Photo: Perficient, Inc.
The paradox of today. The more we are told that we are on the right path, the more questions arise about where this right path will lead us.
Now we will consider a situation that has been developing for a long time and is not a secret to anyone. Perhaps it would be worth keeping it secret so that everything would be smooth and smooth, but, alas, the authorities did not guess to do so.
Therefore, now we will turn to the figures and facts from the report of the Chief Scientific Secretary of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor, Doctor of Economics, Nikolai Kuzmich Dolgushkin, which he announced in his speech at the RAS Assembly on April 20 this year.
Dolgushkin said that the scientific sphere is losing scientists with catastrophic speed and acceleration.
If in 1990 the USSR occupied one of the first places in the world in terms of the number of scientists engaged in research and development, the number was almost a million, 992 thousand people, today in Russia this figure is much less - 348 thousand people.
People continue to not only stop working in the research field, but go abroad. And the outflow of scientists abroad has grown five times compared to 2012. In 2012, about 14 thousand people left Russia, in 2019 - about 70 thousand. In 2020, the churn rate was lower, but this is primarily due to the restrictions on the coronavirus.
In 2018, Russia ranked fourth in the world in terms of the number of researchers; in 2021, the country dropped to sixth place.
Here it is worth looking at the main reasons why scientists are leaving so actively. One or two reasons cannot be named. There is a whole complex of reasons here. Economic, social, political. As a result - migration, brain drain and very bleak prospects in the future. As I have already said in previous materials on a similar topic, the Russian system of the USE is not able to generate new Kapits and Alferovs. She will give birth to limited consumers in everything.
But back to the problems.
First. Lack of attention from the state to the development of science and technology.
This is so, our state is not at all interested in new technologies and scientific discoveries if they do not bring quick profits. Why spend money on R&D if it is easier to stretch another miracle gas pipeline that will regularly bring money to government officials and their owners?
Data for the same 2019. Who spends how much in the world on R&D, research and development work.
10.Russia. $ 37 billion.
9. Brazil. $ 38 billion.
8. Great Britain. $ 46 billion.
7. India. $ 50 billion.
6. France. $ 61 billion.
5. South Korea. $ 75 billion.
4. Germany. $ 115 billion.
3. Japan. $ 170 billion.
2. China. $ 440 billion.
1. USA. 520 billion dollars.
It can also be added that there is a world ranking of academic supercomputers capable of solving problems of the highest complexity, the Linpack version. Today in the Top 500 China is in the lead with 226 cars (almost half of the rating), the second place is in the USA with 114 cars. Still others are Japanese, they have 29 computers.
Russia? Russia shares 16-23 place with countries such as Australia, the United Arab Emirates, Taiwan, Switzerland, India, Sweden, Finland. 2 (TWO) cars in TOP-500. And, of course, not even in the first hundred.
If we turn the time back just 10 years ago, then in 2010 there were 500 Russian computers in the TOP-8 ...
In general, the list of negative points can be continued endlessly. But the most negative thing here is that we talk a lot and do little about the need to develop science and improve technology. They say and promise every year, from stands of very different heights. Words - streams, rivers. Del - streams.
Basically, we must admit, everything happens in our country like this: in some of his regular speech (for example, a message to the Federal Assembly), the president emphasizes that we need to develop science because ... because we need to. Further, everyone to whom this applies begins to run like water striders before the rain, fuss, make dozens of loud statements, in general - a complete imitation of seething activity. And then silence. Until next speech.
And so from year to year.
But even the young President Vladimir Putin at the beginning of the 20s (yes, XNUMX years ago) talked a lot about the fact that we just need a high-tech economy. As a result, new and precisely high-tech Tanks and the planes are hand-assembled by the piece.
Another portion of numbers. From the same Higher School of Economics, which the "correct" patriots hate so much. As presented by the RBC channel. Of course, these figures are incorrect and do not correspond to reality, because they are set forth by the so-called "liberals". Not those liberals who are in Putin's team (he said so himself, if anything), but some other "liberals". In quotes.
What is the difference is difficult to say, but here are the "liberals" who are from the HSE (let no one be confused that most of the president's team have diplomas from there, and some also have academic degrees), on April 13 of this year published a large report on the real place of Russia in the world production of high-tech products.
Russia there belongs to the fourth and lowest group. For the country's share in world exports of high-tech products was only 2002-2018% from 0,2 to 0,5. And even then, mainly due to the sale weapons and equipment for nuclear power plants.
The share in the production of microchips is as much as 0,7%.
For comparison, the share of the United States (this is a country that, apart from printing dollars and aircraft carriers, can do nothing else) is 68%. The Americans themselves collect 12% of the world market for chips and let others work. Taiwan 22%, South Korea 21%, Japan 17%, China 12%, European Union 6%. Well, there are all sorts of Mexico, Canada and Singapore on dancers.
And we have? And in 2019, VTB Bank bankrupted the Angstrem-T plant for non-payment of loans, which was supposed to become an enterprise for the production of 90 nm technology microcircuits with a prospect of up to 65 nm.
But the launch date was disrupted, the bank took 100% of the shares, Angstrem-T, part of the Angstrem company (the former Soviet NII-36, a leading enterprise for the production of microelectronics), was declared bankrupt last year. The second (after the parent) enterprise in terms of chip production capacity.
Indeed, you can still buy in China. While you can.
And it is not surprising that the ECI (index of the economic complexity of the country's economy) of Russia is 49th in the world (0,34 in 2017). And we are ahead of such developed countries as Poland (1,18), Hungary (1,44), Estonia (1,02), Mexico (0,98), Lithuania (0,94), Belarus (0,86), Latvia (0,70), Ukraine (0,52).
The ECI is influenced by the length of production chains, the variety of exports, the amount of value added and the depth of its generation.
Second problem. Poverty and misery.
This is such a component of our life ... Especially in light of the fact that the state is actively fighting against it, against poverty and poverty. But things are getting worse from year to year. Food prices are rising, income growth is not keeping pace with them. Food inflation is much higher than in Europe.
Remember, at the beginning of his presidential career, Vladimir Putin promised that in 10 years Russia will surpass Portugal in terms of living standards? Overtook. Only not Russia Portugal, but Romania Russia.
The fact is, again, the GDP of Romania is higher than the GDP of Russia. In denomination, in parity - higher, that's all. And if you believe the State Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation, the growth rate of the economy in Russia is three times lower than the world average. It is clear that the Polovtsians screwed up in those days, but here we have what we have.
That is, despite the huge reserves of everything (which is very actively sold), Russia as a whole is a rather poor country. And in a poor country there is usually no time for research.
And what kind of research can be if there is a cold war, an arms race, an enemy at the borders and stuff like that?
Of course, R&D is being carried out, but naturally, in the military field. We need a new technique to restrain an aggressor who is about to come to take all the mineral resources of Russia for himself. According to the most patriotic citizens. Although they (fossils) and so on "Streams" go completely unhindered, if that. And any aggression will only disrupt the established course of supplying the same Europe with hydrocarbons and other riches of our land.
Someone will decide that I am wrong. Well, in the comments you can tell where our science has made another breakthrough that has no analogues in the world. Practical, naturally. In the space sphere, for example. There, everyone demonstrates their skills and capabilities to the whole world. We cannot yet demonstrate the "Science" module, which will soon be 30 years old. If it hasn't already hit.
Or a ship of a new generation, not the royal Soyuz ... Reusable ... I have already spoken about the microcircuits, everything is gorgeous there.
So if we take away all developments in the military sphere, our baggage of implemented scientific developments is more than modest.
But it normal. For a really poor country, which is surrounded by enemies on all sides. Such in the world stories there were many, nothing surprising.
So the flight of our good scientists from miserable salaries to where their knowledge is really needed and can be well paid is also normal. And there are many countries in the world that are ready to buy our personnel.
And here we come to the third reason.
Third reason. Political.
Everything is very simple here. You just need to understand that any scientist is, to one degree or another, a liberal and a free-thinker. This is how people have creative brains. Search for the truth, there is no getting away from it.
And any such seeker of truth (in everything) would like to live comfortably. Not only from a financial point of view, but also from a social point of view.
In recent years, our state has been working exclusively towards the development of prohibitive acts. All the activities of our strangely composed State Duma have been reduced to one thing: to prohibit, impose fines, prohibit again, increase fines, prohibit even thinking about what is prohibited. We apply to this the results of our "most honest and transparent" elections, the results of which are 98% known in advance - and it is clear that not everyone is pleased to live in such an atmosphere.
Say, "but in the nineties ..."? Speak. But in the nineties, the majority did not know where they would bring us in the end. And according to the eternal Russian spiritual component, I simply believed that "everything will work out." Even in the most terrible times of general turmoil and lawlessness.
And today everything is very clear and understandable. Someone likes where the leaders are leading the country, some do not. From the most "patriotic" users, even here you can hear: "If you don't like it, take it to the place where it is best for you!"
So they fell.
You can recruit hundreds of thousands to the Russian Guard, you can beat up with truncheons not only all real protesters, but also those who are potentially protesting.
Forgive me, but a real scientist, an intellectual in the best sense of the word, he will not go to the rally. Yes, he can write or sign a letter. But he will not bottle gasoline and oil. And he won't rush to the police with his fists. He will vote with his feet and a suitcase. Like thousands of others.
And so it happens. In not the most hungry and boundless years 2015-2019, one after another, records were broken for requests for a "green card". It reached 400 thousand a year. There was no such thing even in the dashing nineties.
And now there is. And then it will get worse.
I wrote about the simply masterpiece "Law on Educational Activity". And we have already sent "recommendations" to scientists on the need to contact less with foreign colleagues. You never know what ...
It is also better to forget about grants for joint projects. $ 100 - and you are a foreign agent. Tagged. Unreliable. Hundreds of Russian scientists wrote angry letters, trying to explain that it is impossible to progress without external contacts ... It's useless. Our singing-sports-artistic Duma accepted everything. As usual, blurry and incomprehensible. So that would be a person - the article will be.
Well, if it turns out that the country's leadership wants to arrange another "iron curtain", it is clear that the most developed individuals will not want to live behind it.
Unfortunately, the current leadership of the country is not quite clear about the consequences of tightening the screws. Moreover, all this is against the background of the complete degradation of the education system, culture (cinema alone is worth it) and the fall of morals. Especially television.
It can be difficult for smart people to live and work in these conditions. And for such salaries. And this is quite legally used by those who need good brains. Albeit strangers. Therefore, the outflow of scientists who will be offered decent conditions for working abroad will only grow.
And we are unlikely to raise new scientists with such an excellent education system to replace them. At least I doubt it very much.