "home preparation" - was published long ago. It's nice that you have a better command of the issue good
  3. Forget
    Forget 7 September 2012 10: 55
    I think it makes sense to establish the release of IL 2 taking into account new technologies, it can be used to support infantry.
    1. Kibb
      Kibb 7 September 2012 11: 13
      Quote: Forget
      I think it makes sense to establish the release of IL 2 taking into account new technologies

      So settled, Su25, Su 34 can fix. Only here the pilots in Afghanistan were pleasant old IL28 after the appearance of the Stingers.
      1. Vadivak
        Vadivak 7 September 2012 11: 22
        Quote: Kibb
        pilots in Afghanistan were nicer old Il28

        + Precisely, from the stern rifle installation, the radio operator gunner, firing when the aircraft leaves the attack, did not allow MANPADS operators to take convenient positions for launching missiles,
        1. Kibb
          Kibb 7 September 2012 11: 28
          Quote: Vadivak
          Precisely, from the stern rifle launcher, the radio operator gunner, firing when the aircraft leaves the attack, did not allow MANPADS operators to take convenient positions for launching missiles,

          Absolutely to the point
    2. Leisure
      Leisure 7 September 2012 11: 51
      Are you serious?
      1. Vadivak
        Vadivak 7 September 2012 12: 10
        Quote: Lazer
        Are you serious?

        Well these are Goromovsky memories

        How effective this can be judged at least by the fact that not a single Afghan Il-28 was lost in battles.
        They were destroyed on a January night in 1985, when Afghan tankers from the protection of the Shindand air base, bribed by dushmans (using granulated sugar as a bribe), launched shelling of tank gun sites. As a result, 11 cars were blown up. The fire spread to other planes and the IL-28 regiment actually ceased to exist.
  4. Kibb
    Kibb 7 September 2012 11: 57
    As for the counter-guerrilla attack aircraft, there were many attempts, and far from always successful, and silt 2 is unnecessary for this, as well as Bronko and Sky (he became accidentally guerrilla-Schaz stumbled)
    1. Vadivak
      Vadivak 7 September 2012 13: 34
      Quote: Kibb
      Skye (He became the Counter-Partisan by chance-Schaz stumble)

      Yes, everyone who is a little interested in aviation knows that Sky in Vietnam did this, there his career ended, although he made a rustle
      1. Kibb
        Kibb 7 September 2012 13: 46
        Quote: Vadivak
        there his career ended

        Well, nothing lasts forever - more so Bronco appeared
    2. laurbalaur
      laurbalaur 9 September 2012 18: 34
      and dragonfly!
  5. Rus_87
    Rus_87 7 September 2012 14: 17
    Guys, the question is a little off topic, but since people who are versed in aviation gathered here: no one knows how things are going with the Su-27 KUB?
    1. Kibb
      Kibb 7 September 2012 14: 27
      Su-33KUB, and how are things going with him, in view of the aircraft carrier’s ousting
      1. Rus_87
        Rus_87 7 September 2012 14: 40
        And Kuznetsov doesn’t count?
        1. Kibb
          Kibb 7 September 2012 14: 46
          Quote: Rus_87
          And Kuznetsov doesn’t count?

          With the 17th knots of the front door, are you laughing?
  6. Rod island
    Rod island 8 September 2012 00: 57
    good article
  7. sdf344esdf
    sdf344esdf 8 September 2012 08: 45
    Have you heard the news? A personal information search site has appeared. Now everything became known, all the information about every resident of Ukraine, Russia and other CIS countries
    This site appeared recently - but it has already made a lot of noise, since there is a lot of personal information about each of us, I even found my own nude photos, not to mention even addresses, phone numbers, etc. It's good that the "hide from everyone" button is still working - I advise everyone to do it and quickly
  8. sazhka0
    sazhka0 8 September 2012 10: 43
    For "moderators". Site for "trustworthy citizens". Dumb to surprise
  9. Kostyanich
    Kostyanich 8 September 2012 13: 20
    even something about the designers talk
    but do not forget about the people who made these planes
    surely as always the machines barely breathe no details
    there are not enough specialists, but be kind enough to fulfill the plan
  10. Demian
    Demian 8 September 2012 14: 48
    "Perhaps for the first time in the years of the war, the German aces faced a fighter that could successfully conduct not only a defensive battle, but also an offensive one."

    A very strange statement. Are Yaks capable of defense only?
  11. mkpda
    mkpda 10 September 2012 12: 21
    Polikarpov was a talented designer, but he buried himself. After the successful I-15/16, all his activities look somewhat strange. There is a clear separation from the realities of domestic engine building. The MiG-1/3 went into series with the AM-35A (instead of the AM-37), but a similar version with the I-200 is questionable (the history of the I-185).
    La-5 went into production only because Lavochkin and Shvetsov agreed to work together to install the M-82A on the LaGG-3 glider. All aircraft projects from the M-82 of that period simply could not be accepted due to the unfinished propeller group.
  12. DEDA
    DEDA 14 September 2012 07: 34
    I rent so that you do not carry the blizzard:
    1. DEDA
      DEDA 10 October 2012 15: 50
  13. svp67
    svp67 8 August 2013 00: 46
    MiG 3 made an emergency landing in Finland