Military Review

September 2 911. The first international treaty between Russia and Byzantium was concluded.

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September 2 911. The first international treaty between Russia and Byzantium was concluded.

2 September 911, Grand Duke Oleg, after the successful Russian-Byzantine war 907, concluded an agreement with Byzantium, which regulated criminal and civil relations between the Russians and the Romans (Greeks).

After the military strike of Russia on the Byzantine Empire in 907 and the conclusion of a general political intergovernmental agreement between the Rus and the Greeks, a four-year pause occurred. Then in the chronicle it is reported that Prince Oleg sent his husbands "to build peace and put a number" between the two states and set out the text of the agreement itself. The 911 contract of the year reached us completely with the entire basic contractual structure: with the initial formula, final oath and date. After the text of the agreement, the chronicler reports that the Roman Emperor Leo VI honored the Russian embassy, ​​gave him rich gifts, organized a tour of the temples and chambers, and then released him to the Russian land with "great honor." Arriving in Kiev, the ambassadors told the Grand Duke the “speeches” of the emperors (at that moment the emperor Leo VI ruled, and his co-rulers were the son Konstantin and brother Alexander) and spoke about the creation of the world and the adoption of a number of treaties.

According to a number of researchers of the treaty (including A. N. Sakharov), this is an ordinary interstate treaty. There are two sides to it: "Rus" and "Greeks", or "Rus" and "Chrestians". In addition, it is a typical agreement of "peace and love": its general political part repeats the 860 and 907 treaties. The first article of the agreement is devoted to the problem of peace, both parties swear to preserve and observe “love is irreversible and unshakeful” (peaceful relations). In fact, the contract confirms the former "verbal" (or mostly verbal) similar agreements.

The 907 Treaty was not only an agreement of "peace and love", but also a "series" that solved specific problems of the relations between the two powers and their subjects in the political and economic spheres. The articles of the treaty speak of ways to deal with various atrocities and penalties for them; about responsibility for murder, and property responsibility for it; on liability for willful beating, theft and robbery. The order of assistance to “guests”, the members of both powers during their voyage, assistance to those who suffered a shipwreck, the order of redemption of captives — the Rus and the Greeks — is regulated. The eighth article talks about the Allied help of Byzantium from Russia and the order of service of the Rus in the army of the emperor. The following articles are devoted to the order of redemption of any other prisoners (not Rus and Greeks); the return of escaped or abducted corpses; the practice of inheriting property of the deceased in Byzantium Rus; on the order of the Russian trade in the Byzantine Empire; on liability for debt and non-payment of debt.

In total, 13 contains articles that cover a wide range of problems governing the relationship between Russia and Byzantium, and their subjects. The contract is bilateral and equal. This is expressed in the fact that in the contract both parties swear to observe “peace and love” forever. It is noted that if any crime is committed and there is no evidence, then the oath should be resorted to and the suspect should swear according to his faith (Christian or pagan). For the murder of the Greek by the Rus, or the Rus by the Greek, the criminal is punishable by death (second article). Equality of relations can be seen in the remaining articles of the treaty: equal punishments for the Rus and the Greeks for the blow weapons or any other subject - the third article, for theft - the fourth article, for the attempted robbery - the fifth article. This line is continued in other articles of the agreement. In the sixth article, we see that if the boat of the Rus or the Greeks is shipwrecked, then both parties are equally responsible for saving the ship of another state. Russia is obliged to send the Greek vessel "to the land of Christianity", and the Greeks should send the Russian boat to the "Russian land". Equal rights and bilateral obligations are clearly visible in Article Thirteen, which states that if the Rus makes a debt in the Russian land and then does not return to his homeland, the lender has every right to complain about it to the Greek authorities. The guilty will be seized and returned to Russia. The Russian side gave an obligation to do the same with respect to the escaped Greek debtors.

A number of articles contain only the obligations of the Greek side. In particular, the Byzantine commitments can be traced where there is a speech about the indispensable return of a Russian soldier who escaped or stolen. In addition, the Byzantines pledged to return to Russia the property of Russian subjects who died in the empire, if the deceased did not make any orders to that effect. The obligations of the Greek side also apply to the article about allowing the Rus to serve in the Byzantine army. In addition, the same article points to the military alliance of Russia and Byzantium: it is reported that in the event of a war of the Greeks with any adversary, the Ruses can provide military assistance to the empire. There is an opinion that such an agreement was concluded orally both in 860 and in 907. The Greek side paid military support from the Russian state with gold in the form of tribute and political and economic benefits. Byzantium was interested in military assistance to Russia against the Arabs. These allied relations were disrupted around 930's.
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  1. Kolyan 2
    Kolyan 2 2 September 2012 08: 16
    +2
    THX. I argue for the article, but they tell me that we're joking from wood.
  2. tronin.maxim
    tronin.maxim 2 September 2012 08: 58
    0
    It was interesting to read! I never knew about this contract before!
    1. B_O_B
      B_O_B 2 September 2012 18: 44
      +1
      If you are interested, I suggest you read Comparative Theology - a non-confessional analysis of religions.
      Search on the site www.vodaspb.ru
  3. mikaaer
    mikaaer 2 September 2012 09: 30
    +3
    The main thing is everything is thought out. Now would a couple of such contracts with China and the Indians
  4. vezunchik
    vezunchik 2 September 2012 09: 39
    +7
    At that time, when the French were not yet a nation as such, and the west was sitting in the forests - RUSSIA was a world power!
  5. lotus04
    lotus04 2 September 2012 09: 41
    0
    2 September 911, Grand Duke Oleg, after the successful Russian-Byzantine war 907, concluded an agreement with Byzantium, which regulated criminal and civil relations between the Russians and the Romans (Greeks).

    I am glad that HE was not mistaken in faith!
  6. GG2012
    GG2012 2 September 2012 10: 06
    +2
    Only the Byzantine version of this treaty has survived.
    And the Russian edition, in a strange way, disappeared. However, like all other ancient Russian sources (including diplomatic correspondence with the Pechenegs, Khazars, Bulgars, Germans, Tatars, ..., as well as correspondence between princes and governors, tax collection reports, etc. P.)
    No one still knows what language and in what alphabet the Russian copy of this treaty was written.

    "Low bow" to the World Jewish Church and its Russian branch (ROC) for the raped history!

    We "firmly believe" that until 907 the Slavs rode dinosaurs, lived in dugouts and ate human flesh, and then suddenly once ... and in 907. it is not known how 200 ships were built, it is not known how they descended along the Dnieper to the Black Sea, then it is not clear how the Constantinople garrison of the Byzantine Empire was defeated, then it is not clear why they took tribute and sailed back.
    Then the same thing was repeated in 911, in 986.
    But the Byzantine Empire did not know what to do with the Slavs.
    Thought, thought the Byzantines ... and sent priests to Russia.
    And the priests looked that Russia is a huge country of suckers not scared.
    And the Church began to frighten the people. And those who did not believe in Jewish tales were called sinners and promised to eat.
    And the Church healed! ... Wow, how it healed !!! Why undead then ?! After all, the people are so dense that Jewish tales began to be called the original Russian faith! The paradox however!
    1. Alone
      Alone 2 September 2012 13: 15
      +2
      To the point! Very correctly written! +
    2. baltika-18
      baltika-18 2 September 2012 13: 43
      +2
      GG2012 is a plus for you. The classical history of not only Russia, but also the world one often cannot answer many questions. Historians simply ignore certain facts, often fake for the sake of their interests. Candidate and doctoral dissertations oblige. For example, the names on the map of Russia of the 16th century explain incompetence medieval performer. Well, if she was alone, but there are quite a lot of them and the performers are different.
      1. Horde
        Horde 2 September 2012 13: 52
        +1
        For example, the names on the map of Russia of the 16th century are explained by the incompetence of a medieval performer. Well, if it was one, but there are quite a lot of them and the performers are different.


        , and what is wrong on the map?
    3. Igarr
      Igarr 2 September 2012 15: 48
      0
      So what?
      Unexpectedly ... GG2012 ... see what he writes ....
      "And the Church healed! ... Wow, how it healed !!! And why undead then ?! After all, the people are dense ... "
      ...
      So .... Truth is manifested.
      ...

      For the information of all ... my opinion differs from what is stated in the article.
      1. GG2012
        GG2012 2 September 2012 20: 07
        0
        Quote: Igarr
        For the information of all ... my opinion differs from what is stated in the article.

        So express your opinion, unexpectedly.
        We are pleased to read it.
  7. baltika-18
    baltika-18 2 September 2012 11: 03
    0
    GG2012 is a plus for you. The classical version of the history of not only Russia, but also the world one, raises a lot of questions that scientists cannot answer and prefer to keep silent. And sometimes they even falsify, adjusting to a framework convenient for themselves. After all, academic degrees and positions need to be worked out. example: a map from the Encyclopedia Britannica. Historians explain strange names on the territory of our country simply by the incompetence of a medieval compiler. I can cite a lot of such examples, but this is not a topic for comments.



    Map of the 16th century.
  8. Horde
    Horde 2 September 2012 11: 06
    +7
    this is not the right story, here is the right one. smile


    at the beginning of the 988th century, as S. Zhoparenko writes, “Russia in the eyes of Europe and Byzantium is the“ dense, foul ”. Religion played a major role in this unexpected transformation. Taking somehow on the chest, the Atsaps accidentally adopted Christianity. It happened in XNUMX A.D. Remember this date! From this moment all the troubles of ukrov began, which believed that the Atsaps decided to enter the family of democratic and progressive European peoples. In fact, the Atsaps remained wild and aggressive. They gradually - by cunning and cunning - tidied up the primordial lands of ukrov - from Kiev to the Urals.

    1. serge
      serge 2 September 2012 15: 51
      +3
      Horde
      as S. Zhoparenko writes
      --------------------
      Yes, you cannot move to Great Russia with that name. The source of Ukrainianism of Stepan Zh-ko is clear.
    2. Igarr
      Igarr 2 September 2012 17: 26
      +2
      And what ... I’m so completely at heart ..
      ".. Taking somehow on the chest, the Azapas accidentally adopted Christianity. It happened in 988 AD. Remember this date! all troubles ukrovwho believed that the Atsapi decided to enter the family of democratic and progressive European nations. "
      ..
      The main thing here is not k.atsatsy ... and not ukry ... poor, unhappy.
      Here, the main thing is that they are always together .. were.
      And always we - ................... together - were beaten.
      ...
      They beat ... only relatives, or ... only enemies.
      Well, I can’t take my wife as an enemy. She is Ukrainian on the passport.
      ...
      It turns out only one thing - we MUST be united.
      And we will be - Invincible.
      1. Ross
        Ross 4 September 2012 00: 14
        0
        Igarr,

        ".. Taking it somehow on the chest, the Atsapa accidentally adopted Christianity. It happened in 988 AD. Remember this date! From that moment on, all the troubles of the Ukrovs began, who believed that the Atsapi decided to enter family of democratic and progressive European nations. "


        Igor, welcome! Very accurate remark! Very well said about this trouble in this source, I recommend it to everyone:

        http://pravislava.al.ru/war.htm

        THE TRUTH IS NOT AFRAID OF RESEARCH

        “No earthquake is comparable to the decomposition of consciousness. It is necessary to exert every effort to keep humanity from the abyss ”(E. Roerich).

        “He who controls the present controls the past. He who controls the past controls the future ”(J. Orwell).

        Whoever has correctly understood the past is capable of correctly understanding the present, and can successfully compete for a better future.
    3. Simon
      Simon 2 September 2012 18: 35
      +1
      The surname is somehow interesting for this herald. In Ukraine, is he inventing a story? wassat If I were thinking with my head, then the story would be different. yes
  9. datur
    datur 2 September 2012 11: 16
    +4
    Horde, ha ha smiled in the morning !!!!! laughing wink but still ukram far to psheks and amers! in those storytellers so storytellers !!!! wink
    1. Horde
      Horde 2 September 2012 11: 34
      +2
      but the story is Polish

      Enraged by the greatness of the power, the Polish kings even tried to incorporate the Moscow kingdom into the Great Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and unsuccessfully - for several weeks the Polish king Vladislav visited the Russian king, the Polish garrison settled in Moscow, and special forces roamed the Kostroma forests in search of a candidate for the throne of Mikhail Fedorovich. However, it was always difficult with our roads, and Ivan Susanin was the conductor of the Pole. And then it got really bad - Minin founded the first joint-stock company for financing the militia, and Pozharsky gave the Polish garrison a heavy kick in the ass.
      That's where it all started. Zealous Dutch and British build ships, engage in trade and crafts, in France manufactories grow like mushrooms after rain, and in Poland everything is still. Even in barbarian Russia, they stopped walking for themselves, there are children (as Poland claimed) and innovated in the Dutch and Aglitz style. Poland looked at all this with arrogant contempt. For craft and commerce are not to the face of the lordly pan. Polonaise, kissing the hands of beautiful ladies, hunting and war - this is true life, and for despicable occupations there are serfs, the main life task, which is to ensure the carefree life of those who are worthy.
  10. sazhka0
    sazhka0 2 September 2012 11: 50
    0
    Unfortunately .. Your Site has become a carrier of an infection called .. "Urya !!!" .Nobody wants to look at the Facts and Analyze ... The main thing is to "shout" ..
    Alas, I do not work with FOOLS ...
    Moderators Are you ..? With whom?
    1. GG2012
      GG2012 2 September 2012 12: 34
      0
      Quote: sazhka0
      Your Site has become a carrier of the infection called .. "Urya !!!" .Nobody wants to look at the Facts and Analyze ... The main thing is to "shout" ..

      Unfortunately, I completely agree with you.
      At first ... the site was a discovery for me ... a breath of fresh air.
      Then I noticed some oddities. For example, even without reading an article, you can blur out in the style of "Urya-ya-ya !!!" or "Glory ... !!!" and earn a bunch of "plus signs". And there are a lot of such "commentators" ...

      Maybe (if it is technically possible), the site administrator, in addition to the usual rating "+/-", enter an additional rating, for example: "No thought -" and "Living thought +".
      I proceed from the belief that people who strain their intellect should be encouraged somehow. Otherwise, only "screamers" and "trolls" will remain on the site.
      1. Igarr
        Igarr 2 September 2012 15: 55
        0
        "No, guys ... I won't give you a machine gun" - Vereshchagin, "White sun of the desert."
        ...
        This is to the fact that I did not understand this escapade .... Urya, Zashibem !!!
        You are what?
        ...
        Let me scream - Urya States !!! Obama - Urya ... Romney - Sneak !!!
        Do you like it?
        ...
        In short, in my opinion - ".. for example:" There is no thought - "and" Dead thought ".
        ..
        so I see.
    2. gor
      gor 3 September 2012 20: 54
      0
      judging by the ranks of the moderators with fools)))))))))))))))))
  11. Dimitr
    Dimitr 2 September 2012 13: 10
    +1
    Quote: sazhka0
    Unfortunately .. Your Site has become a carrier of an infection called .. "Urya !!!" .No one wants to look at Facts and Analyze

    To this I want to add that more attention has been paid to politics than to information regarding military personnel and military technology. Some kind of businessman, not a military review!
    1. baltika-18
      baltika-18 2 September 2012 16: 08
      +2
      Quote: Dimitr
      I would like to add that more attention has been paid to politics rather than information regarding military personnel and military technology. Some kind of businessman, not a military review!

      I do not agree. In our life, this is not separable. Politics, economics, military affairs are aspects of the life of our country. Everything is interconnected.
      1. Igarr
        Igarr 2 September 2012 16: 14
        +1
        Hi Nikolai, you're right.
        Hunting information for them - the website of the Ministry of Defense.
        Want communication - here, please.
        Shout for foreign friends, spit Russia - there is an excellent site - Popular Mechanics, called. Another bunch ... I would like only.
        ...
        No ... it is here, in a simple Military Review - it is necessary to break through.
        And the right to start downloading. Academicians, Mlyn.
        Strict presentation of the material is not enough for them.
        ...
        Dead thought. As GG2012 suggested.



        and on the other hand, either they don’t read, or they strive to skip for free.
        In any case, this comrade who doesn’t work with FOOLS is past the checkout counter.
        He is seen, only with the demented he is used to working.
        Well, orderlies from such and gain.
  12. Horde
    Horde 2 September 2012 13: 17
    0
    I want to ask the members of the forum, are you not bothered by the "tiger t6" that shoots right at you when you enter the topvo?
    1. Passing
      Passing 2 September 2012 14: 47
      +1
      The horde, how can you say this, is our Tiger, current trophy maleho! Pay attention to the vile German 88mm gun in the right corner, viciously aiming our valuable trophy! But, thank God, the Nazi gunners have a squint with curvature, and therefore all their shells explode with a big flight, effectively coloring the background with a festive salute, symbolizing the inevitability of our victory !. laughing
      1. Horde
        Horde 2 September 2012 14: 52
        0
        The horde, how can you say this, is our Tiger, current trophy malech! Pay attention to the vile German 88mm gun in the right corner, viciously aiming our valuable trophy! But, thank God, the fascist gunners have a squint with curvature, and therefore all their shells explode with a big flight, effectively coloring the background with the festive salute of the inevitability of our victory !.


        I don’t know, but on a Russian site, there should not be a German tank in the foreground.
        1. The centurion
          The centurion 2 September 2012 15: 08
          +1
          Quote: Horde
          I don’t know, but on a Russian site, there should not be a German tank in the foreground.

          Definitely shouldn't. On the Russian site, the real Russian and the login will be written in Russian. As one friend of mine says, "a real Russian will never call his son" Herman "
          1. Igarr
            Igarr 2 September 2012 15: 57
            0
            German tank ...
            and I’m coming in ... I think - Oooooh, what kind of beast was filled up.
            The guys are in khaki.
            Manually, it seems. Damage is not visible.
            However, well done, I think.
            My grandfathers and uncles.
  13. Su24
    Su24 4 September 2012 19: 25
    -1
    Do you know that in the text of the treaty on the part of Russia there are only and exclusively Scandinavian names? And that the information about this agreement was not preserved at all in the history of Byzantium, that in general there is reason to reflect on the reality of the event.